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1814; and here the late Duke of Orléans was mar- | waterfalls at the end, from which the canal goes ried, 1837, since which the château has been in part off through the park, towards the old Church of restored.
Avon (where a stone records that “Ci-git MONAA gate called the Entrée d'Honneur, in Place DELXI"). The park contains a Jardin Anglais, a Ferrare (from which a railing of 340 feet divides labyrinth, &c., and the royal or treille vine, famous it), leads into the first court, or Cour du Cheval for its abundant supply of Chasselas grapes. Blanc, so called from the plaster casts of M. Aure
You walk from the town directly into the Forest, lian's horse at Rome. It is the largest court, and which is spread over an extent of 35,000 acres, or since Napoléon took leave of his guard in it, 20th 550 square miles, on a white sandstone rock, with a April, 1814, is commonly styled Cour des Adieux.
very irregular surface. It is pierced by scores of The second, or Cour de la Fontaine, opens out to sentiers, or paths; and is full of strikingly picthe gardens, and has, on one side, the Salle de la turesque sites, some parts being green and well Belle Cheminée. Here Charles V. was lodged with
wooded with magnificent shady alleys of oak, his suite, 1539. It contains the apartments of the beech, &c., nearly 100 feet high, and groves of fir ; Queen-Mother, and of the Duke of Orléans. others, bare and rugged, or covered by patches of The third court, or Cour Ovale, or du Donjon, the
heath and broom. The whole has been thoroughly
investigated by M. Denecourt, an enthusiastic remost ancient of all, is long and narrow, and entered
sident, who has published an excellent plan, and by the Porte Dorée (with its frescoes), from the Allée Maintenon. Another gate is called Porte
about a dozen numbers of the “Délices de Fon
tainebleau," containing minute itineraries of the Dauphin, in memory of the birth of Louis XIII. It includes a balcony on 45 pillars, with several
best promenades, and points of view.
Trade in wine, fruit, ornaments in juniper wood, rooms or salles, as the Salle de Bal, or Gallery of
called genévrines, &c. Henry II., with pictures ; the Salles du Trône and du Conseil ; a library of 30,000 volumes in
A steamer runs on the Seine to Paris. Rail to Francis l.'s chapel, whose gallery of frescoes, by
Nemours, Montargis, Nevers, Troyes, &c. Rossi, is here, and the windows of which are stained
The rail to Nemours, Nevers, &c., by the Bourfrom designs by the late Princess Marie d'Orléans;
bonnais country, turns off at Moret (as below). a small plain cabinet, remarkable as that in which (Nemours (17 miles from Fontainebleau), in a Napoléon signed his abdication; the gallery of Diana, hollow, on the river and canal du Loing, has the 1600, and its pictures, by Pujol, &c.
old castle of the Ducs de Nemours, now used for a In the Fourth Court, or Cour de l'Orangerie, was
public library (3,000 volumes) &c. It belonged to the Gallerie des Cerfs (so called from being orna
Gaston de Foix, before it came to the Orléans
family. Most of the shares in the Loing Canal (the mented with stags' heads, but since divided off
oldest in France, begun by Sully, and finished in into separate apartments), where Christina of Sweden put her servant, Monaldeschi, to death,
1740), were the property of Louis Philippe and 1657. She lived in the next or fifth court, Cour des
his sister, Mad. Adelaide, till confiscated by the Princes, the smallest of all.
Emperor Napoléon, 1852. Population, 3,740. Ncar The last, styled Cour des Cuisines, with the
it is Bignon, where Mirabeau was born, 1749. kitchens, &c., was built 1609, and contains a foun Ferrières (13 miles), on the Loing, memorable tain with bronze mascarons or grotesque masques for the fruitless diplomatic meeting of Bismarck and on it.
Jules Favre, after Sedan; when the latter declared The Chapel was built 1529, by Henry IV. on the that "not an inch of French soil nor a stone of her site of St. Louis's, and is richly decorated.
fortresses " would be given up. Statues, besides jets d'eau, are dispersed over Montargis (6 miles), a sous-préfecture in dethe gardens, especially a Telemachus, by Canova, partment Loiret, with 8,670 population, on the which was Napoléon's favourite. The parterre du Orléans canal, where those of Briare and Loing Tibre is the oldest; the new one, on the south side, join it, originated in a royal castle, built on a hill has a large pond, or étang, full of carp, and some (mont), on the site of a Roman camp. One of its beigneurs married the sister of Yolande, emperor' Mars, St. Plerre, Villeneuve-sur-Allier of Constantinople. It was nearly taken by War- (see Route 45). Then comes wick, 1427, but relieved by Dunois.
Moulins (37 miles from Nevers), capital of St. Madeline's large old Church was begin by Allier (see Route 45). Henri II. The great castle was nearly all pulled | Bessay, Bauterive, and Varennes-surdown, 1810. One of its frescoes was a painting of Allier (18 miles from Moulins). (See Route 45). the famous Dog of Montargis, which, in the pre- ! St. Germain-des-Fossés (8 miles), near sence of Charles V., fought and vanquished the
Vichy; (see Route 45). For the next stations St. murderer of his master, Aubrey de Montdidier, who
Gérand-le-Pay, La Palisse, &c., to had been killed in the forest of Bondy. P. Manuel,
Roanne (41 miles from St. Germain-des-Fossés) a member of the Convention, Girodet Trioson, the
on the Loire (see Route 46). Roanne is described painter, and Madame Guyon, whose religious poems
Route 24. Thence to were translated by Cowper, were natives. Hotels. De la Poste; De la Ville de Lyon; De
Regny (10 miles), near St. Symphorien-en-Lay. l'Ange.
Tarare (16 miles), under Mont Tarare, a ridge At 25 kil. to the east, is the old family seat of 4,500 feet high, pierced by a long tunnel, with a the Courtenays, on the Clare.
zigzag road over the pass. It is a sous-préfecture, Nogent-sur-Vernisson (11 miles), on a small
(population 15,000), of department Rhone, on the branch of the Loing. About 4 kil. trom it, is the
river Tardine, noted for its fine muslin weaving, Château of Chenevière, including remains of a Roman
plain and figured. amphitheatre, made of great blocks of stone. At
L'Arbresle (10 miles), the ancient Abravilla, 7 kil. east-south-east of it is
with a fine Gothic castle, at the junction of the
Brevanne and another river, among collieries and Châtillon-sur-Loing, which has the ancient Castle
manufactories of silk and pottery, Population, where the great Huguenot leader, Admiral Coligny,
2,000. was born, his mother being sister to the Constable
St. Germain-au-Mont d'Or (8 miles). About Montmorency. After St. Bartholomew day his
9 miles further is body was taken to Chantilly and then to Paris.
Lyons, described at page 94.] Gien (11 miles), a station on the Bourbonnais
From Fontainebleau, a long curved viaduct leads line, on the Loire, at the old twelve-arched stone
into bridge, in a pleasant spot, is on a gentle slant, at the
Thomery (3} miles), near the Seine, but still top of which are the old spire church of St. Louis
in the forest. It is noted for its choice Fontaine(where King Jean-sans-Peur was married, 1410),
bleau, or chasselas, grapes, which grow in a pretty and the château (now Hôtel de Ville), built or begun
manner about the houses. Population, 800. Another in Charlemagne's time.
viaduct, on 30 arches, 66 feet high, leads to At 1 kil. north-east is VIEUX (or Old) GIEN,
Moret-St.-Mammés. (8 miles), on the Seine, where Roman stones, medals, &c., have been found.
where the Loing falls in; having parts of its Briare (6 miles), where the canal from Montar ancient walls and castle, built by Charles VII., and gis falls into the Loire, is on the north bank of this an old picturesque church, built 1166, by Louis river, on the road from Orléans to Nevers (see VII., and dedicated by Becket, when a refugee Route 47). Population, 3,500.
at Sens. The Allies took it, 1814. Here the line Cosne (19 miles), a sous-préfecture, up the Loire, turns off to Nemours, &c. (as above). At St. of which it has a beautiful prospect, and of several MAMMÉS (population, 960) is a small port where the iron forges round. Population, 6,400.
Loing Canal falls into the Seine. La Charité (19 miles), a pretty place of 5,000
Montereau-sault-Yonne (64 miles), a buffet, souls, on the Loire, here crossed by a fine bridge.
| 494 miles from Paris, where the branch rail to Further up the river (17 miles) is
Troyes turns up the Aube (see Route 62). Nevers (see Route 45). This is followed by | Hotel.-Du Grand Monarque.
Montereau, on the river Seine, where the Yonne | hood, besides an amphitheatre. A council under joins it, is the site of the Roman Condate, under a St. Bernard met here, 1140, and condemned the hill, which has the château of Surville (i. e., Above works of Abélard, and here Pope Alexander sought town) on top, commanding a fine view of both refuge, 1163, as did Becket the year after. It was rivers, their bridges, &c. Napoléon beat the allies besieged by Henry IV., in 1590, and taken by the here, 1814; and in the church, a tall conspicuous Allies, 1814. building, with a spire, is the sword (or a steel copy)
St. Étienne's Cathedral is a fine structure in the of Jean-sans-Peur, of Burgundy, who was mur
early Gothic style, of the 12th century, replacing dered, 1419, on the old bridge over the Seine, by
one burnt 970, which was built by St. Savinien on Charles the Dauphin, for having killed his father.
the site of a Pagan temple. The façade, 154 feet Till the Revolution, they used to show his skull
wide, contains about 90 figures in stone, a triple with a gash in it. When Francis I. saw it, he
portal, the centre one deeply recessed, with a fine observed that it seemed to be a very large hole.
window over it, and a rose and figure of Christ, “Yes," said a canon, "it ought to be, for the Eng
over that. lish entered France through it,”--the murder
The south tower, or Tour de Pierre, finished being followed by a civil war, which encouraged
1535, is composed of five stages, with a turret at them to invade the country. A large modern
top, and is 240 feet high ; its bells are celebrated. hospital is named Asile Napoléon.
The north tower, or Tour de Plomb, is only four Population, 6,220, who make good tiles, pottery,
stages high, and covered with lead at top. The and porcelain, the latter work being carried on in
transept, doors, and stained windows are of the 15th the Recollets' convent.
and 16th centuries, by Chambiges. Within, you Villeneuve-la-Guyard (67 miles). Popula see a large and richly decorated choir; a marble tion, 1,790. Chaumont château, and the tall spire mausoleum of Louis XVI.'s father, by Coustoa, church of Chapigny, will be noticed in passing.
with figures of Time, Conjugal Love, Religion, &c.; Pont-sur-Yonne (61 miles), at the narrow,
the chapel of the Virgin; that of St. Savinien, with winding bridge on the Yonne, at the foot of a hill,
a bas-relief of his martyrdom; the beautiful basin a pretty wine country, was a fortified town, till relief, nearly fifty feet long, round Cardinal Duthe English ruined it. Its old church is now a
prat's tomb, containing altogether about 150 figures; forage store. Near Sens, you see St. Martin du
and the primate's throne. There are altogether 18 Tertre, on a mound, or chalk hill.
chapels round the building. In the treasury they
show Becket's mitre and other parts of his dress, SENS (7} miles).
besides various relics, and portraits of all the preHOTELS.-Cathedrale; De l'Ecu; De Paris. lates. The chapel of the Hôtel Dieu deserves Population, 11,100.
notice for its vaults, &c., now used as a corn hall. A sous-préfecture, in department Yonne, seat of That of St. Savinien, the oldest here, has been badly an archdiocese, and the old capital of the Senones restored. The Officialité, or bishop's court, of the in Cæsar's time, to whom they made a bold resist 15th century, is worth notice, for its dungeons, ance. It stands in a pleasant spot on the Yonne, salle du tribunal, Renaissance door (1567), &c. near where the Vanne joins; is well built, and At the Hôtel de Ville, which is in the Renaissance watered by little brooks running through the
style, is the museum, containing the original MS. streets, and is enclosed by promenades on the site of the Office des Fous, a festival like that of the boy. of the ditches, made by Charles V., outside the old bishop, held here till the 16th century. Here are walls, which were added on top of those built also some inscriptions and bas-reliefs from the old by the Romans, on courses of large rough stones. Roman walls. The public library of 12,000 volumes Some remains of them are yet visible near the Porte is placed in the College, or Lycée Impériale. Dauphine, the only one left of its ancient gates, There are a priests' seminary, a nunnery in St. which with the walls have been removed since Columbe's abboy, a salle de spectacle on the 1814. Roman ways are traced in the neighbour- | esplanade, baths, an orphan house, &c. No. 102, in Rue Dauphiné, is an ancient timbered house, with built by Jeanne de Valois, and the half-ruined a carved genealogy of Jesus Christ on the face of château by Cardinal Gondi, of the 15th century, it. M. Chaulay, a notary here, is in possession of includes St. Jean's Church, on the hill. The law å painting on wood, of Jean Cousin, an artist born | court (tribunal) is placed in St. André's old priory about 1500, at Concy (close by), to whom a broken chapel. St. Thibault's stands among vineyards. stained window in the cathedral is attributed. Population, 6,800.
Outside the town is Motte du Ciar (a Gallic Good vin ordinaire, wine casks, &c., are produced mound); the old château de Fleurigny. The her- | here. Coaches to Aillant, St. Aubin, Toucy, Villiersmitage of St. Bond stands on a hill, 328 feet above St. Benoit, &c. the river, near the station.
From Joigny along the Yonne, we pass by a Razors and other steel goods are made, besides bridge on tive arches, to leather, &c.; it has a good trade.
La Roche (58 miles), where the Burgundy Coaches to Courtenay (22 kil., south-west), canal and the river Armagnac join, and the branch Château-Renard, Chéroy, Douchy, Montcorbon, line to Auxerre turns off. Villeneuve, l'Archevêque, &c. Troyes (see Route [To AUXERRE, trains run five times a day, in half62), is 43 kil. further.
an-hour; distance 12 miles. Cross the Armançon [RIGNY DE FÊRON, 25 kil. east-north-east, up the and Serein, by six-arch bridges, to
Vannes, is remarkable for a church with a fine Chemilly (44 miles). Coaches to Seignelay and window, stained by Cousin, with the genealogy Héry. Appoigny church tower is seen. of Christ, and the life of St. Martin. Cardinal
| Monéteau (3} miles), close to a suspension de Berulles was a native; he takes his name bridge, on the Yonne. At 8} miles beyond, is from a village to the south-east, which has one of the best churches in the department.)
AUXERRE, 109 miles from Paris. Pass Étigny Church, and its old château, in HOTELS.--Du Leopard, on the Quay; La Fontaine. which Catherine de Medicis met the Duc d'Alençon Population, 15,100. to take measures against the Huguenots, 1576. Capital of department Yonne, seat of a diocese, Then
and an ancient town, on a healthy slope, in the Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (84 miles), or Ville Burgundy wine country, above the River Yonne. neuve-le-Roi, a pretty place on the Yonne, built by It was called Autissiodurum when Cæsar took it, Louis VII. in 1170, along with the old bridge, 700 AD. 521, and had a bishop as early as 278. It was fcet long, replaced by one of stone, in 1851. Its pillaged by the English, during the captivity of royal château was destroyed 1811, but Louis the one of its counts, who had accompanied John of Fat's tower, 87 feet high, still remains. There are France to England, after the battle of Poictiers. also two Gothic gates of the 13th century, and a The river itself makes a port for the conveyance of church partly as old, and 233 feet long, with a produce, opposite an island covered with trees and Renaissance front, and a tall square tower. Popu mills. The streets are in general narrow. There lation, 5,200.
are good prospects from the boulevards; on the St. Julien-de-Sault (5 miles), on the river, promenade de l'Arquebuse, a cattle fair is held opposite Villevallier, which is joined to it by a monthly. suspension bridge. Population, 2,460. It contains The fine Cathedral dedicated to St. Étienne (Stean old church and ancient houses. At Cézy, which phen), on the hill, built between 1035 and 1543, is we pass, is a suspension bridge, with remains of 328 feet long, 111 feet high to the vault, with a old fortifications.
spire tower (the last built) 195 feet high. It is Joigny (7 miles), a sous-préfecture, on the side chiefly in the flamboyant (Tudor) style, and much of a chalk hill, at the bridge on the Yonne, takes admired for its regularity, its fine portal of the name from Flavius Jovinus, its Roman founder. It | 16th century, columns, figures, &c., and especially ig steep in some parts, but has good points of view, the large number of richly stained windows. The and a long quay on the river. The Hôtel Dieu was oldest part is the Romanesque crypt, of the 11
century, which deserves notice. The altar is simple, built a château, and died 995. At Mainfron is a but grand, and has near it figures of the patron mineral water. At 13 kil. south-west of this is Saint, of Bishop Amyot, the translator of Plutarch, 1 ST. SAUVEUR, in the beautiful country of Puisaye, and Bishop Colbert, brother of the minister. St. having a château, an ancient tower, and the ruins Eusebius' and St. Peter's churches bear marks of of Moutier Abbey.-At 10 kil. further to the west, the Romanesque style, the former having a spire | towards the Loire, stands the fine château of St. 10wer of the 12th century. St. Germain's Abbey Fargeau, in the midst of a great park. It was (now part of the Hôtel de Ville) covered the relics of founded as far back as 980, and now belongs to the above sixty saints, including the one commemorated Marquis de Boisgelin. by the Parisian church of St. Germain l'Auxerrois, VERMANTON (18 kil. south-south-east of Auxerre), and it holds the tombs of the old counts. The in a pretty part of the Cure, under a hill, has an crypts of the 9th century, and the Romanesque | old Church, with a remarkable recessed porch, full tower of the 11th century, with a choir, &c., are of carvings. all that remain of its church. Another church, St.
Cravant, the fourth station from Auxerre (11 Pierre, or St. Père, originally founded in the 8th
miles). Here a branch is in progress to Avallon, century, was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, and
&c. (see below). has a finely carved portal.
Coulanges-sur-Yonne (17 miles), followed by The Prefect's Hotel was the bishop's palace. Its Romanesque gallery, or arcade, of the 12th century,
Clamecy (5 miles), a sous-préfecture in departis 72 feet long. Here Napoléon received Ney in
ment Nièvre, of 5,600 inhabitants, on the Yonne 1815, styling him the “bravest of the brave." At and Beuvron, with a good trade in wood, charcoal, the bibliothèque, or public library, are 30,000 vol
&c., and some good churches. Near it are th3 umes, 200 MSS., and Baron Denon's collection of
Villette paper factories. Coaches to Varzy, La medals, &c. The clock tower, or Tour Gaillarde, on
Charité, Premery, and Nevers. Rails are in proa gate near the old house of the dukes of Burgundy,
gress to Nevers, and towards Mâcon. was erected 1670, and marks solar and mean time, VARZY (15 kil. south-east), under a vine-covered with the changes of the moon. The spire of open hill. ironwork, is a modern addition, since the fire of LA CHARITÉ, 30 kilbeyond. Hence it is 23 kil. 1825. There are also a large foundry, hospital, up the Loire to Nevers; and 45 kil. to Bourges college, theatre, baths, barracks, a departmental (see Route 45). lunatic asylum, and a botanic garden, in which From Clamecy, on the road to Chalons, you pass stands the statue of J.J. Fourier, once Secretary of VEZELEY (18 kil.), having the very aucient the Academy, and a native.
Madeleine Church, which belonged to the abbey Trade in wine, as petit vin d'Auxerre (used to founded in the 9th century, by Gherard de RoussilAavour Burgundy), Chablis (white), Cote de la lon, where St. Bernard preached a crusade before Chênette, and Cote de la Mégrène (both red); timber Louis VII., in 1145. T. Beza, the reformer, was a for casks; and a few woollens, &c. An old song
native. days of this place, and its wines
AVALLON (16 kil.), a sous-préfecture of depart"Auxerre est la boisson des rois,
ment Yonne, in a charming valley on the Cousin, Heureux qui les boit tout trois !"
was the Roman Aballo, and had a castle of the Conveyances: Dally by coach, to Poinchy, Chablis, dukes of Burgundy. Petit Cours, the site of a Courson, Vermanton, St. Sauveur, St. Amand, Roman camp, offers a fine prospect. Population Avallon, Entrains, Cussy-Tannay, Donzy, Cor 5,630. The church has a curious porch. Coaches bigny, Cosne, Chassy, Châtillon-en-Bazois, Cha to Aisy and Tonnerre station on the main Lyons line. toau-Chinon, &c. By rail to Cravant, Clamecy, At 20 kil, to the east are the famous caves of Arcytowards Nevers, &c.
sur-Cure, which includes several chambers, the TOUCY (18 kil. south-west), on the Onane, was largest being above 1,200 feet. They are visited in the place woro Hugh Capet's brother, St. Hérlbert, J. dry weather, about August or Septomber.]