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ion, and together with the Governor and Chancellor. many democrats as whigs—at present the Judges all
Appeals is said to be too short.
The review of other departments of the Government Supreme Court Judges as well as the Circuit Judges
we will take up in their order in future numbers of are restricted from holding any other office or public
our Journal. trust, yet notwithstanding this inhibition, the Legis
There is an opinion extensively entertained by lature have vested the Court with the power of nom
many citizens of high standing, that Judges of inating and appointing Street Commissioners in cer.
high Courts should be made independent, and for tain local districts. This power has been greatly
that reason should be appointed for life, or during abused.
good behavior, and should be paid liberal Sala. The new Constitution provides that there shall be
ries. There is much good sense in the sugat least thirty-two Supreme Court Judges which shall gestion, but there are difficulties even in this.hold office for eight years, and be elected in eight Judges who are appointed for long terms, may beJudicial districts. The Judges are prohibited from come arbitrary and substitute their will for the laws holding any other office or public trust, and are also of the land. It is wisely suggested in the Constituprohibited from exercising any power of appoint
tion of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, that,
“In order to prevent those, who are vested with ment to public office.
authority, from beeoming oppressors, the people The New Constitution abolishes the Court of have a right, at such periods and in such manner Chancery and vests the Equity Jurisdiction in the as they shall provide in their frame of GovernSupreme Court. Under the present Constilution the
ment, to cause their public officers to return to pri
vate life, and to fill up vacant places by certain and Circuit Judges in seven of the Judicial Districts ex
regular elections and appointments.” ercise the power of Vice Chancellors.
This doctrine thus solemnly laid down in the Objections are urged against this mode of select
chart of civil liberty of that ancient Commonwealth,
is worthy of the place it occupies, and the sentiment ing Judges, by electing them, on the ground that in
expressed is full of instruction. Our State Convencompetent persons may be designated as candidates. tion in framing the new Contitution have given The elections are not frequent, and therefore it will heed to this doctrine, by providing that the Judges
of the high Courts shall be elected for eight years.-. be no hardship for intelligent citizens to exert them
Experience is said to be the best Schoolmaster in selves to have good men put in nominaticn. Judges
every department of life, and the saying is as good, elected in the manner provided for in the New Con as it is old ; but experience in adjudications consists stitution will be of different political parties, and not
mostly in becoming familiar with the rules and The
practice of the courts. all of one political party as is now the case.
The law of the land is the
paramount consideration, and the Judge should be Cuurt for the Correction of Errors afford an illustra
sufficiently intelligent to understand its import, and tion as to elected Judges--the decisions of the elected he is equally bound to obey it, as the most humble members of that Court are entitled to as much re
citizen. It is the duty of a Judge to expound the
law, but the making of law is ihs business of the spect as those of the Chancellor and Judges of the
Legislature. Much of our difficulty, remarks a Supreme Court which are appointed officers. The most eminent jurist, arises from Judicial Legisladecisions of the Supreme Court, and Court of Chan tion. If the Courts usurp the power of both making cery have been various and fluctuating, and much
and executing the law, then the balance of Govern
ment become distorted, and instead of the Execudissatisfaction existed-and such as to call loudly for
tive, Legislative and Judicial branches being a the abrogation of the old system, and for an endea
check, one upon the other, the whole power of the vor to substitute something better.
three becomes concentrated in the one, torming
what may be termed a judicial despotism. The County Courts under the present Constitution
We have in our State, Farmers, Mechanics and were held by Judges appointed by the Governor, Merchants, who are able to determine the requirewith the consent of the Senate.
ments of the Statute and understand its import as The nominations were made by the Governor on
well as Lawyers. Our law is enacted by Legis
tors composed of every class of ocupations. It re. the recommendation of others. Under the new Con
quires the same ability to frame a law that it does stitution a County Judge is to be elected by the vo
to interpret it. ters in each county in this State, (except the county Questions come before Courts for their judgment of New York,) who shall hold his office for tour
and decision involving matters which Farmers,
Mechanics or Merchants may be able to form a years, and perform the duties of Surrogate. In coun
better judgment of what is right and just, than a ties having a population exceeding 40,000, a Surro Lawyer. gate shall be elected.
It is not always the ablest Lawyers that are appointThe laws of our State are enacted by elected mem
ed Judges of Courts, and this fact alone is a most
conclusive argument in reference to the preference bers, and our adjudications are made by elected
of this mode of selecting Judges It often happens Judges tor the decisions of the Court for the Correc.
that men are appointed io an office, which were the tion of Errors, are binding on all the Courts below office an elective one, they would be unable to obtain it; therefore if the Inferior Courts are held by ar
It follows therefore that there is nu form of Gov. pointed Judges, their decisions must be in accord.
ernment but what has its advantages and disadvanance with the law as interpreted by the eletced Jud
It is after all, the man who makes the Judge, This is the great feature of both Constitutions,
and not the Judge who makes the man. and the distinction is without a difference.
The population of our State is rapidly increasing
and the increase is much of it from the flow of popUnder the new Constitution the Judges will be of ulation who are ignorant of our laws, aud such a all political parties, and there will probably be as ll state of things increases the business of Courts.
EARTHQUAKE. The New York Journal of Commerce of the 23d of October, instant contains the following:
" ERUPTIONS OF Mount Hecla, AND SHocks OP AN EARTHQUAKE.- A letter from Copenhagen, of the 21st Sept., says:- We have just received news from Iceland to the 18th, and from the Ferroe Islands to the 25th ult. Neyer in the memory of man has there been a more disagreeable summer than the present. Torrents of rain and storms succeeded each other without intermission. The measles and the dysentery carried off almost the fourth of the inhabitants, especially on the coasts, which caused the cultivation of the island to be paralyzed, and the fishery, which otherwise would have been most abundant, to be neglected. The bad weather prevented the Danish, German, French, Belgian and English savans from pursuing their researches into the state of Mount Hecla, but they have decided on passing the winter in Iceland, in order to profit by the cold and dry weather, to carry on their investigations. Towards noon on the 220 ult, there was a sudden and violent eruption of Mount Hecla, the commencement of which was accompanied by several shocks of earthquake, extending to a radius of about three miles, (seven French leagues.) The eruption lasted about forty minutes; the flames rose to an immense height, and all the country around the volcano was covered with a thick layer of ashes.'"
The Brooklyn Evening Star of August 22d contains the following:
“TEMPERATURE.—During the present month, thus far, we have had three equilibriums, viz: the evening evening of the 2d and 3d, 12th and 13th, and 20th and 21st."
E. M. The New York Journal of Commerce of October 23d contains the following:
"A MARYLAND EARTHQUAKE.”—The Boonsboro (Md.) Odd Fellow states that about 9 o'clock, on Sunday night last, a singular rumbling noise, accompanied by a shock that shook the windows, was evidently the shock of an earthquake."
The Brooklyn Eveniug Star of October 19th contains the following:
"Yesterday morning, at 9 o'clock, 480, and at 7,490, which was the highest temperature yesterday, vibrating but 70 from that time to 10 in the evening. For six hours yesterday there was an equilibrium, followed by a second, of the same state of atmosphere, of four hours. The storm of yesterday followed in its order the equilibrium I noticed in the Star of Saturday.”
E.M. My communication, under the head of “The WEATHER," published in the Farmer and Mechanic of October 22d, gives the detailed state of the temperature of the atmosphere, and records two equilibriums on the Sunday the 18th, the last of which was running at the very moment the earthquake was operating at Boonsboro'.
These two additional illustrations are confirmations of the accuracy of my recorded observations, making 24 which have thus been confirmed in ten months.
There is a difference which I am wholly unable to explain in relation to some of the Equilibriums that I have recorded, a few of them have preceded Earthquakes, but most of them have succeeded those convulsions. We have accounts, as I have before observed, of 24 earthquakes, which have taken place within the last ten months, and my recorded and published observations indicate the occurrence of
LIGHTNING. ---Mr. James McGowan, aged 63, residing in seventh township concession, of Kingston, Upper Canada, was killed by lightning on Friday, Oct. 2. The lightning descended the chimney, and struck him as he sat by the fire. killing him instantly.- Christian Guardian.
several other earthquakes, the particulars of which have not yet reached us. It is very remarkable that 80 many earthquakes have been felt in so short a space of time, and that all of them have been idicated by Equilibriums upon Brooklyn Heights, of great comparative duration. I have found a difference the present year as to the effect which thunder storms produced on the atmosphere, sometimes depressing ihe temperature, and other times increasing the heal, but in no instance has a thunder storm in my immediate neighborhood, produced an Equilibrium on the Heights. Thus it seems that the earthquakes are wholly different from thunder and lighining. I have been very particular the present year to watch the temperature of the atmosphere during the continuance of heavy electric discharges from the clouds, and to carefully record these observations.
My record of the deep excavations made in the earth, in various localities on this continent, by the sinking of shafts for mining, and for fresh and salt water wells, show that the average depth of loose earth that composes the bed in which vegetation takes root, is about 45 in depih on an average-that beneath this, as far as explored is rock stratas. If the whole surface was levelled off, the water courses, lakes and oceans filled with the mountains and the hills, the whole surface of the globe would become submerged. If earthquakes have their labratories beneath, or within the rock stratas that form the tody of our planet, then we should have reason to look for the explosive force to act upwards in such localities as present the least resistance, but vertical action is less frequent than horizontal, and this may arise from the great number of volcanoes allowing vent to the interior through these numerous craters. I have in several of my numerous observations published the last 12 months, said that our atmosphere was under the influence of extensive dis. turbances, the result has thus far shown the correct. ness of my suggestion.
EARTHQUAKES AT TRINIDAD.--The Journal of Commerce, of October 27, states that 12 or 15 shocks of earthquake have been felt in the island of Trinidad, in the course of a very few days. Much damage has been done to buildings, and the ground has been cracked in several places. Some of these shocks were more severe than any which have been felt there for many years. Two of the shocks occurred during divine service, and one of them while several persons were attending the theatre. The inbabitants are alarmed at the freqnency and severity of the shocks, and tear a repetition of them. In one of the churches a stone fell from the tower during service, but did not injure any person. This information, we understand, comes from a young lady now in Trinidad, in a letter to her family, resident in New Haven, Con., and by them has been communicated to one of the editors of the Journal of Commerce, whose residence is in that city. We shall, ere long, probably, be able to ascertain on what days of the month these shocks took place. The island of Trinidad is in latitude between 11 and 12 degrees norih, and longitude 61 and 62 west, is about fifty miles long, and about thirty-three wide. There are mountains here three thousand feet high. The famous lake of bitumen is in this island, and it contains also several mud volcanoes, Trinidad is but twelve miles from the main land, (and opposite Colombia, South America,) being but about a dozen miles distant therefrom. The lakes of bitumen in Trinidad, would, in a high northern latitude, become cannel coal by crystalization by cold.
SALTVILLE, Washington co., Va., Oct. 14. Dear Sir:--Your letter of the 22d ultimo came to hand by due course of mail, for which I am greatly obliged. I also thank you for the number of the Farmer and Mechanic which contained Mr. Conkey's meteorlogical table, and his interesting letter concerning his visit to a small lake in Onodanga county.
Your suggestion that the salt rock of this region supplies the saline waters of the Kanawha works, is new to me. It hardly seems possible that it can be the case. It is true that “New River," which is the head waters of the Great Kanawha, rises south of us fisty or sixty miles, in North Carolina, but it takes a circuituus route, passing us on the east about seventy miles, and there are mountain barriers between us and it in every direction. There are no streams within forty miles of us whose waters discharge into “ New River," and Kanawha is about one hundred and fifty miles distant, in a northwardly direction. Our streams all discharge into the Tennessee river. At some former day there has been a very great accumulation of sulphuric acid, as is evident from the vast beds of gypsum which are found in this region, the result of the chemical action of that acid upon our limestone mountains. And there now exist between us and Kanawha many springs of sulphur water. The presence of sulphuric acid, in combinativn with the muriate of soda, would decompose the salt, and produce sulphate of soda, or Glauber's salts.
The sulphate of barytes (of which I spoke in a former letter) does not change its appearance in the least by exposure to the atmosphere, but retains its pure crystalline white appearance. l informed you that it was opaque, but I find upon examination that it is nearly as transparent as alabaster.
I will, if possible, obtain for you a specimen of the iron you speak of, and send to you with the other minerals. It is manufactured at Grabam's Iron Works, in Wythe county, about forty miles from this place. All the iron made by Mr. Graham is not of that quality; but the kind you inquire about is made of a peculiar kind of ore, which produces iron nearly as hard as steel, and is said to be twice as durable as common iron when used as wagon tire.
By yesterday's mail I received from you the "Farmer and Mechanic," the “Brooklyn Evening Stai," and “ Willmer & Smith's European Times, for which accept my sincere thanks. By the mail Mr. Milnor received your interesting letter post marked the 3d instant, and the “New York Express" containing an account of the perilous voyage of the steamer Great Western. The fearlul storm which that gallant vessel outrode, I think, must have howled the requiem of many a frailer ship.
I do not remember of informing you of the existence of a fresh water spring in this vicinity, that ebbs and flows alternately at irregular periods, varying from fifteen minutes to an hour or two. It issues from the base of a mountain, and will sometimes for an hour send forth a guishing torrent of water, suf ficient to propel the machinery of a grist mill, and the next hour, perhaps, will scarcely afford sufficient water for a horse to drink, and thus it has continued to aliernate since the earliest recollections of the inhabitants of the country. This strange phenomenon, however, excites no more wonder among the people of the country, than does the more regular ebbing and flowing of the tide among the inhabitants of the sea-shore.
Your record of the pathway of the earthquake and the storms connected with other phenomena, becomes more and more interesting as you progress in your investigations.
Yours, truly, Thos. SPENCER. E, MERIAM,
September 28, 1846. E. Meriam, Esq.--Dear Sir-I promised in my last to offer some further facts in meteorology, and in conclusion to make some deductions favoring the opinions you have advanced that any important atmospheric convulsions at a given place indicate strong simultaneous or early sequential convulsions at other points often remote or at great distances apart,
The meteoric shower of 1833, some observations on which I proposed 10 make, was an imposing spectacle that rarely occurs.
Its appearance put me in mind of many snow flakes, falling amidst the glare of a burning city in a dark night.
The night 13th of Nov., was very clear, cold and calm, and from a small beginning, the “ falling stars" increased to hundreds at a time, decending from a circle of the heavens, perhaps 30 degrees in diameter, marked out a little north of the castern point, the lower edge 40 to 60 degrees above the eastern horizon.
The circumference of this circle was indeed the boundary of a pyramidal column the apex of which advanced to the sun's meridian altitude inclining a little more northward and thence passed westward, so that at twenty minutes before sunrise the last lumi. nous streams were rising upward from the western horizon.
I have seen drasts purporting to represent these meteors as flying downward in curving lines from a centre; but such appearance was wholly deceptive, every meteor flying in straight lines, until entering the upper strata of the atmosphere, many pursued lines variously curved leaving phosphorescent white ribbands where they passed, wbich, with a lille fanciful aid, formed letters and other curiously curling figures.
Some of these evanescent figures would remain vis ible several minutes, but those portions high above our air disappeared soonest.
Some falling in lines direct to the view seemed to move very slowly, while such as obtained a strong angle moved with apparent rapidity.
One large meteor, appearing to move in a line directly to my eye, actually passed beyond a mountain 2,700 feet in height, at the distance of four miles from me, but I saw none that arrived at or very near the ground.
The base of angle made by this large meteor referred to, convinced me its straight line of motion decended from a very distant point, not less probably than 30,000 to 40,000 miles.
I ascended a conical hill and had fair observation of them most part of the night.
On the 22d of October preceding, I remarked a stream of light ascending from a course a little north of sunset to a point beyond the zenith, remaining visible from 9 till 10 o'clock: and in October, 1843, I observed a similar broad stream of light nearly in the same position.
In the month before, I saw two imperfectly formed U mock images of the sun at one time.
I inferred that the equatorial ring of atmosphere,
EARTHQUAKE IN MARYLAND.—The shock of an Earthquake, as it was supposed by many to be, was sensibly felt on Sabbath night of last week, about 9 o'clock. The noise resembled the roll of a heavy carriage in rapid motion, and was distinguishable tor half a minute or more. We understand that it was pretty generally felt throughougt the counly, and various are the surmises as to the cause. Some supposed it to have been the explosion of a powder mill, and others attribute it to a supernatural agency. 'Twas quite a quake, call it by whatever name.-Hagerstown Pledge, Oct. 27.
being in a tidal elevation, caused the north and souta
inevitably to special and to general efforts at equi || which in dry fall seasons usually indicated severe hemispheres to present separate images of the sun's libriation.
storms. face among the vapors belonging severally to each Pending such efforts at equatsion, various gronps In a slighter degree I have since often heard these hemisphere.
of attractile and rejectile attributes coming in con low-wailing half-musical sounds whilst crossing I suppose every halo of light exhibited to the eye,
tact, flashthrough and high above the common at other parts of these uniformly constructed mounas if around the sun, is in fact merely a dispersed mosphere, and sometimes seem to occupy all the tains. image appearing in that seg nent of globular atmos space shadowed by the earth.
The number of trees, especially chesnuts, having phere directly under the sun, and such images re
Without denying that our world may in its mo. high pointed branches, which are annually stricken flected back from clouds to our vision originate raintions pass among extremely rarified or nebulous
by lightning upon these bighlands would be incredbows.
matter which might cause phenomena like the me ible to any who may not have heard the artillery of Certainly, according to altitude of the sun, will teoric shower, I would sooner believe those meteors
the clouds in that quarter during summer. be the greater or less curvature of the rainbow. to arise from Electro-Magnetic forces, every day
It needs but little examination to induce the imI have seen at sunrise two brilliant and perfectly more or less operative in fabricating and condens
pression that strong currents of electro magnetic circular rainbows upon the face of clouds arriving ing properties and qualities already attaching lo
forces pass from the South-west toward the Northfrom the west, and showering down snow close at our world.
east in the midst of these mountains composing the hand, and have also at sundown observed two circu I think the 1833 meteors in several respects dis
westernmost range of the great Apalachian chain. lar rainbows in the face of misty clouds just passing fer from the ordinary meteors originating in dry The same influences exerted through the earth eastward. autumnal seasons within our atmosphere.
under sea-waters finds a convenient vehicle in the The rapid and changing images of the sun's face
Those last may depend upon decomposed animal salt-water for displaying light in and over the briny in the mists of water-falls in bright sun shine, manand vegetable gases uniting with certain mineral
wavo, ifest a sort of daguerreotype imprint of the sun, not ized vapors in the air.
I will not offer arguments where facts give so without the aid of real chemical changes in the state The “ Will o' the wisp" moving slowly over strong direction to any correct opinions demanded of the mixing vapors. marshy plains sometimes expiring and relighting
in the premises. But to illustrate the reality of rainbows being a has analogies to the last named and so has the phos
But to conclude, I will in my next, present stronger counterpart of atmospheric sun or moon images, it is phorescence of decaying flesh and wood.
reasons, drawn from the phenomena of tides, for only necessary to observe a smooth sheet of water
In the lightening bug too, is observed a luminosi.
proving the minute and the greater dependences of having in it the reflected face of the sun, and to rety, which seems to be vivified and obedient to its
changes among terrene substances, far situated one mark, ihat on striking the water, over the centre of
from the other. volition, while in the glow worm the will of the inthe image, a series of circular waves expand from
I must, however, not omit saying that in the mesect does not direct the degreee of brilliance. the point stricken, every one of which bears along an
teoric column whence descended the shower of Nov. enlarging ring-formed likeness of the sun's disc,
The electric eel may develope light, and in certain
13th, 1833, remained perpendicular to the suns place, beautifully variegated in rainbow colors. pathological conditions, the human body evolves
moving West as the sun passed Eastward, until, as sparks and may sustain shocks resulting in Paralysis The sun shines only upon one hemisphere of the
the sun rose in the East the falling stars fell horizonearth's concavo-convex atmosphere at once, and beor instant death.
tally toward the earth in the Western hurizon.
In connection with exhibits of light from abtruse ing above one hundred times more in diameter than
The relations toward the sun was therefore palgroups of chemical forces, I will only in addition althe earth, the latter is poised near the top of that
pable, and possibly resulting from chemical evolulude to the luminosity of sea-water and dry sandcone of dependencies reciprocally connecting them.
tions aloft in the earth's shadow. stone plains as I have witnessed it. Now, it seems self-evident that gravitating and
I must here mention also that in E. Tennessee many reciprocative qualities between bodies, situa
The radiance of coast water and shallow disturb
was found a round lump of pure malleable iron, ted far apart, act in line toward each other, and not ed parts of the ocean is more striking than where
glazed outside as il submitted to very strong heat, indefinitely around in courses where may be no rethe depth of the sea extends to several miles.
weighing above one ion. cipient.
In 1835 during a dry autumn, in crossing by stage of this meteoric virgin iron Doct. Troost, of Hence, if from a luminous object light be diffused at night, 30 miles of the upper table plain of the Nashville is in possession of probably 100 pounds. among all vehicles or fit recipients around it, in our
Cumberland mountain, the ground was so luminous If the material of the meteors of 1833 had all been air, it seems to follow that the sun light emanates or
a pin might be seen, and in passing hills on one side concentrated suddenly as sometimes happens, perextends in no direction exterior of the bounds occu shadows were cast toward the other side-there was haps a much larger æorilite would have been propied by reciprocal gravitating and other affinitive re no moon and so bright was the light the driver at duced than the one referred to. lations.
first supposed it was fire light and finding it was not, I am free to admit that those whose studies have When the moon is totally eclipsed, the shadow of
seemed to have misgivings that some dire event was been least comprehensive, feel least hesitancy in the earth with its atmospheric penumbra envelopes about to happen.
giving opinions upon abiruse subjects—but that is the face of the moon, and I believed, on seeing the I have often observed considerable luminosity
no sound reason that common sense observations last total eclipse of the moon, that certain Electro above frozen snow covered fields.
should not receive sair consideration. Magnetic influences or Auroral flickeringe, were It is not esteemed strange to see dark clouds envel
Yours respectfully, actually extended into contact with the moon's disc, oped in lightning, and darting off their thunder bolts September 28th, 1846. which had over it a tremulous visible mist during to the ground upon this mountain. all the eclipse.
The superstratum of this elevated table land is a But however this may be, that hemisphere of the thin sandy soil covering an average depih LIGHTNING AND Hal Storm8.—The Journal of earth which remains more or less dark, as the sun of 1000 feet of sand-stone, below which, lie coal Commerce of Oct. 26th, states that "there have been daily marches round its course, is in a chemical state fields and masses of stratified limestone.
tremendous storms in Spain. Several persons were very much differing from the illuminated side.
The sand-stone has much iron in it, and lying in
killed by lightning, and whole flocks of sheep killed It is on the darkened side of the earth that Auro. horizontal strata sounds like a bridge when waggons
by the hail.” ral lights are manifested, and if we imagine a seg. pass over it. ment of the earth's shadow to be cut upwards, par On one occasion crossing in a dry October, the LIGHTNING.–The New York Sun of Oct. 27, states allel to the plane of the equator from the 45th degree driver repeatedy arrested his horses (a slave who had that the house of Mr. Jutman Deadman, in North of both narth and south latitudes, (having reference never passed that way before) to know what was the Carolina, was struck by lightning, which instantly to the magactic poles,) such segments will contain cause of the rumbling Æolian sound, sometimes killed his wife and set fire to the house. Two chilthe space from whence the Boreal lights of the porth rising and falling on the ear like the sound of wind dren and a negro man were stunned, bur recovered and of the south display their dancings and balancing rushing among green pine forests, and stating that shortly. The negro and one child escaped, but the propensities.
even whilst driving along the doletul noise under other child remained by the mother and both were The chemical results in any given day, yielded ground, was audible.
burnt with the house. The father was at work a within the tropical belt, are quite different from those On putting up early in the evening the Landlord || mile off, and when he returned found his wife, child in the two polar regions during the same day, leading lI said it was "nothing but under-ground thunder," I and all his property in ashes."
SYRACUSE CORRESPONDENCE. 11 and even ten per cent, sulphate of lime, in less deiri. HAIL STORMS IN 1788.-M. ARAGO states, that on
mertal to the salt, than one per cent. muriate of SYRACUSE, OCTOBER 24th, 1846.
the morning of the 13th of July, 1788, a Hail Storm lime, for the reason that it requires about 500 lbs. of Dear Sir-Your letter of Oct. 19th, was duly re
commenced in the South of France, traversed in a water to dissolve one pound of sulphale of lime, ceived, asking me to furnish yoll with my Meteor while muriate of lime will become seini fluid in a
few hours the whole length of the kingdom, and ological record for September, also for Oct. 2, 7, 9, summer atmosphere when exposed to the air.
thence extended to the low countries and Holland. 12, 13 and 14, as to storms, &c., and the weight of a Salt which contains sulphale of lime, muriate of All the districts in France injored by the bail gallon of our Salt water, all of which I furnish you lime, and muriale of magnesia, on dry land, conwith pieasure, I often receive fronı you New York
were situated in two parallel bands, moving Souih. denses the atmosphere and thereby affords moisture and Brooklyn papers, for which accept my thanks. to the ground.
west and North-east. One of these bands was 175 Oct. 2d, Barometer al sunrise 29, 30-100 of an Neither Turk's Jsland or Curracoa salt, are as leagues long; the other about 200. inch, and ruse during the day to 29, 00-100 inches; good for lands as Onondago salt, for this reason: The meau breadth of the most Western hail band at 2, P. M., we had a shower which lasted one hour, In the Report of Thomas Spencer, Esq., Superinrain fell 15-100 ot an inch; temperature at suorise, lendent of ihe Salines ol the State of New York,
was four leagues; the other only two leagues. The 500; 9, A. M., 63; 3, P. M., 57, 9, P. M., 48; wind made to the Legislature in 1842, pages 19 and 20, he
storm moved from the South t the North with a ra. E. until about noon, it then shilled N. W.
gives a statement of analyses of salt, made by Pro pidity of about 16 leagues per hour. Between these Oct. 71h, Baromeier at suurise, 29, 70-100 inches, lessor Beck, as follows:
(u'o bands rain only, tell, and the width of the rain vibrating but 2-100 of an inch during the day. Tem.
Turk's Island Salt
path was about five leagues. peralure at sunrise, 52; 9, A. M., 65; 3, P. M., 761;
Pure Chloride of Sorium. ............984.04 9, P. M., 68; sky clear the most of the day, fresh
The damage occasioned in France in 1039 parish. wind from the South until about noon, il then shilted
Sulphale of Lime.................13.16
es visited by the hail, appea:ed from official inquiry,
Carbonate of Lime and Magnesia .....2.80 S, W., lightning active during ihe evening, no rain.
amounted to Twenty-five millions of francs. Oci. 9th, Barometer at sunrise, 29.70.100 inches,
1000.00 Could meteorologists, however skilled, have been the same ai 9, A. M.; 3, P. M., 29.68-100; 9, P. M.,
Liverpool Sall. 29.82-100 inch, temperature at sunrise, 630; 9, A.
able to foresee it ?
Pure Chloride of Sodium............. .988.99 M., 78; 3, P. M., 79; 9, P. M., 56; wind fresh from
Sulphale of Lime.......
.8.77 the S. W. until noon, it then shilied N. W., com
Carbonale of Lime and Magnesia .....0.22
WEATHER OF NEW ORLEANS.-Letters from New menced raining at 4, P. M., and ended at 7, P. M.,
Sulphate of Soda ....................2.02
Orleans of the 71h, say the weather there, was then, rain fell 55-100 uf an inch. Oct. 101h, Barometer rose to 30.02. 100 inches, vi.
and had been, pleasant and delightful.
1000.00 brating but 2.100 of an inch for about twenty-lour
Solar Salt made at Syracuss,
A volcano had appeared on Sable Island, in the
.7.00 Red Sea. 9, P. M., it had tell to 29.52-100 inches. Tempera
Chlori le of Lime and Magnesia....2.00 lure at sunrise, 460; 9, A. M., 54; 3, P. M., 68; 9, P. M., 58. There was an equilibrium which i no.
The Fleet AT VERA CRUZ.-From accounts re.
1000.00 ticed commenced this evening, after dark. My ther
ceived from Vera Cruz since the great gale, it apmometer is a self-register, I found by examining it
Salt made at Syracuse, by boiling.-
pears that the hurricane of the 10th and 13th of Ocnext morning at sunrise that the mercury slovd 580,
Sulphate of Lime..... ..............8 92 the same as the evening before, but it had registered
lober, did not visit that portion of the Gulf. itselt at 570. sometime during the nights of the 12th
Chloride of Lime and Magnesia....1.64 and 13th, and continued to stand al 580, for a little
SINGULAR Fact.-It 'is stated as a remarkable fact,
1000.00 more than twenty-four hours.
that the sea birds, the pulfio, guillemot and razor. Oct 13th, Barometer at sunrise, 29. 36-100 of an The salt mines at Saltville, Washington County, inch, 9 A. M., 29 30.100,-1 P. M. 29.00-3 P.M., Virginia, produce a salt of very superior quality.
bill, cannot fly over the land at all, although they 28.76-100—4 P. M., 28.64-100—5 P. M., 28.50-100 An analyses made there shows the following result:
can rise from the surface of the sea with equal faci. -6 P.M., 28 44-100.,-7 P.M. 28. 14-100 of an inch,
Pure Chloride of Sodium..
lity, mount to an infinite height, and fly with amalight wind from the S. E. untill about noon, it
Sulphate of Lime...
.14 44 zing rapidity so long as the sea is immediately bethen shifred E, and continued to blow from that
Chloride of Lime........
..00.16 neath them, but no sooner do they fly above dry quarter until 7 P.M., when it shifted directly W. and blew a perlect gale. The Barometer commenc
ground than they drop as if shot. During a strong
1000.00 ed rising at the same lime, the wind shifted, and at
wind froin the sea it not unfrequently bappens that 10 o'clock it had risen 10 28 96-00 of an inch. Rain
Salt made at ibe Great Salt Lake, on ibe noad to
these birds, in mounting higher than the edge of the fell freely during day, it commenced 54 A. M. and ended 71 P. M., ineasuring 1.60-100 ot an inch.
cliff, are suddenly blown a few yards over land, analyzed as follows: Dew point 570.
Pure Chloride of Sodium...............97.80
when they immediately fall, and can regain their Oci. 17, rained at intervals all day, and commenc
Chloride of Lime.................0.61
natural element only by crawling to the edge of the ed showing 6 P. M., nex: morning the snow was
Cloride of Magnesia...
...0.24 precipice, when new vigor seems to inspire them, about three inches deep, measuring 70-100 of an inch.
Sulphate of Soda.......
and they al once soar away with their usual veloAgreeable to your request I have made the ex
Sulphate of Lime.......
..1.12 periment with the water. One gallon of salt water at temperatue 490, and specific gravity by Salom
The following table furnishes these dates, and eter 700, weighs avordupuis 9 lbs. 7 oz. 1 dram.
It will be seen by these six distinct analyses, ut | One gallon of rain water at the temperature of 42o.
also the periods of closing of the Hudson River, weighs 8 lbs. 4 oz. 8 drams, The weight and meas. six several parcels of salt from five different sections since 1830.
River. of the world that neither are pure salt, and ihe parures used in weighing this water were those used
Canal. by our " Town" Sealer of weights and measures, cel which contained the least per cent, chloride of
1830. .... December 22.... December 22 sodium is here considered ihe best quality of salt. they were all in good order.
1831 ..... December 5...... December 1. The salt which my communication to the Farm
1832.... . December 21..... December 21. Respectfully Your's,
1833..... December 13..... December 13. E. Meriam Esq. LYMAN W. CONKEY.
ers' Club bad reference to, is made from brine that
1834..... December 15..... December 12. rated with pure chloride of sodium. This brine is
1835. .... November 30..... November 30. Salt for Manure. brought to that state by the union of two veins of
1836..... December 7...... November 26. water in the same well put in rapid agitation by the
1837.... .December 14..... December 9. A writer, over the signature of “Urbaniste,” in
1838..... November 25..... Noveinber 25. working of a pump, and while the pump is in the the Farmer and Mechanic, of October 291h, quotes a
1839 ..... December 18...., December 16. most active operation crystals of sulphate of lime are lew lines of my communication to the Farmers' instantly formed in the commingling of the brines.
1840..... December 4...... December 3. Club, on the 4th of August, in reference to the use of These crystals are transparent flattened prisms with
1841 ..... December 19..... November 30. salı as a manure.
1812..... November 28..... November 28. eight sides. “Urbaniste," says:"Pure sall (chloride of sodi "This brine contains oxide of iron, muriate of
1813..... December 10..... November 30.
1844....... December 19..... November 26. um) is the same, whether obtained froin the mines of lime in abundance combined with the chloride of Cracow in Poland, the salt ponds of Cuba, or Turk's sodium, the brine being abundant, surrounded by
1845. .... December 3...... November 29. Island, or the salines of Syracuse, or Kaphawha." cheap fuel, easy of evaporation, and iberelore the salt The article known in commerce by the name of salt can be made to four cents the bushel.
THE FRUITS OF INDUSTRY.-The exports of the is not“ pure salt," and the greater or lesser per cent. A stone jug filled with this brine on being placed Island of Cuba present two items that illustiate won of chloride of sodium in common salt is not the crite in a warm atmosphere, will condense the atmos derfully the products of industry--the Honey of the rion of the excellence of quality for the purposes for phere upon its surface to such an extent that a pud Bee and the Wax-the products of industry. which common salt is mostly used, viz. for curing dle of water will be formed around the bottom of the provisions.
jug in a short time. A trial of the salt upon land is Rain sell at Philadelphia, from October 31 to NoSalt which contains sulphate of lime, is preferable a sure means of determiuing its quality for the mois- || vember 4, both inclusive, to the depth of 3 inches as an anteseptic to salt containing muriate of lime, \| lening of dry lands.
É. MERIAM. 161.100 of an inch.
Brooklyn will no doubt be obliged to raise | ground above the rock stratas which form the We haye copied from the “New York waler by an Engine for protection against sub-strata of the Island. Farmer and Mechanic,” an account of the fire, and the city of New York will most pro- An Engine like this may become necessary great Engine for draining the Lake near the i bably be obliged to sink a large shaft and to supply the Erie Canal with water should city of Amsterdam, Holland. The city of draw off the water which is saturating the the waters of Lake Erie continue to recede.
GIGANTIC STEAM ENGINE.
DRAINAGE OF THE HAARLEM LAKE.
We have the satisfaction of presenting our readers with an excellent illustration of the gigantic Steam Engine which the Dutch Government have con. structed and put in operation for the purpose of draining the Lake at Haarlem, a truly wonderful work, and one that stands unrivalled in the his. tory of hydraulic engineering.
The sketch of the origin and progress of the drainage of this Lake we have condensed from the Ilustrated London News, and in order to render the des. cription more interesting, we have procured an engraving of the Engine, and also a sketch of the Lake, which constitutes what is now known as the "Haarlem-mer-Meer." This, in the sixteenth century, consisted of four small Lakes lying contiguous to each other, and covering about 15,000 acres. By the gradual action of the waters on the soft alluvial soil surrounding them, these four Lakes become merged in one, and at the commencement of the eighteenth century covered an area of 45,000 acres at the average depth of 13 feet below low water in the Zuyder Zee. The alarm occasioned by the continued rapid encroachment of the waters of the Lake induced the government to expend some £33,000 in spartially arresting its progress, until during the month of November, 1836, a furious hurricane from the west drove the waters of the Lake upon the City of Amsterdam, and drowned upwards of 10,000 acres of low land in the neighborhood. On the 25th Decomber following, anoiher hurricane from the
east drove the waters in the opposite direction upon
the City of Leyden, the lower parts of which were ! submerged during torty-eight hours, and 19,000 acres
of land were inundated. The enormous loss occasioned by these two storms induced the Government
to determine on the Drainage of the Lake; a credit of | 8,000,000 florins was voted for that purpose, and since
1839, a Canai has been cut round the Lake to isolate it from the neighboring waters, and to afford the means of navigation to the enormous traffic which has hitherto passed over the Lake, amounting to 700,000 tons per annum. This Canal is 37 2-3 miles long, 130 feet wide on the west side, and 115 teet on the east side of the Lake, with a depth of 9 feet of water. On the side next the Lake, the mouths of all water-courses entering it have been closed by earthen dams, having an aggregate length of 3000 yards, made in 10 feet depth of water.
and springs, leakage, &c., during the time of drainage, is estimated al probably 1,000,000,000 tons.
In determining the motive power to be employed, two points were to be kept in view ; first, the cost of evacuating the Lake; secondly, the cost of annual drainage ; for, when once drained, the site of the Lake can only be kept dry by mechanical power.The annual drainage will probably amount to 54,000,000 tons of water, to be lifted on an average 16 feet; but it may occur, that as much as 35 millions of that amount must be discharged in one month.
With the exception of a few small Steam engines, the wind has hitherto been the motive power employed to work the hydraulic machines nsed in the Netherlands to keep the country dry. And the puwer of 12,000 Wind-mills baving an aggregate average power of 60,000 horses, is required to prevent twothirds of the kingdom of the Netherlands from returning to the state of morass and lake, from which the indomitable energy and perseverance of the Dutch people have rescued what is now the most fertile country in Europe.
In 1840, it was found that the average consumption of coals by the Steam-engines used in England and Holland for draining laud, was 15 lbs. per nett horse power, per hour.
The Harlemmer Meer Commissioners were convinced that the old means must be put aside, and new ones adoped to suit the magnitude and peculiarities
Other great works have been executed by enlarg. ing the sluices at Katwyk on the North Sea, and at Spaarndam on the river Y, at the base of the Zuyder Zee, where an auxiliary engine of 200-horse power has been placed to assist in discharging the waler from the canal during the time of high water.
The water of the Lake has no natural outfall, being below the lowest practicable point of sluiceage. The area of water enclosed by the Canal is rather more than 70 square miles, and the quantity to be listed by mechanical means, including rain water