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SELECT COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY
WALTER F. MONDALE, Minnesota, Chairman JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas
ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Washington JACOB K. JAVITS, New York JENNINGS RANDOLPH, West Virginia PETER H. DOMINICK, Colorado THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut
EDWARD W. BROOKE, Massachusetts DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii
MARK O. HATFIELD, Oregon
MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky
WILLIAM C. SMITH, Stal Director and General Counsel
A. SIDNEY JOHNSON, Deputy Staff Director
Bond, Hon. Julian, member of the State assembly, Atlanta, Ga---
Fischer, George, president, National Education Association; accompanied
by Samuel B. Ethridge, assistant executive secretary for teachers rights,
Federal Regulations. -
Green, Miss Winifred.
Appendix IV, Beyond Desegregation: The Problem of Power
(a special study in east Texas).
Miscellaneous articles, publications, etc., entitled:
Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern
District of Alabama-Brief and addendum for appellants -
1964 Civil Rights Act.--
EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY
MONDAY, JUNE 15, 1970
,’. The committee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to call, in room 1318, New Senate Office Building, Senator Walter F. Mondale (chairman of the committee) presiding:
Present: Senators Mondale, Randolph, Bayh, Javits, Dominick, and Brooke,
Staff members present: William C. Smith, staff director and general counsel; A. Sidney Johnson, deputy staff director; and Michael M. Uhlmann, chief minority counsel and staff director.
OPENING STATEMENT OF HON. WALTER F. MONDALE, CHAIRMAN
Senator MONDALE. The committee will come to order.
We begin today the first half of a two-part series of hearings on de jure and de facto school segregation problems in the North and in the South.
We are starting with the problems of integrating schools in school districts which are attempting to comply with court-ordered desegregation plans or plans approved under title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, because this area of the select committee's assignment from the Senate is particularly relevant and timely in view of the administration's proposed emergency school aid legislation.
In late July and in August we will turn our attention to the causes and remedies for de facto segregation in all areas of the country. We will seek at that time witnesses who can testify about the relationships between residential living patterns and racially isolated schools.
We will endeavor to determine how the existence of segregated housing leads to de facto segregation of schools and examine such topics as the influence of zoning laws, urban and suburban planning and Federal, State and local low-income housing assistance on school segregation.
We will also be examining a number of innovative education tech-
STATEMENT OF THE HON. JULIAN BOND, MEMBER OF THE STATE
ASSEMBLY, ATLANTA, GA. Senator MONDALE. Mr. Bond, we are pleased to have you with us here this morning.
(The statement of Hon. Julian Bond follows:)
PREPARED STATEMENT OF THE HONORABLE JULIAN BOND,
MEMBER OF THE STATE ASSEMBLY, ATLANTA, GA. I am happy to have been invited to speak before you this morning about my concerns and hopes for the achievement of equal educational opportunity in this country. The attainment of equal educational opportunity is one of the main goals of minority citizens throughout this country, and black people have gone through decades of struggle and sacrifice to reach this goal. As a black southerner and as a state representative of the people of Georgia, I find myself deeply involved with the issue of school integration, and greatly concerned with the immediate crisis of quality education for all children.
BLACK FRUSTRATION AND SKEPTICISM
After sixteen years of recalcitrance, intimidation, and illegal discriminatory operation, most schools of my state and all states throughout the South are finally integrating this fall. But the bitterness of the sixteen year wait, the begrudging resignation of many state officials, parents, and students, and the lack of national and state leadership in this area, cause me to be skeptical about how much real integration is going to take place. My concern is for the atmosphere and environment for integration in the country as a whole and the South particularly, and my judgment right now is that in the context of current political and social events, the people of this country are not facing up to the challenge of this fall. Indeed, I am not convinced that national and state leaders view the challenge as a positive one-one which will bring about the improvement of educational quality and opportunity for all children. At the national level, for example, enforcing school desegregation laws solely out of respect for a greater ideal of law and order, but not setting any tone for constructive change, really amounts to a “benign neglect" of the issue at hand. Therefore, without some kind of greater, widespread positive effort, the massive integration expected this fall will be nothing more than a fraud perpetrated under a guise of paper compliance.
BLACKS: BELIEF IN INTEGRATION
One thing I want to make clear is that black people in the South want and are going to fight for integrated quality education. Parents deprived of decent education themselves are no longer going to allow their children to spend twelve years in school only to graduate with an eighth grade reading level and little chance for economic and social stability. Many whites these days seem to feel that they can speak for black people of the country and find themselves articulating better than blacks the desire for black separatism in our schools. Well, they are not reading black people correctly. Black students, parents, and teachers have sacrificed their lives and careers and have endured great hardships to win integrated education, and the number of people active in this struggle has increased every year. Those black kids whose lives were greatly threatened in Lamar, South Carolina did not go back to their black school, but got back on those buses and rode again through that hostile environment to their integrated school.
Faced with incredibly hostile reactions, black people have continued to support the goal of integrated education for a variety of obvious reasons—the overwhelming educational evidence supporting the improved performance of minority students in integrated classrooms; a desire for overall improvement in the educational system which can most effectively be changed by attacking a unitary rather than dual system; the realization that survival of this country demands interracial justice, equality, and acceptance; and most importantly, the well-learned fact that the white power structure puts its resources where its white kids are. This is done without regard for constitutional guarantees of equal protection and with no fear of reprisal.