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mastered by a few months' residence in a neighbouring country, whilst the other had done more to develop true culture than almost all other writings since. It is not proposed simply to substitute German or French for Greek, the advantages to be derived from which are now fully absorbed into the spirit of the nation, but, by the change, to leave a sufficient time, in addition to the education in modern languages, for the study of the Natural Sciences during the school-boy period. That the dead languages form an excellent mental training no one doubts, but that Physics and Chemistry do the same is daily becoming more certain; and the time is not far hence when the facts and methods of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy will be so well known and assorted, that they may be placed in the same category.

THE SOUTHERN UPLANDS OF SCOTLAND*

THE range of hills, which in Scotland extends from the German Ocean to the Irish Sea, having a N.E. and S.W. direction, has been aptly designated the Southern Uplands. This range is nearly parallel in its course to that of the Highlands proper. It exhibits hills, some of which attain to an elevation approaching nearly 3,000 feet; but its physical features, although marked in many localities with scenes of great beauty, are devoid of the stern and rugged grandeur which characterises the more northerly mountains of Scotland. The hills of this range usually consist of rounded and grass-covered undulations, or long tracts of plateaux. They have been specially named the "pastoral district of Scotland," and their scenes have furnished subjects for many a pastoral song, and many a border ballad.

The Southern Uplands of Scotland are cut deeply into by some of the streams which flow into the Solway Firth, theEsk, the Annan, the Nith, the Urr, and the Dee being the most important of them. They are drained on the southward side by the Cree and the Luce ; on the northward side they are the sources of the Ayr; and the Tweed and its tributaries drain a large'portion of their north-east area.

In the early period of Scotch geology, the days of Playfair and Hutton, the Southern Uplands were regarded as affording no traces of the evidence of life in the rocks which compose them; and these rocks were referred to the "primary" group. It was not until the discovery of^fossils in a limestone which occurs at Wrea in Peeblesshire, in their higher portion, by Sir James Hall, that the rocks which formed these hills were assigned to the "transition " age. The terms " primary" and " transition" have now ceased to be applicable to the nomenclature of geology; and the discovery by Prof. James Nicol in 1840, in the flaggy beds of Greiston in Peeblesshire, of graptolites, indicated the Silurian age of the strata here. Since the discovery of Nicol, several geologists have added greatly to our knowledge of the rocks which compose the Southern Uplands. Other bands of graptolites have been found richer in fossil contents than those first discovered; and these, along with a few other forms of organic remains, have still further confirmed the Silurian age of the

* Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Scotland, Sheets 1, 2,3 and 15, &c. Explanations of, 1871, 1872, 1873,

great mass of strata which make up the hilly country i the South of Scotland.

The result of the observations made on the rocks c the Southern Uplands up to the period when they car-under the notice of the Geological Survey of Scotland i-i to the conclusion that the lowest strata exhibited »treferable to the Llandeilo age. That these l.landeilo roe'e were succeeded by deposits containing fossils, as in ti. case of the Wrea limestone, indicating the horiion r the Bala or Caradoc rocks, was also kno'vn — 2certain rocks which occur near the north-western marji: of the area in the neighbourhood of Girvan in Ayrshire. have been referred by Sir Roderick Murchison to a. s-tiL higher position in the Silurian series.

The labours of the Geological Survey of Scotland havc not only confirmed these conclusions, but have addx greatly to our knowledge of the nature of the Silun^: rocks of the South of Scotland. They have; also furnished subdivisions of these rocks, and a more ample account of their arrangement and fossil contents.

Every geologist familiar with the lower portions of it: Silurian rocks of the Southern Uplands, the Llaadeib strata, had experienced great difficulty in recognisiii; horizons, in this series, such as would enable him ta divide these rocks into distinct portions. It is true that bands of anthracitic shale abounding in graptolites were, as regards their petrological nature, very distinct froir: the rocks in which they were intercalated. The great mass, however, of the Llandeilo beds of the Southern Uplands consist of rocks known in old petrological nomenclature as "greywackes "—-a name which is still retained for want of a better—and as these rocks differed only in coarseness, and sometimes in colour, this circumstance rendered the division of the South of Scotland Silurian rocks into separate groups extremely difficult. And when it is added to this that contortions have greatly folded and denudations have largely planed oft" the edges of these rocks, the difficulty of making out distinct horizons among the Llandeilo strata of the South of Scotland becomes very apparent. It is only by a careful, continuous, and long series of observations recorded in maps large enough to show all the contortions, the ins and outs of the strata, that these rocks could be brought into subdivisions enabling them to be recognised. Such | have been the work of the officers of the Geological Survey of Scotland ; and now we have in the explanatory notes to some of the sheets which have been published, the results of their work recorded, and the subdivision of these Llandeilo rocks indicated.

The explanation to Sheet 15, published in 1871, which includes, among other matters, a description of the Llandeilo rocks occurring in that portion of the Southern Uplands occupied by the north-west part of Dumfriesshire, the south-west portion of Lanarkshire, and the south-east portion of Ayrshire, contains the results of the labours of the Survey among these rocks. There do not appear, in any portion of the South of Scotland Silurian strata, any rocks which appertain to an age older than the Llandeilo; and these Llandeilo rocks are referable only to the Upper Llandeilo series, the Lower Llandeilo or Shelve rocks of Murchison, the Arenig rocks or Skiddaw slates of Sedgwick, being unknown in the district This Upper Llandeilo series exhibits itself in the form of an anticlinal axis near the southern border of the Silurian area. This axis can be well seen in Roxburghshire and Dumfriesshire, having a north-east and southwest direction. It has also been recognised by the officers of the Geological Survey in Wigtonshire ; and the rocks which it exhibits, which are the lowest in the Southern Uplands, have been designated by Prof. Geikie the "Ardwell group." This group is made up of "hard, •well-bedded greywackes and grits, with bands of hard shale or slate. These rocks have a prevailing reddish or brownish hue, especially on weathered surfaces."

As seen in Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire these low rocks have the same aspect and nature. They have afforded, both in Wigtonshire and Dumfriesshire, markings which have considerable resemblance to the fossil described by McCoy as Protovirgularia, and in Roxburghshire they have yielded crustacean tracks, but no other traces of organic remains have been obtained from them. Above the Ardwell group the officers of the Geological Survey recognise a mass of strata to which they have j;iven the name of the "Lower or Moffat Shale group." This group is-composed of '•' flaggy greywacke and grey shales," which are distinguished by the occurrence in them of several bands of black carbonaceous shales. These strata are well developed in the neighbourhood of Moffat, Dumfriesshire, from whence they derive their name. The black carbonaceous shales are very persistent, having been traced by the officers of the Survey from near Melrose to the western shores of Wigtonshire, "a distance of more than 100 miles." Three bands of carbonaceous shales can frequently be made out, but occasionally they come together so as to form one thick band. These bands are very prolific in graptolites. They have, from their carbonaceous aspect, induced many persons, under the guidance of "practical miners," to expend large sums of money in search after coal, and some of the spots where they have been worked are known under the name of " coal heughs."

Although the Moffat group is well developed through the greater portion of the Southern Uplands, it is on the coast of Wigtonshire that the best sections of the series can be seen. Here they, are recognised resting on the Ardwell group, having at their base "grey and reddish shales, and clays, with calcareous bands and nodules, and enclosed bands of black shale, the lowest members being hard and flaggy." The second member of the Moffat group, as seen on the Wigtonshire coast, consists of black shales with intercalated clays, like the fire-clays of the coal-measures. Calcareous nodules and lenticular bands are also associated with the black shales, the whole being so intensely plicated as to render an attempt to determine their thickness extremely difficult. Upon the black shales well-bedded greywacke and grits occur with occasional shaly partings. These are succeeded by black shales so much jumbled and jointed, that their thickness cannot be made out. The next sequence consists of grey flagstones, flaggy sandstones, and grits, in beds of varying thickness up to 3 or 4 ft., with abundant partings of grey shale. To these succeed a thick band of finely laminated grey shale, 3or4ft Black shales, bands 12 to 18ft. in thickness, occur next, and the highest members of the group consist of fissile sha'es.

The Moffat group, as represented in Wigtonshire, has a thickness of about 1,000 ft., of which more than half consists of flaggy greywacke beds. The underlying series, the Ardwell group, probably attains to a much greater thickness.

The third member of the Upper Llandeilo rocks of the Southern Uplands of Scotland, like the second, derives its name from Dumfriesshire. It is well exhibited in the hill called Queensberry, and has been designated the Queensberry grit group. The characters of this third member, as they are seen in Wigtonshire, "consist of greywacke and grits in massive courses, with occasional bands of grey and greenish shales." Massiveness and regularity of bedding and jointing are the characters of this group. The sandstones are often coarse; and sometimes even coarse conglomerates appear, in'which some of the embedded fragments are sometimes from 2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter, a feature which distinguishes the Queensberry group from all the other members of the Upper Llandeilo rocks of the South of Scotland. Fossils appear to be absent from this group, no trace of them having been met with in the three parallel bands which traverse Wigtonshire.

In the Dumfriesshire portion of the Upper Llandeilo area of the South of Scotland, there have been recognised, above the Queensberry grit group, black shales with graptolites, the thickness of which have not yet been ascertained. To these black shales the name of Hartfell group has been given. As the typical area where these rocks occur is in the higher part of the Annandale district, the sheets of which have not yet been published, we have at present no account of this group from the Geological Survey.

The Hartfell group is succeeded by the Daer group, which is made up of hard blue and purplish greywacke, and grey shales. It derives its name from a stream flowing from the north side of Queensberry into the Clyde. Its strata are greatly folded, and no reliable estimate can be formed of the thickness of the Daer group.

The Hartfell shales of the Daer group seem to thin out towards the south-west. They have not been distinctly recognised in Wigtonshire, where the Dalvcen group, which in Dumfriesshire succeeds the Daer group, is seen resting conformably upon the Queensberry grits.

In Dumfriesshire the Dalveen group consists of fine blue and grey greywacke, and shales having no features distinguishing them from other members of the upper Llandeilo rocks. Their estimated thickness is about 2,900 ft. They are well exposed in Dalveen Pass, Dumfriesshire, whence their name, and in Dinabid Linn they are seen passing under a coarse pebbly rock, "Haggis Rock."

In Wigtonshire the lower part of the Dalveen group is seen overlying the Oueensberry rocks south of Corsewell Lighthouse. Here its lower portion is remarkably shaly, but thick masses of greywacke also occur. Among the shaley beds are some bands worked at Cairn Ryan for slates. These slates have long been known as affording graptolites; and another thin band of black shale also containing the same fossils appears in this group in Wigtonshire.

In Dumfriesshire above the Dalveen group a series of coarse and fine grits and greywacke, having red and green bands of flinty mudstone, conglomerate, and occasional breccia associated with them, occur—a persistent band of conglomerate containing quartz-rock pebbles, Lydian stone, and jasper characterise this group. The conglomerate, being locally known as "Haggis Rock," has furnished the name to the series, which is about 1,800 feet thick. The Haggis group in Dumfriesshire is seen striking across the river Afton, also, along the N.W. flanks of the Lowther hills, and elsewhere in this county. More to the north it can be recognised along the north-western margin of the Silurian area in Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire. The Haggis rock is not persistent in its character. To the N.E. this conglomerate becomes much finer in grain, and passes "into a gritty greywacke." This group has hitherto yielded no fossils. In Wigtonshire the Haggis rock cannot be distinguished as a distinct series ; its characteristic conglomerate being, as already seen, of local occurrence, it does not appear to manifest itself in the Silurians in the S.W. of Scotland. (To be continued.)

LOCAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

IN very many ways has the general advance of intelligence, elevation of taste, and spread of education been shown during the present century, and more especially during the last thirty years; one of these ways is undoubtedly the increasingly rapid spread of Locaj Scientific Societies. What we mean by a "Local Scientific Society," as distinguished from the large Societies of London, is an association of individuals in a particular locality for the common study of one or more branches of science, by the reading of original papers, and what is perhaps of more importance, the actual investigation of the natural history—geology, zoology, botany, meteorology—and archaeology of its district. Of the societies established within the last thirty years, nearly all are marked by these characteristics; such at all events is their professed object, and we are glad to say that, to judge from the special reports which we have received, and the numerous printed "Proceedings" of greater or less pretensions which are sent us from time to time, a very large proportion creditably carry out their programme.

In a number of the principal towns of England and Scotland associations exist, dating, some of them, from the end of last century, known as " Literary and Philosophical Societies,"or by some similartitle. These are generally comparatively wealthy, possessed of good buildings containing a library, museum, reading-rooms, lecture-hall, &c, with a large body of members belonging to the middle and upper classes. These, however, so far as their original objects are concerned, with one or two exceptions, scarcely come under the category of Local Scientific Societies, in the sense of the definition given above, though many of them stimulated by the growing taste for Science, have recently added to their usual courses of lectures on literary subjects, others on subjects connected with Science, and have even organised classes for the study, under competent lecturers or teachers, of one or more branches of Science. In some i stances, moreover, a few of the members of these respec

table old associations have united to form societies oi: kind which entitle them to be regarded as Local Soentits Societies, and even Field-Clubs. Still, all these oki< societies, as they existed previous to 1830, diffod in many essential respects from the Local Societies at Field-Clubs which began to spring up about that time even the well-known Literary and Philosophical Soati of Manchester, quite on a par with some of tbe ba London Societies, and which has produced original wen of the highest value, has been all along continol 11 the learned and professional men of the city and neighbourhood, who have made use of the meetings of tie Society for the purpose of making known theresultsof their independent scientific investigations.

So far as can be ascertained, the society just mt* tioned is the oldest provincial society which cm I* considered as in any way scientific, having been ea-"lished in 1784, for the purpose of diffusing "literary ^ scientific intelligence, and of promoting the literary &• scientific inquiries of learned men in the town and no^ bourhood." "The results of its labours," Sir Wite Elliott says, in his valuable address to the Edinl'ui;: Botanical Society, in 1870, on this subject, "were po» lished in' Memoirs,' the first volume of which appfii' in 1785, at which time James Masscy was president. and Thomas Barnes, D.D., and Thomas Henry, F.R.S, «'«"•' Secretaries. Five volumes had appeared up to !*o:In 1805 a second series commenced under uic R<-'vJohn Walker, President, and John Hall and jots Dalton, Secretaries, which had extended to rive volumes more in i860. A third series was commenced it !*-'• and has reached volume xiii. The second series 1*cn" riched with many papers by Dalton, including the ws development of the atomic theory." In 1858 a micrtscopical and natural history section was establishes, the latter, however, we regret to say, is since defunct.

The next society of this class in order of time was "is! tuted at Perth in 1781, as the Perth Literary and Antique Society; we need not say that, so far as eminence > concerned, it was never to be compared with the Man' Chester Society. It has never done scientific wotk ofim value, though it possesses a handsome building, wl!"J museum, devoted mostly to antiquities, but having a l* natural history collection as well, and a good library !■> many other societies of a similar kind, its building «r'u' as a kind of meeting-place or club, where those Die'"1"' who have nothing to do can meet and have a gossiPia read the papers. This society has published only 0 volume of " Transactions" (in 1827), but so far as weW°l [ they have now no transactions to record. A fc* !f ago, as will be seen from our list in Vol. viii- P- 5-' Natural Science Society was established in the coUI1| with Perth as its headquarters, which gives promt* being one of the best working Local Scientific Societies the kingdom. .

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sister kingdom, the Literary Society of Belfast, w neverdone anything to call for note here. Previous'1' however, in 1793, the Newcastle-on-Tyne Literary-""1 losophical Society was established, which, although i< ^ published only one volume of memoirs, and is i'"'e than the owner of an excellent public library, does i work by providing educational courses of lectures r

st r uction in mathematics, chemistry, and other branches of science as well as literature.

"Up to 1830, about twenty other societies, more or less "Philosophical," which term seems then to have been thought a more dignified term than "Scientific," were instituted within the three kingdoms, including the Ashmolean Society of Oxford, and the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Of these, no less than six were in Yorkshire alone, a county, as we shall see, which continues to hold the foremost place, so far as number of scientific societies is concerned; the West Riding bristles with little Field Clubs. Among the best of the societies referred to is the Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, which, especially since its amalgamation in 1844 with the Natural Science Society, has done some excellent work, as can be seen from its voluminous "Proceedings," which contain papers that would do credit to any society. The Glasgow Philosophical Society is also oneof high standing; and the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, founded in 1S14, which has done some good work in connection with the geology of the district The Royal Institution of Cornwall is also one of the most creditable of these old societies, having been formed in 1818, for the advancement of knowledge of natural history, natural philosophy and antiquities, especially in their connection with Cornwall. Besides its valuable antiquarian work, it has pubished " The Cornish Fauna," a compendium of the natural history of the county.

The one of these older societies which in its object and work corresponds most nearly to our definition, is the Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle Natural History Society, instituted at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1829. Among its original members were Sir John and Sir Walter Trevelyan, and the late Albany Hancock, and both before and since its junction with the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, it has done much work of a kind similar to that which the recently established Field Clubs aim to do, having between 1831 and 1838 published two volumes containing valuable lists of the flora and fauna of Northumberland and Durham. This society, though somewhat crippled for want of funds, is still in a flourishing condition, and continues, in conjunction with the Tyneside Club, to publish in their Transactions, under the title of " Natural History Transactions of Northumberland and Durham," excellent lists of the fauna and flora, existing and fossil, of the district which it has adopted as its field for work. It possesses some splendid collections which the Newcastle College of Physical Science is generously allowed to use for purposes of study.

Had we space, others of these societies founded previous to 1830, as well as some of a more ambitious kind than the simple Field-Club, instituted since that time, could be named, which stimulated either by the example of the field-clubs or more probably by the general advance of culture and the growing impressiveness of Science, have done much to foster a love for Science in their respective neighbourhoods and to investigate the natural history of their several districts. A large proportion of societies of this class are found in the south-west of England, in Devonshire and Cornwall: such are the Cornwall Polytechnic Society, the Devonshire and Cornwall Natural History Society, the Devonshire Association—a peripatetic Society founded in 1862 after the model of the British Association—the

Royal Institution of South Wales (Swansea), and the Isle of Wight Philosophical and Literary Society. Others also we might mention at the other end of England, for an examination of our list shows that the activity of the country in this respect has been developed to the greatest extent in the north and south.

These societies, though differing in some essential respects from the simple Field-Club, yet in their own way do good and serviceable work by the establishment of museums, the encouragement of local exhibitions, the occasional publication of papers illustrative of the natural history and archaeology of the district, and recently, what we deem of considerable importance, the institution of courses of lectures by eminent men of science, and the establishment of classes for the working and other classes who are engaged during the day. We would urge all of this class of association to bestir themselves to the performance of more thorough and more extended work in these directions, thereby not only doing a benefit to the members themselves, as well as to the cause of Science, but elevating the district in which they are located, and thus helping the country onward in the general march of improvement By means especially of continuous series of lectures by eminent men of science and by well-organised systems of classes, the good that might be done by these institutions would, we believe, be inestimable ; and now that the Science and Art Department offers such splendid facilities for the establishment of classes and museums in connection with any institution that chooses to take advantage of them, no local society of any pretensions need any longer be without the material of a comprehensive and high-class education for its members and those in its neighbourhood who are willing to be improved ; only a lazy unwillingness to keep up with the rapid progress of the time can deprive a neighbourhood of these advantages. The Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, the first " Polytechnic" in the United Kingdom, is an example of what can be done in one way, by the establishment of lectures and classes, and by the institution of medals and money prizes for successful attempts to apply Science to industry. But a model which all literary and philosophic societies, et hoc genus omiie, would do well to imitate, though they would find it difficult to rival, is the Birmingham and Midland Institute, an institute of which its originators may well be proud, and for the establishment of which they deserve the gratitude of the busy and important district in the midst of which it is planted. It scarcely comes within the scope of our subject, and we only mention it to show to the class of societies with which we are at present dealing, what they mi^ht hope to achieve if they only had the will and the generosity to bestir themselves and take the necessary steps. There is no reason why in every county town or other suitable place institutions of this kind should not be established, forming active centres of intellectual culture, and to which the smaller scientific societies of the surrounding districts might be affiliated without losing their independence and with very valuable results. We hope ere long to see this accomplished; and who are better fitted to take the initiative in the matter than those societies which pretend to represent the culture of the districts from which their members are drawn?

{To be continued.)

THORPE'S "QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS"

Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Chemistry, Andersonian University, Glasgow. (Longmans.)

WE welcome with pleasure a work which in the present state of our literature on Quantitative Chemical Analysis, may well be looked upon as a boon to the advanced chemical student. Fresenius's Quantitative Analysis has been so generally accepted by chemists as the standard book in this branch of Science, that we greatly regretted the unwarrantable liberties taken by the English editor in the late edition of our trusty author's work. The publishers, who did not, in justice to the accomplished author, recall that edition, may yet learn that the chemical public, at all events, know how to appreciate a good work on Quantitative Analysis. We confess to a feeling of relief, speaking as a teacher of chemical analysis, as we perused Mr. Thorpe's book; for although we have to differ from the author on some minor matters, we believe that this new work will speedily be found in the hands of every chemical student.

Our author has evidently felt what others have experienced before him, that Fresenius's Quantitative Analysis became with every new edition more and more unwieldy (we are speaking of the German editions), and that, at the commencement at least, a simpler guide to quantitative analysis might with advantage be placed in the hands of the student. As methods of analysis—especially volumetric methods — multiplied year after year, the teacher and the student looked to the master for some indications which methods should, under given circumstances, be adopted in preference to others. Mr. Thorpe has evidently been bent upon supplying this want. In the treatment of his subject he has followed the example set by Woehler in his " Practische Uebungen in der Chemischen Analyse," rather than that of Fresenius. It appears to us, however, that he has somewhat fallen into the other extreme, for, in the place of a series of carefully elaborated methods for the determination of each base and acid, he has contented himself with giving a few examples only of individual determinations, and has preferred to teach quantitative separations almost exclusively by describing, in language both terse and concise, a number of complex quantitative analyses, such as are likely to occur in practice. There is much to hi said for this plan of teaching analysis, so to speak, en bloc. It involves, however, much repetition, or, at the very best, reference from one example to another, and leaves the student in considerable uncertainty whenever he has to break new ground. The aim of all quantitative teaching should be to enable the analyst to adopt or devise for himself correct methods of separation. The foundation for quantitative methods should, in fact, be laid by careful and accurate qualitative work. A good workable method may often be preferable to a more elaborate although more strictly accurate method.

In the endeavour to write as compactly as possible, the author has frequently over-estimated the mental powers and the chemical knowledge, say of second years' students, for whose use the work is apparently written, and has thus sacrificed clearness for briefness. We refer, for instance, to the methods given for the separation of iron, manganese, &c. in Spiegeleisen, condensed as it appears,

from Fresenius, where the ammonium carbonate methoc occurs, but where it would be difficult for a student, without the teacher's assistance, to trace the chemicL changes. There is too much of the how to do a thinfand too little of the why to do it throughout the work, t-j make it as useful to the beginner as it would otherwise ht Although the several methods for the separation of mar. ganese from iron, &c.,are to be found in different parts or the book, there are scarcely sufficient hints, why anrf under what circumstances and conditions the one metho. is to be used in preference of the other. The sauK applies to various other methods of separation. Wt known and familiar chemical methods, again, are abas doned, occasionally, for new methods of at least questionable utility. We may mention, among such, the use <x hydrochloric acid, as the starting-point in alkalimetry.

The same remark applies to the apparatus described and illustrated. The woodcut on p. 142 ex.gr., illustrative of the method for taking the specific gravity r ammonia, looks startlingly elaborate. Much credit if due, however, to the author and his coadjutor, Mr. Dugald Clerk, for the care bestowed upon the preparatio. of the woodcuts. We consider them, for the most pin. well selected and well executed. There is that pleasm; evidence to the chemical eye, that the illustrations hav: originated in the laboratory, and that they depict apparatus which can be practically used, and are not merer? put in to please and catch the eye. In fact, when ire compare some high-priced books of the class, which i: would not be difficult to enumerate, with the elegantly go'.up and cheap volume of Mr. Thorpe, wc can only congratulate him on the book he has produced.

If we may be allowed to tender advice, we should say :—Condense the part on the operations of weighing; enlarge the number of examples of simple gravimetric analysis, so as to include the more important acids and bases; draw a line between determinations usually required in analyses for practical or commercial purposes, and the more elaborate complete analysis of the same bodies ; and last, but not least, explain more fully, why and when one method answers better than another—if only in compassion for the weaker analyst.

We cordially recommend the book, and hope to see these suggestions adopted in the next edition, for which in all likelihood we shall not have to wait long.

LETTERS TO THE ED/TOR

[ The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions exoress.-J by his correspondents. No notice is taken of anonywouj

communications.]

The Management of the British Museum

I BEG to protest against the remarks upon the management of the British Museum contained in your article of November 6. The general question whether a public institution of the sort is best governed by a public official or by a body of Trustees, ivuv very likely admit of much discussion, but the decision should not be prejudiced by totally ignoring the noble work which has been and is being done by the Museum. No scientific man surely can be ignorant that the British Museum exists not so much for the momentary amusement of gaping crowds of country people, who do not understand a single object on which they gaze, as for the promotion of scientific discovery, and the advancement of literary and historical inquiry. We are told about the indifference of the Museum Trustees to the best interests of science, but we are not reminded frequently enough that it is

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