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THURSDAY, DECEMBER n, 1873
THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION were able to announce, in our last number, that the version of the reply of the Govern merit with regard to the despatch of an Arctic Expedition, which had appeared in the daily newspapers, was inaccurate, and that the subject was still under consideration. But the grounds for abandoning Arctic discover)', which were attributed to the Government, have no doubt cccurred to the official mind; and they involve fallacies which would be so fatal to the best interests of this country, that we cannot allow them to pass without remark.
It was said that the Government hold that survey
operations have a stronger claim than those of discovery;
and that if Ministers were inclined to augment charges
for such purposes, they would incline to do so for survey,
rather than for a new voyage of discovery.
We have here an attempt to separate scientific expeditions into two branches, survey and discover)'. The originator of this fallacy does not appear to be aware that all surveying voyages are voyages of discovery in the strictest sense. Their operations are intended to explore, and accurately lay down, unknown or little known coasts or harbours. Captain Cook's voyages were surve)ing operations, and it will scarcely be denied that they were also voyages of discovery. The Arctic voyages of Ross and Parry included surveys which have been of the utmost value to the.whaling fleets ever since.
Arctic discovery is now advocated by naval and scientific men for the very reason that it will include marine surveys and hydrographical investigations of the most undoubted importance. Few operations have "benefited corrmerce and promoted international intercourse" more than Arctic voyages of discovery. One of our earliest Arctic expeditions discovered the White Sea route to Russia, and opened a flourishing trade. The Spitzbergen voyages led to the establishment of a fishery which added millions to the wealth of these islands. The discovery of Davis's Straits did the same. Ross's first voyage showed the way for the whalers into Baffin's Bay. Parry's vo)ages pointed out new ground in Prince Regent's Inlet. The handling of steamers by Osborn and Cator, as Capt. Penny declared at the time, caused a revolution in the system of ice navigation by whalers. Arctic voyages are surve)ing operations, and they have benefited commerce as much as any other surveying work whatever. As to promoting international intercourse, Arctic achievements have always excited friendly sympathy and interest throughout the civilised world.
We must also notice the shocking insincerity of the reply that is imputed to the Government. An Arctic Expedition cannot be undertaken, we are told, because Ministers are anxious to provide funds for ordinary surveys. Now it is a fact that no Government has ever more persistently neglected the surve) ing branch of the service; which has been so starved and pared down as to cause anxiety to those acquainted with the subject If the Hydrographer's official position did not seal his lips, he could give an account of the way Vol, Ix.—No. 215
in which the surveying department has been treated of late years, which would excite indignation throughout the country. Some idea may, however, be obtained of the way in which surveys are neglected, from the following figures. From the year 1S49 to 1853, the proportion of each 1000/. of naval expenditure spent on surveying averaged 15/. 5-r. It is now 9/. In 1871 — 72 the total effective naval expenditure was 7,807,946/., and the expenditure on the surveying branch was 70,456/. The total tonnage of the British mercantile marine in 1871—72 was 7,142,894, so that the total naval expenditure per ton of British naval shipping, was 1/. I*. \\d.; and the proportion of expenditure for surveying and discovery, by far the most useful and important work of the navy in time of peace, was id. Not only has surveying and Arctic work been rendertd inefficient by extreme parsimony, or wholly neglected; but, while the wealth of the country has enormously increased, the expenditure on the best work of the navy has been cut down to a third less than it was twenty years ago.
It may be that the official notion of surveying is confined to the revision of work on comparatively well-known coasts. Even such work is done inefficiently; and its renewed efficiency would be no argument for the neglect of Arctic exploration. At the time when Arctic expeditions of discovery were despatched, the more ordinary surveying operations were not neglected Officers were surveying the coasts of these islands, Capt. Graves was at work in the Mediterranean, Collinson in China, Kellett in the Pacific, and their vessels were properly equipped. Assuredly the Government are bound to restore the Surveying Department to efficiency; and such a reformation would include the despatch of a thoroughly well-equipped Arctic Expedition for survey and discovery. We understand that a furthermost ableand carefully-considered letter has been addressed to Mr. Gladstone on this subject; and we earnestly trust that, after furtherconsideration, the Prime Minister will see that his plain duty points in the same direction as political expediency. The country feels strongly on the subject ; and the resolution to despatch an Arctic Expedition of discovery in 1874, will meet with the hearty approval of all classes of the community.
LOCAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES*
XN the ten years succeeding 1860 the number of local scientific societies formed throughout the country was more than double that of the previous decade, amounting altogether to fifty-six, of which no less than forty-five arc field-clubs. Many of these are well known for producing excellent work, but we must refer our readers to the list at p. 521 of vol. viii. for details. The Quekett Club of London was formed during this period, as were also a number of clubs in the Severn Valley, the Eastbourne Natural History Society, and others which have done good work, but which are far too numerous to mention. Two or three very excellent societies were formed in North Britain during this dec;ide, including the Perthshire Society of Natural History, which, at any rate as represented by a few of its members, is one of the hardest
* Continued from p.40.
working societies in the kingdom. Under its auspices the Scottish Naturalist is published, and a Flora and Fauna of the extensive and varied county of Perthshire is being brought out; recently we noticed a proposal issuing from one of the members for the establishment of a British Naturalists' Agency. A very laudable though somewhat Scotch appendage has just been added to the Society, in the shape of a " Perthshire Mountain Club " for the exploration of the Perthshire mountains, more especially those that have been neglected by naturalists, with the following officebearers :—A cairn-master, a scribe and naturalist, a geometer, a bard, and, to crown all, a quaigh-bearer, a quaigh being a two-eared drinking-cup from which to quaff the "mountain-dew " withal.
Another Scottish club that we deem worthy of special mention is the Alva Society of Natural Science and Archaeology, whose history has been one of continued success. There can be no doubt, the secretary informs us, that this Society has tended to foster a taste for natural history in the neighbourhood, and encouraged the observation of local phenomena. It was founded in 1862, and now numbers no members belonging to all classes of society ; the patron being the Earl of Kellie, the president the sheriff-substitute of the county, the vice-presidents a medical practitioner, a grocer, and a wine-merchant ; the councillors a clergyman, a bank agent, a hairdresser, an architect, and an ironmonger; the treasurer a druggist, the secretary a medical practitioner, the curator a blacksmith, and the librarian the governor of the prison. The object of the Society is the study of natural science and archaeology by the exhibition and preservation of specimens, the reading of communications, by lectures, excursions, and the formation of a library and museum. The number of members has become so large, and the collections of the Society have so accumulated, that their present place of meeting has become too small, and the Society has therefore contracted to have a special building erected for its own use, at a cost of about 1,600/., raised by subscription from among the members and the noblemen and gentlemen of the neighbourhood. The papers read at the monthly meeting are printed in one of the local papers, the type being afterwards broken into pages, and a small volume of transactions thus published for each year. One of these volumes we have before us, and its contents are varied and exceedingly creditable, though we miss a list of the fauna and flora of the small county of Clackmannan, in the county town of which the Society has its head-quarters. We hope this excellent Society will make the compilation of such lists part of its work in the future.
Our space only permits us to name the Largo Field Naturalists' Society, on the north shore of the Frith of Forth, a society founded in 1863, and which, to judge from the papers read and the secretary's report to us, is doing excellent service in connection with the natural history of the county of Fife; it appears to have a valuable collection of specimens. We mention these three societies because,' in some respects, they are worthy of imitation by other similar associations, and because, we regret to say, Scotland is not represented in the list of field-clubs in anything like the proportion, even considering its size, that England is; very large districts, which wc are sure would yield abundant fruit of a rare and interesting
kind, being entirely unworked by any club. We hope in the course of a very few years to see this defect remedied.
In the three years 1871-2-3, at least twenty-seven new societies have been formed; there may have been more of which we have not heard. Fourteen of these have had their origin during the present year; and if fieldclubs continue to multiply during the remaining years of the decade in the same proportion, we may expect to see very few districts in England and Scotland at least, with out its local field-club. We had hoped that the inquiries of the British Association Committee on this subject might have given an additional impetus to the spread, as well as to the usefulness, of such societies; but we fear that hitherto this committee has done absolutely nothing.
We cannot conclude this part of the subject without referring to the field-clubs of Lancashire and the west of Yorkshire. In Lancashire there are a number of fieldclubs * composed almost exclusively of working-me/J, some of which have been in existence for many years, and all of them, we believe, in excellent working condition. In Lancashire there are at least eleven of such clubs, on: of which is among the most efficient field-clubs in the kingdom. This is the Todmorden Botanical Society, which may be taken as a specimen of these Lancashire clubs, and of which Sir Walter Elliot thus speaks :—
"One of the most successful of the above is the Todmorden Botanical Society, established in 1852, principally through the exertions of Mr. Stansfield, who has always been its president. The bulk of the 185 members are working-men, who pay a subscription of 6s. a year, meet on the first Monday of every month, and in the winter,on the intermediate fortnights, for lectures and papers ; and make six field excursions, four within ten miles, and two longer ones, extending into neighbouring counties, and even as far as Scotland. They have a good herbarium, and have prepared a flora embracing a space of six miles round Todmorden. They have also acquired a library of 600 volumes, chiefly botanical."
We can only briefly refer to the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society, which at present, as will be seen from our list, consists of an amalgamation of twelve local clubs, belonging to various towns in the West Riding, and all of them, like the Lancashire Societies, composed mainly of working-men. Each of these societies has, we understand, its own district in which to carry on its field-work, and the united societies have stated meetings, but so far as we have ascertained, they have not yet decided upon a satisfactory modus operandi. The amalgamated societies have, however, a journal in common, "The Yorkshire Naturalists' Recorder," in which their proceedings are published, we believe monthly. There is no doubt that if their united societies could devise a satisfactory organisation in which to carry on their work in co-operation, great good would be the result. Their example might, we think, be followed with advantage by other contiguous small societies, which we fear are often apt to get disheartened from the paucity of working members, and a feeling of isolation. This is
* We regret that these were omitted from our list, as we got no information from them, and Sir W. Eiliot does not give them in his list, only referring to them for some reason in his address.
the only instance, so far as we know, in which a number of contiguous societies'have united into a connected group. though other societies occasionally have excursions in common.
We regret to say that since our list was published, we have ascertained that two of the Yorkshire Societies named therein, are now defunct, viz. the Halifax Naturalists' Society, once a member of the West Riding Union, and the Leeds Natural History Society. We have been told that the Wigan Field Naturalists' Scientific Society, given in Sir Walter Elliot's list, with 150 members, is also dead. We hope that in reality these are not dead, but only sleeping; and that means may soon be taken to rouse them again into activity.
Altogether, then, including the Lancashire Societies not in our list, and others of which we have heard since our list was published, one of which was founded at Ballymcna, County Antrim, the result, we believe, of some lectures there last winter, there are at the present time in Great Britain and Ireland at least 169 associations established solely or partly for the pursuit of science in one form or another. Of these 104 are professedly field-clubs, while a considerable number of the remainder do fieldclub work in so far as the publication of lists of the natural productions of their surrounding districts are concerned. Only 22 of these 169 societies were founded previous to 1830, while all the field-clubs were formed after that year, and by far the greater number of them within the last twenty-three years. We do not reckon among these the scientific societies which have been formed in connection with our public schools, to which we shall refer afterwards.
Of these societies the English ones are mainly grouped in the North of England, along the Welsh border, and in the southern counties, the midland district being but sparsely represented, and Bedfordshire,* Derbyshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire, Rutlandshire, not at all, not to mention the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, which would afford opportunities to field-clubs which cannot be attained in the main island at alL Glamorganshire is the only Welsh county represented by a society, while all but .three of the Irish counties are unrepresented. Scotland, the birthplace of field-clubs, we have already referred to as b'eing far behind England in this respect. Ireland, and even Wales, cannot perhaps at present be blamed for their backwardness in regard to associations of this kind, though each country, in its own way, offers a magnificent field of investigation to local naturalists. With regard to the unoccupied districts of England and Scotland, we can only hope that the scientific contagion may rapidly spread, as no doubt it will when all the conditions are present for its taking effect. Meanwhile, the rapid spread of scientific societies, and especially field-clubs, and the valuable results that have already followed from the labours of a. number of them, must be exceedingly gratifying to all who desire to see the triumph of science, and, indeed, to all who are earnestly seeking after the elevation of their fellow-men. Is it not one more sign that "the old order changeth, yielding place to new?"
* By a misprint in our last article the Woolhope was said to be in TSedfordahire instead of Herefordshire.
MARSHALL'S TODAS OF SOUTH INDIA A Phrenologist amongst the Todas: or, the Study of a Primitive Tribe in South India. By William E. Marshall, Lieut-Col. of H.M. Bengal Staff Corps. (Longmans, 1873.)
THE Todas are a pastoral hill-tribe in the Nilagiri region of Southern India, whose singularly interesting social condition fairly entitled them to be described in a volume by themselves. Colonel Marshall succeeds in communicating to his readers the lively interest he felt in his work, and several points of ethnology will be perceptibly advanced by it, notwithstanding much of the theoretical part of the book which will hardly meet with acceptance.
Especially from the moralist's point of view, the condition of these secluded herdsmen deserved to be put on record while still little changed under influences from without They show perfectly how the milder virtues naturally prevail among men in an intellectually childlike state, if only society is undisturbed from without, and finds its equilibrium within. "The general type of the Toda character is most unvarying; singularly frank, affable, and self-possessed, cheerful yet staid ;" theft and violence are almost absent among them ; their quiet domestic life is "undisturbed by the wrongs of gTasping, vindictive, overbearing natures ;" their engagements to support their wives and children, though resting on mere promises, are kept through utter guilelessness and want of talent to plot. Toda society is simply held together by the strength of family affection. "It is a quiet, undemonstrative, bu intensely domestic people; domestic in the wider sense of viewing the entire family, to the last cousin, much as one household, in which everyone is everywhere entirely at home ; each one assisting, with the steadiness of a caterpillar, in the easy, progressive task of emptying his neighbour's larder ; no one exerting himself by one fraction to raise the family. The great feature in Toda organisation, is the all-absorbing power of his domestic attachments, which, like Pharaoh's lean kine, swallow up all other qualities." The points where the moral code of these easy-going folk differs from that of modem intuitive moralists, are especially polyandry and infanticide. Their marriage-relations within the family have perhaps more nearly approached than those of any other known tribe that promiscuity which several modern ethnologists have supposed to belong to a primitive state of society; "it was formerly their almost universal custom—in the ^lays when women were more scarce than they are now— Tor a family of near relations to live together in »ne mand, having wife, children, and cattle all in common" Here, indeed, is socialism of an extreme order, prevailing among a low race, in whose general condition its evi and good are alike visible. As need hardly be said, to the Toda mind polyandry seems part of the natural order of things. So it was with infanticide, till about fifty years ago an English officer, Mr. Sullivan, mounted the Nilagiri plateau and visited the homes of the Todas. Since then all the events of Toda history have been dated from the visit of "Sullivan Dore," as we date from the Christian era, and thenceforward the Government put down infanticide, and its former prevalence is now only to be traced in the census, and learnt from the memory of old people. An aged Toda gave his account of the practice :—" I don't know whether it was wrong or not to kill them, but we were very poor, and could not support our children. Now every one has a mantle ('putkuli'), but formerly there was only one for the whole family, and he who had to go out took the mantle, the rest remaining naked at home, naked all but the loin-cloth (' kuvn '). We did not kill them to please any god, but because it was our custom. The mother never nursed the child—no, never! and the parents did not kill it. How could we do so? Do you think we could kill it ourselves? . . . Boys were never killed, only girls; not those who were sickly and deformed—that would be a sin (' papum '); but when we had one girl, or in some families two girls, those that followed were killed."
Perhaps the ablest part of Colonel Marshall's work is his tracing out of the social forces which brought about this condition of society, the enforced equilibrium between population and means of subsistence, leading a tenderhearted people to systematic female infanticide, and then causing a huddling together of the endogamous polyandrous clans to keep themselves alive. It is no doubt true that the entrance of new conditions, such as a state of war or an advance in the arts, would have altered not only the relation of the sexes but also the moral laws of* the people. Colonel Marshall's researches were especially suggested and guided by Mr. M'Lennan's "Primitive Marriage," and if a new edition is brought out of that important treatise (now out of print and scarce), the Todas will supply some items of valuable evidence to it, bearing on ancient social conditions of mankind.
Care must be taken, however, to interpret with proper reservation the word "primitive," as used in these inquiries. Colonel Marshall calls the Todas a " primitive tribe," and argues from their customs to the condition of "primitive races," nor is this objectionable if the word be meant only to signify a comparatively early stage of society. But the Todas are by no means primitive as representing the earliest known grades of civilisation: they are not savages, but a pastoral tribe in a condition much above savagery, belonging to the great Dravidian race of South India. Among them, moreover, may be noticed certain curious customs, to be accounted for on the principle of "survival in culture," and being apparently relics of a former condition of the race diflerent from the present. The Todas are not now hunters, nor do they use bows and arrows. But, at a certain time after marriage, the Toda husband and wife go into the village wood, and kneeling before a lamp at the foot of a tree, the wife receives from the husband a bow and arrow made by him, which she salutes by lowering her forehead to them. Taking up the weapons, she asks, "What is the name of your bow?" each clan apparently having a different name for its bow; he tells her the name, and afterwards she deposits the bow and arrow at the foot of the tree. Colonel Marshall can hardly be wrong in his supposition that this custom has come down from a former period when the Todas actually carried such weapons. This is also confirmed by their funeral rites, where among the articles burnt for the dead man are a flute (an instrument they never use), and a toy bow and arrows, which they get made for the purpose by their neighbours the Kotas. When the author got a man to buy him one, the Kota who made it asked
"Who is dead?" The inference is obvious, that the Todas were hunters before they took to their absolutely pastoral life. Nowadays, their cattle are all in all to them; not only their life but their religion turns on buffalo ; triemilkman is a divine personage too holy to be touched; the most sacred objects are ceitain ancient cow-bells, and the dignity of the sacred bell-cows is handed down from mother-cow to daughter-cow. The keeping up of this sacred heritage in the female line leads CoL Marshal] to infer, at any rate ingeniously, that he has found here -. relic of ancient days when the rule of kinship on the mother's side (which he considers with Mr. M'Lennan to characterise primitive society) still prevailed; it only now holds good of bulls and cows, while among men and women relationship is on the male side, thus following the rule which is considered to belong to a higher stage of society. It is not a new idea that the worship of the cow in Egypt and India had its origin not in myth but in practical expediency, being craftily devised to prevent the lives of such valuable creatures being wasted. But nowhere does this argument look so complete and rational as among those thoroughgoing devotees of the milk-can, the Todas.
It is to be feared that the title of Col. Marshall's volume may prevent its having all the popularity it deserves. Sot that this title is misleading, for he accepts and uses confidently the now discredited phrenological system of bumps and organs, and tabulates his series of Toda skulls according to their Concentrativeness, Amativcness, Veneration, &c. On this classification by phrenological organs he founds a theory as to the relation between civilisation and the shape of the skull. It appears, from his description, that the Todas are a uniformly longskulled race, though, among his dimensions, I fail to find anywhere the actual measurements of cranial length and breadth, and canonlyguess from the portraits (which, by the way, are beautiful autotypes), that the proportions of these two diameters may perhaps be something like 100: 72 or 75 Now these dolichocephalic Todas being a kindly, harmless, indolent, unprogressive race, CoL Marshall proceeds to connect their narrowness of skull with their want of active energetic qualities, the phrenological organs of which are placed at the side of the head. Thus he comes to the conclusion that it is the brachycephalic tribes, with their skulls broadened by the fierce conquering and progressive organs, which come to the front in the march of civilisation. Well, no doubt there are various dolichocephalic tribes who have remained at low stages of culture, but how is it in the northern half of Asia, the abode of the broadest-headed tribes of man, whom nevertheless the comparatively long-headed Russians have for ages been beating with one hand and civilising with the other. Prof. Carl Vogt's treatment of the question is on a far broader basis, where in a few lines of one of his lectures he shows that both the extreme dolichocephalic and brachycephalic tribes are savages or barbarians, while the main work of civilisation has been done by people who are neither the one nor the other, the mesaticephalic or intermediate-headed races, such as ourselves. This is one of the points which make the reader regret that CoL Marshall did not keep his book waiting till he could bring his opinions under .discussion at the Anthropological Institute or the Asiatic Society, which might have led him to modify his views in several ways. As it is, his preface is dated from Faizabad, and in it he describes himself as "a solitary Indian, far away from contact with men of science, but fresh from the actual and impressive presence of 'Nature's children.'" These words account for the freshness and vigour of his style, but they must not be taken to imply that his examination was made without want of knowledge of anthropology. So far from this, one of the great excellencies of the volume lies in showing how much more deeply an observer sees into the life of an uncivilised people, when he is engaged in examining evidence for and against current ethnological theories, than when he goes as a mere traveller, setting down at random anything that takes his attention.
Edward B. Tylor
OUR BOOK SHELF
An Elementary Treatise on Geometrical Conic Sections. By G. Richardson, M.A. (Rivington, 1873.)
This is one of the volumes of the publisher's Mathematical Series, is very well printed, and has, if we are not mistaken, only three trivial misprints. There is quite a run at the present time on this subject, if we may judge by the number of treatises which have recently made their appearance, and this we are not altogether surprised at, as it is one of great interest; its theorems have great intrinsic beauty and almost boundless applications. The ordinary propositions are discussed not altogether in the usual order of consecution from the locus-point of view (the last chapter of four pages being devoted to the cone) ; the demonstrations are neat, and two or three are exceedingly concise as well. The only or chief novelty is the simultaneous treatment of the ellipse and the hyperbola, the corresponding propositions facing one another on the even and odd pages respectively. ■ 1 he discussion of the asymptotic properties of the latter curve pairs off against a series of propositions on projections. The book is a good working one for beginners, and embraces sufficient for the preliminary examination for mathematical honours at Cambridge, without having too much for school use. There is an extensive selection of exercises. R. T.
Waste ProiiucIs and Undeveloped Substances. A Synopsis of progress made in their economic utilisation during the last quarter of a century, at home and abroad. By P. L. Simmonds. (London: Hardwicke, 1873) Mr. Si.mmonds's book is seasonable in these days, when so much has been done in the utilisation of waste, as showing how very much yet remains to do.
In nearly 500 pages of close print he has drawn attention to a mass of matter almost bewildering in its vastness, and extending to nearly every kind of material in use in civilised communities. We cannot help noticing that Mr. Simmonds has been affected by the mass of subjects he has attempted, for the book very frequently displays a considerable lack of arrangement.
The author should look to this in a future edition, in which also the book might be easily and advantageously condensed to a considerable extent
We must, however, thank the author for the service he does in calling the attention of civilisation to the extravagant, and we might say, "riotous" living with which its substance is wasted.
La Bolanique de la Bible. Etude scientifique, historique, lirteraire et exegetique des plantes mentionnees dans la Sainte-Ecriture. Par Frederic Hamilton. Svo. pp. 220, 25 photographs. (Nice: Eugene Fleurdelys, 1S71.)
This interesting volume will possibly be unknown to the
majority of our readers, and yet we venture to think that, from the beauty of its illustrations and the pleasantness of its style, it may to some of them prove a welcome addition to their knowledge of the subject on which it treats. Not stopping to discuss the nature of those mysterious trees said to have existed in the Garden of Eden, the author divides his subject into two parts. The first treating of the genera and species of which there can be little doubt, such as the pomegranate, almond, cedar, fig, &o ; and the second of those plants or portions of plants about which it is difficult to decide to what genus even they may belong, such as shittim-wood, hyssop, &C. In the first portion of the volume not only are the scientific characters of the plants given, but there is also added a series of references to them from the classics. The photographs are taken from living specimens growing chiefly in the neighbourhood of Nice and Mentone.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
[Tie Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions expressed by his correspondents. No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ]
Effects of Temperature on Reflex Action
I DO not know if I quite understand Mr. Lewes's objections to my little article in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. He attributes the absence of movements in the case in question to a loss of sensibility to temperature. At first his statement reads as if the loss of sensibility to temperature were due to the removal of the brain. But he cannot mean this, because the whole of my paper starts from the fact that when the toes alone are exposed to gradually heated water, the leg is withdrawn. If he means that the sensibility to temperature alone is destroyed or depressed by the exposure of the whole body to the gradually heated water, and the other "sensibilities" left intact, I do not see how my argument touching the difference between the entire and the brainless frog is affected at all by a limitation of the stimulus to one particular kind. Moreover, in the last observation recorded in my paper it is expressly stated that in the later stages of heating the absence or diminution of reaction towards chemical as well as thermal stimuli was observed. Gradually heated water acts as a very slight stimulus, sulphuric acid (even dilute) is a very strong stimulus ; and that the latter suddenly applied, as in the experiment of Goltz referred to by Mr. Lewes, should call forth a reflex action a', a time when the former is unable to do so, in no way contradicts my explanation of the absence of movements. A red-hot iron might have been substituted for the sulphuric acid with identical results.
The paper in question had for its object simply the solution of the difficulty why the brainless frog allowed himself to be boiled without moving. In it I carefully avoided entering upon any discussion concerning Sensation (or Consciousness) in the spinal cord. The words " movement of volition, that is, a movement carried out by the encephalon,"—"ordinary reflex action, that is, a movement carried out by the spinal cord alone," were purposely chosen. I went so far as to speak of an "intelligent frog"ani an "unintelligent reflex action," because we have means of measuring intelligence, and we can speak of a body as being conscious and yet not intelligent. I imagine that if Mr. Lewes and myself were to talk over the matter quietly, he would find that I am not so much at variance with him as he imagines. I feel with him the difficulty of refusing to the protoplasm of a white blood corpuscle, a something which may be evolved into (not out of) consciousness. That and like difficulties are not a little increased if, as Mr. Darwin seems to suggest, we regard inherited voluntary acts as the chief instead of the occasional source of reflex actions. Without entering into any long discussion, perhaps I may be permitted to say that in such matters as the movements of a brainless frog, it seems to me there are two things which ought to be kept separate: the investigation into the laws according to which those movements take place, i.e., the study of the various nervous mechanisms of the spinal cord, and the question whether those movements, whether the working of those mechanisms, is or is not accompanied by consciousness. As a physiologist I am prepared to busy myself with the first, as I see prospects of success. With regard to the second, I am not prepared to say anything until we have ob