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CONTENTS.

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disordered mind? - Shakspeare the only correct delineator of insanity~Former
barbarous treatment of the insane-Pinel's efforts to ameliorate the condition of
the insane Progress in the pathology and therapeutics of insanity-Symptoms
of insanity described by a lady after recovery-Morbid suggestions in the
incipient stage~C'ases of incipient insanity--Case of double consciousness-
Singular case of incipient insanity-Illusions of bearing-Hallucinations of sight
-Letters from patients after recovery-Confessions of the insane after recovery,

47-149

CHAPTER V.

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CONTENTS.

--Foreshadowings of insanity--Struggle between reason and insanity--Morbid
apprehensions of insanity. -Confessions of patients--Insidious advances of
morbid thought--Obscene and iminoral ideas-Singular perversion of thought
-Illusions premonitory of insanity--Phantasms and spectral illusions Illusions
of hearing (voices)-Singular case of hallucination --Incubation of insanity-
Efforts made to conceal insanity--Insane impurity of thought-The insanity of
Ophelia---Indecent remarks of young women whilst insane~ Explanation of the
causes of perverted thought-Sources of early moral deterioration--Purity of
thought sometimes exhibited by the insane-Power of controlling insane ideas
Symptoms of incipient insanity- Morbid presentiment of insanity-- Prediction
of attacks of apoplexy—Sir W. Scott's anticipation of brain disease--Dean
Swift's presentiment of his approaching imbecility--Morbid anticipation of insanity,

225–265

CHAPTER VIII.

STAGE OF EXALTATION.

Psychical exaltation - State of mind premonitory of insanity-Morbid exaggeration

of ideas Emotional exaltation-Suicidal delirium connected with great exalta-
tion of spirits Wit, ingenuity, and cunning of the insane-Mental acuteness of
the insane Poetical enthusiasm in mania-Mental abilities of the insane-
Symptoms of insanity in young women---Peculiar type of mental disease-Self-
control and shrewdness of the insane--Art of analysing subtle cases of insanity.
--Feigned insanity unmasked by chloroform-Concealment of delusions by the
insane-Subtle case of homicidal insanity-Cunning, cleverness, and subtlety of
the insane-Acute instinctive manifestations of the insane-Subtlety of the insane
metaphysically explained—Symptoms of insanity~The physical agitation of
incipient insanity-Tortures of a wicked conscience-Happy type of insanity-
Horace's description of the happy madman-Premonitory signs of apoplexy-
Disease of the brain caused by a blow upon the head—Insidious symptoms of
general paralysisObscure case of general paralysis

266--298

CHAPTER IX.

STAGE OF MENTAL DEPRESSION.

Acute morbid melancholy-Symptoms of brain disease Concealed delusions–Subtle

types of suicidal insanity-Melancholia a symptom of softening of the brain-

Apoplexy preceded by depression of spirits

299--302

CHAPTER VI.

ANOMALOUS AND MASKED AFFECTIONS OF THE MIND.
npossibility of defining insanity-Singular case of insanity-Insanity among

children. Symptoms of insanity~Undetected mental disease-Remarks by Dr.
Brierre de Boismont and others on the insanity of early life~-Insanity in the
l'nited States of America -Statistics of insanity among children--Hereditary
predisposition to insanity--Incipient symptoms of insanity-Transformations of
character in the early stage of insanity-Exaggerations of natural states of
mind often indicative of insanity-Delusions--Diagnosis of insanity-Obscure
disease of the brain-Latent and unrecognised insanity Serious results following
a non-recognition of insanity~-~I'seudo forms of mental disorderInsidious
approach of insanity-Symptoms of latent insanity-Alterations of character and

i-position preceding attacks of insanity-Cases of morbid paroxysmns of passion-
Temper disease Curious case of disordered mind-Insanity shown in acts of
brutality--Concealed monomania-Moral character changed by physical injury
l'aralysis of the moral sense~ Illustrations of moral idiotcy--Shakspeare's de-
scription of this affection--Latent case of monomania--Transformation of cha-
racter caused by physical disease-Effects of diseased brain on the character--
Meteorological influence on the mind~-Effect of chloroform on the mind-Resem-
»lance of mental phenomena caused by the use of chloroform to insanity--Curious
nental phenomena caused by the absorption of poison in the blood-Singular case
f hydrophobia affecting the mind-Influence of physical irritation on the mind-
Torbid views of religion--Extraordinary organic change discovered after death in
he membranes of the brain-Brutality and immorality--Cases of erotic monomania
--Speedy cure of a case of insanity---Singular case of concealed insanity--Reck-
ssness in monetary transactions exhibited in the incipient phase of mental dis-
der-Case of undetected insanity-Motiveless acts of brutality connected with
tent insanity-Homicidal insanity-Wail of the homicidal maniac-Duties of the
wychological

expert-Importance of the testimony of experts in subtle cases of in-
nity-- Popular ignorance of insanity»--Evidence in cases of alleged lunacym-Case
Atkinson, the homicidal idiot-Danger of lunatics being at large---Decision of
ries in cases of insanity--Serious consequences of a wrong verdict in commis-
ins de lunaticom-Anomalous defective state of the law of lunacy--Justice to

159--224

tempered with mercy

CHAPTER X.

STAGE OF ABERRATION.

Obscure progress of aberration of mind-Exaggeration and perversion of ideas

Disorder of the perceptive faculties–Delusions, how they originate-Illusions

premonitory of apoplexy-Illusions of hearing-Illusions premonitory of disease

of the brain-Singular case of spectral illusions--Perversions of the moral sense-

Insane pilfering and concealing-- Insanity manifested by avarice and licentiousness

-Insanity exhibited by acts of immorality-Softening of the brain . 303–323

CHAPTER XI.

IMPAIRMENT OF MIND.

Insidious advances of mental imbecility-Symptoms of softening of the brain and

apoplexy~Subtle case of softening of the brain-Singular case of cerebral

paralysis_Lesions of intelligence preceding disease of the brain Impaired

nutrition of the brain

324-331

CHAPTER VII.

THE STAGE OF CONSCIOUSNESS.

ct of habits of self-inspection--Innate wickedness of the human heart
steries of the inner mental life-Consciousness of the approach of insanity

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CHAPTER XVI.

PERVERSION AND EXALTATION OF MEMORY.-MEMORY OF

THE INSANE.

Curious cases of perversion of memory—Remarkable case of double personality-

Case of double or divided consciousness-Exaltation of memory a fatal diagnostic
sign-Exaltation of memory in the brain diseases of early life-Improvement of
memory in advanced life often precursory of apoplexy-Cases of exaltation of
memory—Memory of the insane -Shakspeare on the memory of the insane,

416—426

MORBID PHENOMENA OF MOTION.

Diagnosis between cerebral and spinal paralysis–General muscular debility—Early

signs of softening of the brain-Partial loss of motor power--Incipient symptoms
of apoplexy and paralysis-Insidious progress of brain disease Case of brain
disease without impairment of intellect- Muscular tremors symptomatic of brain
disease-Irregular muscular action-Morbid want of muscular co-ordination-
Difficulty of explaining, these phenomena--Convulsive action-Obscure types
of nocturnal epilepsy-Loss of memory in epilepsy--Diagnosis of epilepsy-
Premonitory symptoms of epilepsy- Affections of the tongue and muscles of the
mouth-Insidious symptoms of paralysis–Effects of softening of the brain on
the motility-Morbid handwriting-Paralysis agitans-Premonitory symptoms of
paralysis agitans-Loss of sleep--Morbid affections of the spinal cord-Acute
ramollissement of the spinal cord-Peripheral paralysis

4684496

MORBID PHENOMENA OF SPEECH.

Cerebral localization of speech-Is loss of speech the result of affections of the

anterior lobes of the brain ?-Loss of speech caused by cerebral abscess-Cases of
loss of speech in general paralysis and softening of the cerebellum - Disease of

CHAPTER XX.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF SENSATION.

Exaltation of sensation-Softening of the spinal cord-Vertigo a symptom of

cerebral disease -Cause of vertigo-Symptoms of epileptic vertigo-Obscure

cases of epilepsy-Diagnosis of epilepsy-Hyperæsthesia of the brain, Cepha-

lalgia generally accompanying cerebral affections—Cerebral headache-Anæs-

thesia a symptom of brain disease—Incipient symptoms of apoplexy-Insensi-

bility of the mucous membrane of the conjunctiva in incipient disease of the brain

-Sensation of cold a symptom of apoplexy—Impairment of the sense of taste a

symptom of softening-Sensation of weight and heaviness in the side a symptom

of cerebral softening - Deficient sensibility of the insane-Explanation of the

causes of anæsthesia-Impairment of sensibility in incipient general paralysis—

Remarks by Pinel on the insensibility of the insane-Cases of insensibility to

pain among the insane-Insensibility from pre-occupation of mind—Vitiated

sensation symptomatic of cerebral disease

536-559

CHAPTER XXI,

MORBID PHENOMENA OF THE SPECIAL SENSES.

Normal acuteness of the senses--

5-Mental distress caused by certain odours—Mozart's

acuteness of hearing-Acuteness of the sense of touch among the blind-Singular

defects of vision-Inability to distinguish colours symptomatic of brain disease-

Curious cases of error of colour

560-564

CHAPTER XXII.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF VISION, HEARING, TASTE, TOUCH,

AND SMELL.

Impaired and paralysed sight-Defect of vision symptomatic of disease of the

brain-Early signs of cerebral amaurosis-Cephalalgia a symptom of centric
cerebral amaurosis-Value of the ophthalmoscope in detecting obscure diseases of
the eye-Double vision a symptom of disease of the brain-Case of sudden restora-
tion of sightLoss of sight caused by tumours in the brain-Causes of amau-
rosis-Loss of sight premonitory of apoplexy-Singular case of sudden recovery of
the sense of vision-Importance of the early detection of cerebral disease-Symp-
toms of amaurosis dependent upon vascular congestion-Singular case of morbid
derangement of sight-Exaltation of vision premonitory of brain disease-Cases
of morbid exaltation of vision-Spectral illusions-Goethe's power of producing
phantasms--Cases of hyperästhesia of vision connected with disease of the
optic thalamus-Perversion and aberration of sight-Peculiar expression of the

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CHAPTER XXIV.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF ORGANIC AND NUTRITIVE LIFE.
Sympathy between the brain and digestive organs—Case of delirium caused by indi-
gestion—Derangement of the stomach in incipient insanity-Nausea resembling
sea-sickness symptomatic of cerebral tumours and softening of the brain-Influ-
ence of chronic disorders of the digestive organs on the mental impressions during
insanity-Refusal of food by the insane, causes of—Vitiated and depraved appe-
tite of the insane-Embonpoint in chronic insanity-Influence of disorders of the
nervous system upon the functions of nutrition-- Morbid phenomena of circulation,
respiration, and generation--Connexion between apoplexy and cardiac disease
Influence of cardiac disease on the psychical functions of the cerebrum--Hallu-
cinations caused by disease of the heart-State of the pulse in incipient insanity
-Sympathy between the lungs and brain--Post-mortem examination of the lungs
of the insane-Exaltation and impairment of the generative organs 618_-627

.

the corpora olivaria a cause of loss of speech - Morbid impairment of speech,
Irregular impairment of the articulation-Paralysis of ideas in incipient cerebral

disease--Morbid irregularity of speech-Forgetfulness of certain words a symp-

tom of apoplexy-Singular misplacement of words—Cases of curious defect of

articulation—Morbid articulation--Loss of speech a symptom of apoplexy, con-

gestion, and softening--Morbid misuse of words-Singular alterations of speech-

Irregularity and impairment of speech—Diagnostic value of affections of speech

-Symptoms of acute softening-Loss of speech caused by mental distress-

Loss of speech a symptom of epilepsy and apoplexy-Premonitory signs of para-

lysis–Sudden loss of speech-Successful treatment of a case of loss of speech-

Morbid speech following apoplexy-Singular case of mutism caused by a bullet

wound – Perversion of speech the result of a wound on the head-Case of extra-

ordinary perversion of speech-Morbid imitative movements of articulation—The

"echo” symptom of softening of the brain--Involuntary articulation a symptom

of brain disease-Effect of insanity upon the voice-Singular recovery of speech

shortly before death-Alterations of voice symptomatic of insanity 497-535

CHAPTER XX.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF SENSATION.

xaltation of sensation-Softening of the spinal cord-Vertigo a symptom of

cerebral disease --Cause of vertigo-Symptoms of epileptic vertigo-Obscure
cases of epilepsy-Diagnosis of epilepsy–Hyperæsthesia of the brain, Cepha-
Talgia generally accompanying cerebral affections--Cerebral headache-Anæs-
thesia a symptom of brain disease--Incipient symptoms of apoplexy-Insensi-
bility of the mucous membrane of the conjunctiva in incipient disease of the brain
-Sensation of cold a symptom of apoplexy-Impairment of the sense of taste a
symptom of softening-Sensation of weight and heaviness in the side a symptom
of cerebral softening-Deficient sensibility of the insane-Explanation of the
causes of anæsthesia—Impairment of sensibility in incipient general paralysis,
Remarks by Pinel on the insensibility of the insane-Cases of insensibility to
pain among the insane-Insensibility from pre-occupation of mind-- Vitiated

536-559

sensation symptomatic of cerebral disease

CHAPTER XXI.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF THE SPECIAL SENSES.

rmal acuteness of the senses-Mental distress caused by certain odours, Mozart's
aacuteness of hearingAcuteness of the sense of touch among the blind-Singular
lefects of vision-Inability to distinguish colours symptomatic of brain disease
Curious cases of error of colour

560-564

CHAPTER XXII.

MORBID PHENOMENA OF VISION, HEARING, TASTE, TOUCH,

AND SMELL.

CHAPTER XXV.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT,

AND PROPHYLAXIS.

Obscurity of the pathology of the brain-Cases illustrating the difficulties attending

the investigation of cerebral pathology~Opinions of celebrated authorities as to the
proximate cause of insanity-Capillary congestion a cause of insanity--Appa-
rently normal condition of the brain often observed after death from acute insanity
-Disordered condition of the psychical co-ordinating principle a cause of insanity
-Pathological phenomena of general paralysis--Softening of the brain and
hemiplegia--Idiopathic ramollissement of the brain—Influence of deposits in the

vaired and paralysed sight-Defect of vision, symptomatic of disease of the
rain--Early signs of cerebral amaurosisCephalalgia a symptom of centric
erebral amaurosis--Value of the ophthalmoscope in detecting obscure diseases of
le eye-Double vision a symptom of disease of the brain-Case of sudden restora-
on of sight-Loss of sight caused by tumours in the brain-Causes of aman.
usis--Loss of sight premonitory of apoplexy.Singular case of sudden recovery of
e sense of vision--Importance of the early detection of cerebral disease-Symp-
ms of amaurosis dependent upon vascular congestion-Singular case of morbid
rangement of sight-Exaltation of vision premonitory of brain disease--Cases
morbid exaltation of vision-Spectral illusions-Goethe's power of producing
antasms--Cases of hyperæsthesia of vision connected with disease of the
tic thalamus--Perversion and aberration of sight-Peculiar expression of the

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