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work of the ice having been to deepen valleys, degrade hills a little, and fill up the plains and hollows with clay and sand. "Such as I understand it," says the Duke, "is the new glacial theory." But surely he can have paid but scant attention to the subject if he imagines that this idea is in any sense new. I really cannot recall that the geologists of the " younger school " have for many years past held any other view than that which they are now said to have adopted only recently. If, for example, his Grace will turn to the little volume which he abused so heartily in the spring of 1868, he will find the " new view" stated as plainly therj as words can express it (see page 150). And yet in this address he thinks it needful to adduce evidence to disprove that valleys have been gouged out by an universal ice-sheet—a notion which, according to his own showing, the " younger school" does not hold. • These remarks have been extended this evening beyond the length to which I had originally proposed to confine them. My excuse must lie partly in what to myself is the ever fresh charm of the subject, and partly in the desire to vindicate the fair fame of the modern Huttonian school of geology from attacks which had been in some measure called forth by writings of my own. I have again to express my regret that it was impossible to avoid an appearance of personal conflict, and I am conscious that a man who does his best to give as good as he gets in such conflict is apt to do more than he meant. I can only hope that this consciousness has kept me far within the bounds of legitimate reply.

Of one thing I feel securely confident. When the din of strife has ceased and men come to weigh opinions in the dispassionate light of history, the profound influence of the Huttonian doctrines of the present time on the future course of geology will be abundantly recognised. By their guidance it will be possible to reconstruct the physical geography of the continents, in successive ages back, perhaps into some of the earliest periods of geological history. This work indeed is already in part accomplished. But much more remains to be done before the history of the land on which we live has been wholly unravelled. This is the task to which we have set ourselves, in which we have found ample scope for enthusiasm and hard work, and out of which we trust that there will eventually come a story of permanent interest to all whose range of vision extends beyond the present condition of things, and who would fain understand what now is by the light of what once has been.

EXTERMINATION OF MARINE MAMMALIA

"T^HROUGH the kindness of a friend, there has been ■*■ placed in my hands a little book—one of the few copies in England—which though not much h tfger than a pamphlet, seems to me more deserving of notice than I tear it is likely to obtain. Of its author, I may say, I know nothing. Its title is "Mammalia, Recent and Extinct ; an Elementary Treatise for the use of the Public Schools of New South Wales. By A. W. Scott, M.A." It is published at Sydney by Thomas Richards, Government Printer, and bears date 1873. One's first wish on looking at it was that such a book might be wanted "for the use of the Public Schools of " the old country; but it is not my object now to enlarge on this theme or even to call attention to, or pass judgment upon it from a scientific point of view—though some of the author's opinions are, if not novel, such as have not been generally received. Mr. Scott's treatise is confined to the " Pinnata, Seals, Dugongs, Whales," &c. and he tells us in his preface why he has so limited it:—

"Whatever information we possess upon the natural history of the finned mammals, particularly in a popular, yet scientific form, has been so scantily and unequally distributed, that in this direction a comparatively new field

may be said to be open to the teacher as well as to the youthful inquirer.

"Influenced, also, by the great commercial value of several species of the pinnata, I have felt anxiously desirous to direct, without further delay, the attention, and thus possibly secure the sympathy, of readers, other than students, to the necessity of prompt legislative interference, in order to protect the oil and fur producing animals c our hemisphere against the wanton and unseasonable acts committed by unrestrained traders; and thus en: only to prevent the inevitable extermination of this valuable group, but to utilise their eminently beneficial qualiti- • into a methodical and profitable industry.

"Keeping steadily in view these two objects, whose importance, I trust, will bear me out in deviating from my original intention in the order of the issue of publication. I have endeavoured ... by devoting as much space as my limits would permit to the consideration of the anircuLwhose products are of such commercial value to man, and whose extinction would so seriously affect his interests, to point out the pressing necessity that exists for devising the means of protection for the Fur Seals and the Sperm and Right Whales of the Southern Ocean.

"To evidence what great results may be effected byconsiderate forethought, I refer the reader to pages S v_> 13 of this treatise [containing extracts from the excellent paper on Otariida hy Messrs. Allen and Bryant (Bulie'/n Harvard College, ii. pp. 1-108;], where he will see that, under the fostering care of the United States Government, the Northern Fur Seals of commerce, which but a few years ago were nearly extinct, have already, by their rapid increase and mild disposition, developed themselves into a permanent source of national wealth.

"The islands of the Southern Seas, now lying barren and waste, are not only numerous, but admirably suited for the production and management of these valuable animals, and need only the simple regulations enforced by the American Legislature to resuscitate the present state Oj decay of a once remunerative trade, and to bring into full vigour another important export to the miny we already possess."

Mr. Scott's design appears tome eminently praiseworthy; nnd the question it raises is, without doubt, one which must imperatively demand (and will, I trust, in time) the attention not only of the naturalist, but of everyone who w interested in the commercial prosperity of this country and its colonies. Though to some extent their place has been supplied by mineral and vegetable oils, for certain purposes it is, I believe, admitted that animal oils are absolutely required, and the demand for these oils increase! with the increase of civilization. No* no one who has at all closely investigated the subject of the extermination of animals by man can come to any other conclusion than that unless, by some legislative restriction (which from the nature of the case will probably have to be international) it is prevented, all the Marine Mammalia are inevitably doomed to early extinction. Who can read of the butcheries which are yearly perpetrated on the breeding Seals of the icefloes in the North Atlantic, and as yearly recorded with more or less zest in the newspapers, without feeling certain that the same fate awaits them as has overtaken, or is overtaking, so many of theirfellow-denizens of the deep ? Where is the Rhytina of Behring's Island? Absolutely abolished from the face of the earth! Where are the Manatees that played in the waters of the Antilles, when those " isles of the sun "were first visited by Europeans? Limited to some three or four muddy creeks in as many of the larger islands! Where is the Right Whale that used to throng the Greenland seas, the Walrus that haunted the Gulf of St. Lawrence? Driven so far to the northward that ships in the pursuit of either are now led to encounter the greatest perils 1 Where is that smaller Whale which furnished employment for all the navies of Biscayan ports? You have to seek its remains in the museum at

Copenhagen! Where are the Dugongs of Rodriguez so charmingly described by Leguat? Vanished! Where are the Sea-elephants of Ascension, Tristran d'Acunha and the Crozettes? So hunted down that it is not worth a skipper's while to seek them! Where are the countless and mighty Otaries that Peron found in Bass's Straits? Not there assuredly !* The list of questions mighi be extended indefinitely. Surely it is time to stop such wanton, such short-sighted destruction. Let me not be misunderstood, however. No one believes more firmly than I do in the right which man has to turn animals to his use. It is the abuse of which I complain. It is an abuse of power to slaughter these creatures in such places and at such times of the year as must lead to their utter extinction ; and I know there are many naturalists, some of high standing, who think with me, though perhaps their acquaintance with the facts has not been sufficient to make them see so clearly as I do that interference with the abuse must speedily be adopted or it will be too late. Naturalists, as a rule, are rare in the legislature of this country, but is there not one, at least, to call upon the Government to take the necessary steps? Granted that these steps are beset with difficulties—so much the more honour to him who surmounts them. The Russians and the Americans have been before us, and through their wise measures there is now every chance that the Seals of the Northern Pacific will continue to exist for many a long year to the great profit of all concerned.

In this matter, as in similar cases, the present generation will deservedly be reproached by posterity if we steadily shut our eyes to what has taken place and to what is going on now. ALFRED Newton

NOTES Signor Schiaparelli, Director of the Milan Observatory, has been appointed Director of the Florence Observatory in place of the late Signor Donati. The Florentine Observatory, which stands near Galileo's Tower at Arcetri, is in every way superior to that of Milan, and we may look for considerable results from an astronomer who has already done much with small opportunities.

On Monday evening Sir Samuel Baker met with an enthusi. astic reception at the meeting of the Geographical Society, from a large, distinguished, and brilliant audience, which included the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh. Sir Samuel spoke mainly of what he had done to suppress the slave-trade, and of the almost overwhelming difficulties he and his brave wife had to face in bringing the lawless African tribes to reason. After Sir Samuel sat down, the Prince of Wales said a few words, and testified to the sincerity of the Khedive.

In his address at the opening meeting of the Newcastlc-onTyne Chemical Society, the president, Dr. Lunge, spoke of his visit to the Vienna Exhibition, and of the rapid progress which the Continent is making in the manufacture of the finer chemicals. The reason, be says, is not far to seek. " You find in every chemical works on the Continent, I may say, without exception, one, sometimes several, chemists of thoroughly scientific training, who have acquired their theoretical basis by three or four years' studying at a University or a Polytechnical Institution. One "works," to which I rmvefalready alluded, certainly one of the largest in Germany, keeps something like half-a-dozen such chemists (not practical managers), with salaries varying from 300/. to 400/., and it retains the services of an accomplished chemist, of scientific reputation, at a salary of nearly 2,000/. per annum, exclusively for theoretical work in the laboiatory, without any trouble or responsibility connected with the manufacture

• See Mr. Charles Gould's remarks in the Monthly Notices, &c, of the Royal Society of Tasmania for 1871, pp. 61—67.

ing work outside. But then, they do constantly invent new things there, and make them in tons, or hundreds of tons, when the chemical world outside has, perhaps, barely heard of the discovery of a new compound, with a barbarous name, apparently only obtainable at the rate of a few grains in a sealed tube after many weeks' patient work. What \ maintain, after a visit to the Vienna Exhibition, and at a few 6erman and Austrian chemical works, is, that foreign countries are taking the wind out of our sails very fast in this line, and that both their rate of progress and the means of attaining it are very much superior to ours."

A Preliminary meeting was held on November 29 in the Physical Laboratory of the Science Schools, South Kensington, to consider the formation of a Physical Society. The chair was taken by Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. Thirty-six gentlemen were present, including most of the physicists of London. It was resolved that the following gentlemen be requested to serve as an organising committee:—W. G. Adams, E. Atkinson, W. Crookes, A. Dupre, G. C. Foster, J. H. Gladstone, T. M. Goodeve, F. Guthrie, O. Henrici, B. Loewy, Dr. Mills, A W. Reinold, and H. Sprengel. A letter was read from the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education, granting the use of the Physical Laboratory and apparatus at the Science Schools, South Kensington, for the purposes of the Society.

The Photographic News says that a curious and important discovery has been made by Dr. Vogel during the last few weeks. It consists, as he describes it in a private letter, in'making the nonactinic rays under certain circumstances actinic. "I have found" he says, " that bodies which absorb the yellow ray of the spectrum make bromide of silver sensitive to the yellow rays. In like manner I find bodies which absorb the red ray of the spectrum make bromide of silver sensitive to the red rays. For example, by the addition of corallin—which absorbs the yellow ray- -to a bromide of silver film it becomes as sensitive to the yellow ray as to the blue ray." This is one of the most important and interesting observations in connection with actinochemistry which has been made for several years.

An examination will be held at Queen's College, Oxford, on April 14, 1874, and following days, for the purpose of filling up four open scholarships of the yearly value of 90/. tenable for five years. Candidates must not have attained the age of 20 years. One of the open scholarships will be awarded for mathematics and one for natural science in case competent candidates offer themselves. Candidates offering in natural science should be proficient in either physics, chemistry, or physiology, and possess some acquaintance with a second physical science. These candidates are requested to signify by letter to the Provost, as early as may be in March, their intention of standing, and to state at the same time the subjects they propose to offer, in order that the necessary arrangements may be made for their examination. Candidates are to call on {he Provost in the College-hall at 9 P.M. on Monday, April 13, bringing with them satisfactory evidence of date and (where necessary) place of birth, and testimonials of good conduct from their schoolmasters or tutors.

The following alterations have been made in the programme of lectures at the Royal Institution :—In consequence of Prof. Tyndall's desire to give six lectures on the Physical Properties of Gases and Liquids on Tuesdays before Easter, Prof. Rutherford will give five lectures on Respiration before Easter, and six lectures on the Nervous System after Easter. At the Friday evening meeting, March 6, Sir Samuel Baker will lecture on the Suppression of the Slave Trade of the White Nile. Dr. BurdonSanderson will lecture after Easter.

Mr. Henry Lie reports the development of a new calcareous sponge iin the Brighton Aquarium. In its early condition it closely resembles, in its mode of growth, Leucosolenia hotryoides, but afterwards, in some instances, becomes massive and semiglobose. It has been submitted for examination to Dr. Bowerbank, who describes it as follows :— "In the young state, a congeries of thin fistula;, like a Leucosolenia ; when adult massive; furnished with numerous thin conical or cylindrical cloacal organs, very variable in size and length. Surface of the mass mooth and even; small cloaca; furnished with numerous long, slender, acerate, external defensive spicula, projected ascendingly at small angles to the surface; large cloaca; nearly destitute of external defensive spicula, furnished with a few long, slender, acerate, procumbent spicula; internal defensive spicula of cloaca: spiculated, equi-angular, tri-radiate; spicular ray, slender and attenuated. Oscula minute, distributed on the inner surfaces of the cloaca;. Pores unknown. Dermal membrane pellucid aspiculous. Skeleton spicula, equi-angulated and rectangulated, triradiate; radii slender and unequal in length, distorted ; colour, cream white. Habitat, Brighton Aquarium, Henry Lee. Examined in the dried state." This sponge will be figured in three several conditions of its development, in the forthcoming third volume of Dr. Bowerbank's valuable monograph of the British Spongiadtr, published by the Ray Society, and will be known as Leuconia Somesii; Dr. Bowerbank jhaving named it after Mr. Somes, the chairman of the Brighton Aquarium Company.

A Correspondent of the Scotsman points out how desirable a thing it is that a marine aquarium should be erected in Edinburgh. "The city," he rightly says, "abounds in educational establishments, to which such an institution would be an invaluable accessory. Great local facilities exist for the creation of an aquarium, and were a scheme for that purpose but set on foot, many willing hands would aid in its realisation. The cost would not be great, considering the advantages to be obtained; and it is certain the establishment would be self-suppotting." We hope to see the matter earnestly taken up by proper hands.

The fifth part of the illustrated work on Lepidoptera, domestic and foreign, by Mr. Herman Strecker, of Reading, Pennsylvania, has made its appearance. In the present part the illustrations relate entirely to the genus Catocala, of which one supposed new species is presented under the name of C. perplexa, from the vicinity of Brooklyn. Mr. Strecker merits particular commenda. tion from the fact that this work is prepared exclusively by his own hand, the illustrations being drawn on stone, printed, and coloured by himself—and, if we mistake not, the type of the text is set up by him likewise—all done in the intervals of his daily labour as a mechanic. The expense of the work—fifty cents per number- is such a mere trifle that we trust he will be encouraged by a sufficient subscription list to continue it to completion, increasing the number of plates, as he promises to do, without any change in the price, should he receive the desired patronage.

The London Association of Correctors of the Press held a conversazione on Saturday last under the presidency of Mr. B. H. Cowper, editor of the Queen. We are glad to notice that the principal items of the programme were of a scientific character. Mr. E. R. Johnson, Chairman of the Association, read a paper on the past work of the Association, enumerating some of the papers and discussions on philological topics which had engaged its attention, and while commending the study of philology, the advantage of an acquaintance with one or other of the exact sciences was set forth. Mr. G. Chaloner, late Secretary of the Association, and lecturer on Chemistry at the Birkbeck Institution, enlightened the meeting as to some of the properties of hydrogen, accompanying his remarks with appropriate experiments. Mr. J. T. Young discoursed on the glacial period, and exhibited some fossils illustrative thereof. The wonders of the

microscope and stereoscope also contributed to the enjoyment o1 the evening.

The two scientific papers in the last number of the Quarttrlv yournal of the Meteorological Society are :—" On some Results of Temperature Observations at Durham," by Mr. J. J. Phimmer; and "Notes on the Connection between Colliery Explosions and Weather in the year 1871," by Messrs. -R. II. Scott, F.R.S., and W. Galloway. The subject of the latter article is of the greatest importance to miners, and, in connection with it, we would call attention to a letter in yesterday's Times warning colliery managers of the present high reading of the barometer. We are glad to see from the Report of the Council that the Society has attained an exceedingly prosperous and altogether satisfactory condition.

No. XI. of Petermann's Mitthtilungen, contains a brief letter from Dr. Richard v, Drasche, concerning his geological voj-nge to Spitzbergen in July and August last. The letter contains a few very valuable details as to the physical and geological characteristics of the west coast of the island.

Sir George Rose, F.R.S., died at Brighton on the 3rd inst. in the 92nd year of his age.

Dr. Speier, of Fukla, has been appointed by the Japanese Government as Professor of Natural Sciences at YedJo. A very handsome salary has been guaranteed to him by the Japanese Embassy at Berlin. Other appointments are expected to follow in the departments of Experimental Physics and Medicine.

Apropos of the letter in this week's number on 'be British Museum, we take the following from an article in a recent number of Iron on "Our National Museums ■."— As at present constituted, Museums may be broadly divided into three types: first, that of the South Kensington, Jermyn Street, and Bethnal Green Museums in London, and the Albert Museum in Exeter,—a type of the actually useful museum, where the artisan may see illustrations of manufacturing operations, and the artist may find examples of the masterpieces of old. Here everything is neat, orderly, and simple; no object is without a label, which explains clearly what it is; and spectators need not wander about among collections of incomprehensible curiosities, which excite in their miDds wonder but no interest. The second type is that of the British Museum, which is purely scientific. Museums like this are scattered over the country, containing vast numbers of useful specimens buried in drawers and cases, adorned with Latin labels; musenmi wherein the populace rove about with awe, partly at the monstrous objects displayed to their gaze and partly at the tremendous names which they bear. These museums are onlr fitted for scientific persons; they are next to useless to other*, unless, as has been lately done in the British and Ipswich Museums, superintendents and curators are willing to descendfrom their high level and escort bodieslof the simpler folk through the collections, giving as they go some plain account of the more prominent objects. A third type of museum is scarcely to k found in any national collection. It is usually seen in small country towns, where dusty cases are arranged in ill-lighted rooms, and are made the receptacle of rubbish brought by resident gentlemen from all parts of the world—one giving a collection of minerals for which he has not room; another a few drawers of butterflies of which he has grown tired. Sonth Sea islanders' weapons, elephants' tusks, and other spoils of the chase are scattered about in comers and on walls, and the collection of oddments is dubbed a " museum." Our readers can draw on their own experience for other details on this subject, and we are much mistaken if they do not agree with us that the energy that is expended with but little useful result on out local and national museums is almost or entirely thrown away

The little town of Massa Manitinia (Tuscany), says the Journal of the Society of Atts, sets an example which would be well to be followed by many larger and better known towns, both in Italy and this country. In 1867 the municipality of Massa purchased the interesting collection of minerals, models of mining machinery, and specimens of tools used in mines in various countries from Signor Teodoro Haupt, a well-known mining engineer of Florence, together »ith a complete series of maps and plans of most of the mines in Tuscany. This forms the nucleus of the museum, which has since tieen enriched by a collection of the birds and animals found in the province, the donation of a medical man residing in the town, and their value is considerably enhanced by being well arranged and tabled with both common and scientific names. The library now contains about 6,000 volumes, some of which are of great value, as being extremely rare, and relating to the history of the republic of which Massa was once the capital. The archaeological department contains a very beautiful Etruscan funeral urn.

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the v ast week include four Bull Frogs (Kana mugiens) from Nova Scotia, presented by Dr. B. Sanderson, F. K.S.; two white-handed Gibbons (Hylobates lar) from the Malay Peninsula, presented by Sir H. Ord, C.B.; two fGriflin Vultures (Gyps fulus) and a Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), European, presented by Mr. A. J. White; two Rough-legged Buzzards (Archibutco lagopus), European, presented by Mr. A. B. Hepburn ; a Green Monkey (Crrcofnthccus callitrichus) from India; and a Bonnet Monkey (Macacus radiatus) from India, presented by Miss Bradshaw; a Barasingha Deer (Ccrvus duvaucelii) from the Himalayas, received in exchange; and a I lairy Armadillo (Dasypus villains) from La Plata, deposited.

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS Der Naturforschcr, Oct. 1S73.—Among the abstracted matter in this number we find an account of recent experiments by M. Exner, to determine the "reaction time" of the sensorium. Some part of the body having been stimulated, the person immediately made a signal by pressing a key with the right hand. Marks were produced on a blackened cylinder, both at stimulation and at signalling, and the interval was noted. The reaction time (which ranged between O'1205 and 03576 sec. in 7 persons) seems independent of age, and is shortest in those who have the habit of concentration. The tables also show it to have been shortest in stimulation of the eye with an induction shock; then follow, in order, electric shock to finger of left hand, sudden sound, electric shock to forehead, shock to right-hand finger, sight of an electric spark; and lastly, shock to toes of left foot. M. Exner analyses the reaction time into 7 "moments."—In chemistry we have some important observations on the nonluminous flame of the Bunsen burner, by M. lilochmann, and on vinegar-ferment and its cause, by MM. Mayer and Knierim, who think the action of mycoderma aceti probably physiological, and that it is a kind of bacterium which shows a mobile and an immobile state ; the latter producing rapid acetification. Further, the vinegar-production occurs without the presence of nitrogenous suhstanccs, though less slowly than where they are present.—An interesting question in plant-geography is that as to the transport of seeds by ocean-currents, and in other ways independent of human agency. M. Thuret has been experimenting on this in Antibes. Having tried 251 diflerent species, he knows of only two kinds of bare seed which are capable of floating, Maurandia and Phormium. A long immersion in sea-water does not always destroy the vitality of seeds. Out of 24 species immersed more than a year, at least 3 germinated afterwards as vigorously as seeds kept quite dry.—We find astronomical notes on the spectra of the two new comets, III. and IV., of 1873, and on the connection of solar protuberances with auroras (Tacchini); and in meteorology there Is a notice of Dr. Koppen'i valuable researches on an eleven years' period of temperature.— In physics, the subjects are : short galvanic currents and electrical discharges (Edlund), armatures of magnetic bundles IJamin), and molecular rotatory power of vinous acid and its jilts (Landolt).—A review of Hackel's Die Kalkuhwamme, by M. v. Martens, is worthy of notice.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES London Zoological Society, Dec. 2.—Dr. A. Gunthcr, F.R.S. vice-president, in the chair. A communication was read from Dr. James Hector, containing an account of the complete skeleton of Cnemiornis calcitrant, Owen, and showing its affinity to the Natatores.—Prof. Owen, F.R. S., read a paper containing a restoration of the skeleton of Cnemiornis calcitrans, Owen, with remarks on its affinities to the Lamellirostral group, and forming the twentieth part of his series of memoirs of extinct birds of the genus Dinornis and its allies. —A communication was read from Mr. W. II. Hudson, containing an account of the habits of the Pipit (Anl/ms correndera) of the Argentine Republic.—A communication was read from Mr. A. G. Butler, containing a revision of the species of the genus Protogonius.—A communication was read from Dr. J. E. Gray, F. R.S., on the skulls of some seals from Japan, with description of a new species, proposed to be called Eumetopias dongata.—Mr. P. L. Sclater read a paper on some birds collected in Peru by Mr. H. Whitely, l>eing the seventh of the series of articles upon this subject.—A communication was read from Mr. Henry Whitely, containing additional notes on humming-birds collected in High Peru.—A communication was read from Mr. R. Swinhoe, containing remarks on the Black Albatross with flesh-coloured bill, of the China Seas.—Mr. Garrod read a paper on the visceral anatomy of the Ground Rat (Aulacoduj sunmieriauus).

Linnean Society, Dec. 4.—Mr. G. Bentham, president, in the chair.—Revision of the genera and species of Tulipeae, by Mr. J. G. Baker. In this tribe of LUiacea' the author includes the caulescent capsular genera with distinct perianth-segments and leafy stems bulbous at the base, viz., Fritillaria, Tulipa, Lilium, Calochortus, Erythronium, and Lloydia. The characters presented by the different orders were described seriatim in the paper. In the structure of the underground stems there are four leading types, viz., (1) a squamose perennial bulb, consisting, when mature, of a large number of thin flat scales tightly pressed against one another, and arranged spirally round a central axis which is not produced cither vertically or horizontally, as exemplified in all the Old-world species of Lilium; (z) in most of the species of Fritillaria we have a pair only of hemispherical scales, half as thick as broad, pressed against the base of the flower-stem, these scales being the bases of single leaves which die down before the flower-stem is produced; (3) an annual laminated truncated bulb occurs generally in Tulipa, Calochortus, and Eu-Lloydia ; (4) in the'jsecuon Gagcopsis of Lloydia we have a truncated conn. The leaves are very uniform throughout the tribe, with the exception of a section of Lilium, Cardiocrinum, with long clasping petioles. The perianth leaves are all coloured except in Calochortus, when the three outer segments are sepaloid and lengthened into points. The stamens are always six in number and nearly equal in length, hypogynous, and the dehiscence of the anther never properly introrse, but lateral, exactly as in Colchicum. In the capsule, Culochtyrtus differs from the other genera in its septiciclal dehiscence. As regards the connection between Liliacia; and Colchicaceie Mr. Baker is disposed to lay less stress than before on the evidence of any sharp line of demarcation between the orders, all the characters usually ascribed to the latter order being found in some of the genera of LUiacea:. In its Geographical Distribution the tribe is spread throughout the north temperate zone; only one species, Lloydia serotina, is really boreal and Alpine; the southern limits are Mexico, the Philippines, South China, the Neilgherries, and the southern borders of the Mediterranean; the principal concentration of species is in California and Japan; nearly all are hardy in this climate. Lilium with 46, and Fritillaria with 55 species, have the distribution of the tribe; the latter stopping eastwards at the Rocky Mountains, while the former reaches the Atlantic sea-board; Tulipa, with 48 species, is restricted to the Old World, reaching from Spain, Britain, and Scandinavia to Japan and the Himalayas; Calochortus, with 21 species, is confined to Mexico and the west side of the Rocky Mountains; of the 5 species of Erythronium, 1 is confined to the Old World and 4 to the New ; the 3 species of Gageopsis are Oriental and Siberian; while Lloydia serotina is the most widely spread of all the LUiaciex, and a unique instance of a petaloid Monocotyledon of the North Temperate Zone with almost universal high mountains and Arctic distribution.

Chemical Society, Dec. 4.—Dr. Frankland, F.R.S., vicepresident, in the chair.—A paper entitled Mineralogical Notices, by Prof. Story- Maskelyne and Dr. W. Flight, was read by the former, treatinu of the composition of caledonite and lanarkite.— Mr. John Williams then exhibited some fine specimens of crystallised phosphorous acid and me'allic phosphites, and gave a short account of their reactions.—Prof. Church made a com munication to the society on the composition of the mineral autunite.—Prof. Lawrence Smith of the Unted States, whit-t describing a modification of the Hunsen gas burner employed by him for hea in£ the crucible in determina ions of the alkalis in silicious mil erals, gave a short sketch of the process he had devised for that purpose.—In the course of the evening a gas burner by Mr. Fletcher of Warrington was also exhibited.

Royal Microscopical Society, Dec. 3.—Chas. Brooke, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—The list of donations to the society included a valuable binocular microscope with apparatus complete, from Mr. Charles Woodward, for which the special thanks of the meeting were returned.—A paper in continuance of the one read at the November meeting, was read by the secretary.—On some further researches into the life history of the Monads, by Rev. W. H. Dallinger and Dr. Drysdale, in which the complete process of fission was described in all its stages, and also the conjunction of two or more bodies, the whole course of internal division, ol final rupture of the containing envelope and escape of minute free organisms.—Mr. Charles Stewart exhibited a section of Ficus tlaitica showing cystoliths, described the method of preparation and mounting, and stated it to be his belief that they were rather deposits of a gum-like substance, than actual concretions.

Society of Biblical Archaeology, Dec.2. —Dr. Birch, F.S. A., president. The following papers were read :—Future Punishment of the Wicked, a Doctrine of the Assyrian Religion, by H. FoxTalbot, F.R.S.—>Mes fom Borneo, illustrative of Passages in Genesis, by A. M. Cameron. In this paper the author cited a Dyak radition, that at an archaic general inundation, the ancestors of the Chinese, Malay, and Dyak had to swim for their lives; and (possibly foisted on .his tradition) the Dyak preserved his weapons, and the Chinaman his books. A second tradition stated tliat an ance-iral Dyak made a ladder to >>o up to heaven; unhappily one night a w»rm ate into the foot of the ladder and brought all down. Mr. Cameron further stated that one of the two Dyak name* for the Supreme Being is Yaouah: the author refers to the similar sou., ing Jehovah and Yahveh of the Bible.

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, June 17.—The president. Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair.—Lau's of Sex in Juglans nigra.—Mr. Thomas Meehan said he hid at various times during the past few years called the attention of the Academy to specimens of numerous plants which illustrated the principle that sex in plants was the result of grades of vitality; or, as it had been suggested, viability; and that this power of life was a mere matter of nutrition; the highest grades of vitality only producing the female sex. He now exhibited specimens of the common black walnut, Juglans nigra, which furnished excellent illustrations of what had been said on other occasions. Examining the tree at the flowering season, it would be plainly seen, by even a superficial observer, that there were grades of growing buds. The largest buds made the most vigorous shoots. These seemed to be wholly devoted to the increase of the wocdy system of the tree. Lower down the strong last year shoots, were buds not quite so large. These made shoots less vigorous than the other class, and bore the female flowers on their apices. Below these were numerous small weak buds, which either did not push into growth at all, or when they did bore simply the male catkins. He was fully satisfied that there is not so great expenditure of vital force on the production of male flowers as there is in female flowers.

Paris Academy of Sciences, Nov. 24.—M. de Quatrefages, president, in the chair.—The following papers were read :— On the development of polyps and their corals, by M. H. de Lacaze-Duthiers. The author described some re.-ults obtained by him in a cruise on board the Narval, off the North African coast of the Mediterranean during the summer.—Remarks on the South American fauna, with anatomical details of some of its most characteristic types, by M. P. Gervais.—Observations on the expansion of water below 4°, in relation to M. Piarron de Mondesir's note, by M. F. Hement. The author suggests that the phenomenon in question is due to a re-arrangement of the

molecules of the water just as a box of pins when shaken up will occupy more room than they did when arranged in regulir layers.—A long extract from a letter by M. A. Poey was rcac relating to hi-, observations of the relation between *o ar spo.-» and terrestrial hurricanes. The author stated that daring 'i-last 12s years there have been 12 maximum periods of hurncm-. and 10 of these corre«pond to sun-spot maxima and 11 perti^-.; of hurricane minima, of which 5 curre>|>or>d to sun-«pot minima -Observations on the analogies which exist between **«» sola: spots and terrestrial cyclones, by M. Marie Davy. — Note on sofar and terrestrial cyclones, by M. H. de Parville.—On tie discharge of electrified conductors, by M. J. Moutier.—On lis variable state of electric currents, by M. P. Blasema, sui answer to M. Cazin.—Application of the phosphates of ammonium it. barium to the punficatu m of saccharine products, by M. P. Lagrange —On the physiological and therapeutic action of hydrochLornU c -J amylamine, by M. Dujardin-Beaumctz. During themeetinc £*r A. W. Williamson and M. Zinin were elected Corresprindetiis.

December 1.—M. de Qu.nrefages, president, in the chair.—On solar and tcnestiial whirlwinds, by M. Faye. The author argued against Reye's ascending axes in the cases of these ;.iclones, and urged that both by theory and observation there u 1 down-rush about the axis.—On the conclusion of the note. General Morin made some remarks 011 the small eddies olRerve* in rivers as examples ol the descending current in the csmtr; o< similar vortexes—On the directions of the vibrations in the rxTs refracted in uniaxial crystal-, by M. Abria.—Analytical arj experimental investigations 1 f the interference of elliptical rays, i' M. Croullebois.—On the return of carrier pigeons during the sieje of Paris, by M. W. de Fonvielle.—On the habits of the t-kylia.-r by M. Max. Cornu.—On a theorem ol celestial mechanics, bvS! F. Siacci.—Note on magnetism, by M. A. Treve.—On* the difference ol physiological action caused by induced current-. from coils formed ol different metals, by M. On tin us. The author stated that, with a coil made of a badly cooduc in; metal the con'rac ion of the muscles was greater and the effec: on tne cutaneous nerves smaller than when the coil is made of 1 go.id conductor.—tjn the conjunctive elements of the spm.il marrow, by M. L. Ranvier.—On the Anthracothcrium, discovered at Saint Menoux by M. Bertrand, by M. Gaudry.—On the secretions of the flowers of Eucalyptus globulus, by M. Ginvjert.

BOOKS RECEIVED English.—The Pearl o. the Antilles: Walter Goodman (H. S. Kin* and Co.).—The Internal Parasites of our Dome ucated Animals: llr. Spcmxr Cobbold {FuU Oface) A Phrenologivt among the Tuda-.: Cot. \larsiuil (Longmans). The *-\\j\c and the Doctrine of hvolution: W. W.<xl* Smith (H. K.. Lewis).—The Threshold of ihe Unknown Region: C'eroeDtsK. Markham (Sampson Lew).—fcasy Introduction to CrKtm>try : Artbur RigS (Rivingt -ns). — ChcmUtiamty: J. C. Scllars (Author).—The Rumania of Peasant Life: Francis George Heath (Cassell).—Cholera, how to Avoid and Treat it : Henry Blanc, MD. «H. S. King & Co.) —Lentttfugal Force anj Gravitation, Supplement B: John Harris (Trubner & Co)—Kant's History of Ethics Translated by T K. Kingsmtll (Longmans).—Physical Geography in its relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currcuts: J. K. Laughton (J D. Potter).—A Treatise on Medical Electricity: Dr. Althaus iLongmiul — Weather Kolk-Lorc: Rev. C. Swainson (Blackwood) —Ganot's Phyncs Translated by Atkinson. 6th edition (Longmans).—Waste Products and Undeveloped Substances: P- L. Simmon-is Hardwickc)—Man and Ar«i St. George Mivart (Hardwickc).— Body and Mind : Alex. Bain (H. & K.10* & Co.).—Metamorphuses of Insects: Sir John Lubbock (Macmillan A Co.)!

CONTENTS PACt

The Arctic Expedition 9*

Local Scientific Societies, III q.

Marshall's Tooas Of South India. By E. B. Tvlor, F.R.S. . ". oy

Our Book Shelf JOI

Letters To The Editor:

Effects of Temperature on Reflex Action—PruC M. Foster, F.R.S. ivi Meyer's Exploration of New Guinea.—A. R. Wallace, V.Z S. . ice Deep-sea Sounding and Deep-sea Thermometers. —R- H. Scott,

F R.S. Director Met. Dcpt I0J

The Dutch Photographs of the Eclipse ofi87i.—A. C. Ranvakd]

F.R.A.S. . 1<w

The British Museum. fo.

Moraines.—E Fry .103

The Elevation of Mountains and the Internal Condition of the

Earth—H. Hennessv lo-.

Meteohologic Sections Of The Atmosphehe. By T. Stevenson . 103

On The Physiological Action Of Ozone 104

Atmospheric Telegraphs, II. {With Illustration*} 105

The Common Fkog, VI By St. Geokge Mivakt. F.R.S. [Witk

IUustmtiotis) 10,

Eakth-scuuturk, III. By Prof. A Gkikie, F.R.S. . !!'.!. 110

Extermination Of Marine Mammalia \\%

1M Otes . , * \ \ z,,

Scientific Serials -....!. 115

Societies And Academies , t X\\

Books Received , ."...!, 11$

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