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the French capital." As to the justice of this remark we need only appeal to the recent numbers of the "Annales des Sciences Naturelles" and the " Nouvelles Annales du Mus(5c," which are replete with zoological memoirs of the highest interest, and to the great work on fossil birds, by Alphonse Milne-Edwards, recently completed, which is alone sufficient to refute such a sweeping accusation. That the spirit of scientific enterprise is still alive in France is, moreover, sufficiently manifest by the grand researches of Pere David in Chinese Tibet, and of Grandididier in Madagascar, while there is certainly no lack of scientific experts to bring their discoveries before the public. A more baseless and unjust attack was certainly never penned against the savants of a sister nation.

But when our English critic proceeds to suggest that either the general editor of the present work, Prof. MilneEdwards, or the joint author of the part devoted to the Reptilia—the late Prof. Dumeril (for his remarks may be intended for either of these gentlemen)— has appropriated the funds devoted to its preparation and left the labour to be performed by some inferior subordinate, the matter becomes still more serious. It is, however, sufficient to reply that no sort of evidence is given to support these statements, and that the value of Dr. Gray's ipse dixit is not sufficiently appreciated among naturalists to induce them to accept such an impossible supposition.

OUR BOOK SHELF

Sahara and Lapland. Travels in the African Desert and the Polar World. By Count Goblet D'AIviella. Translated from the French by Mrs. Cashel Hoey. (London : Asher and Co., 1874.)

At first sight it would seem that no two countries had less in common than the two about which this book is written ; but Count D'AIviella ingeniously and correctly shows, in his thoughtful preface, that they, or rather the Lapps and Arabs, have many circumstances in common. These two peoples "lead the same vagabond existence; they live exclusively upon their herds, they carry with them all they have and that they possess, and they make analogous migrations at the changes of the seasons—the Lapps from the Swedish steppes to the Norwegian valleys, the Arabs from the plains of Sahara to the pastures of Tell. In this manner of life they have both acquired the same strength of constitution, or rather the same power of resisting such fatigue, privations, and weather as would kill the most robust European. . . . Both the Lapps and the Arabs—who are rather the slaves than the masters of Nature—owe their consciousness of isolation and powerlcssness to the same superstitions, the same beliefs in spirits, to the 'evil eye,' in amulets, and in incantations. . . . Both races—restricted for centuries to a form of society unsuitable to any kind of progress—affect the same respect for the routine of their ancestors, and the same disdain for the arts of civilisation." The author concludes rightly, we think, that both peoples, incapable as they are of transformation or civilisation, are doomed to disappearance. Many attempts have been made by the Swedish and French Governments to get these nomads to settle down into civilised life, but invariably without success. The author, on the authority of M. Charles Martins, relates that the French Government gave to a number of the poorest Arabs of the Sahara some fertile fields with a ready-built village, and even a mosque in the middle of it. They reserved the houses for their flocks, and pitched their tents in the streets; until one day the nostalgia of the desert seized upon them, and they returned rejoicing to their wandering life.

■" Count D'AIviella tells the narrative of his travels in these two regions very pleasantly. He is a cheerful and observant and somewhat philosophic guide, and we can assure anyone who cares to buy this \voik,that he will get the value of his money in enjoyment and information. The narrative of the Lapland journey is especially interesting, and contains information about a people and a country that we believe many know but little about. Here will be found an account of the mode of life of a people that in many respects may be taken as the living type of the men who, ages ago, struggled for existence amid conditions very different from those which now obtain in Europe, and whose implements and remains come within the province, not of the historian, but of the geologist.

Mrs. Hoey deserves credit for her excellent translation. The volume contains a number of fairly executed illustrations.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

[The Editor does not hold himselfresponsible for opinions expressed by his correspondents. No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ]

M. Barrande and Darwinism

In the article in Nature (vol. ix. p. 228) on M. Barrande.s "Trilobites," published in 1S71, several statements are madv? which require not only considerable modification as to the facts then known, but which are entirely misleading when made to appear to represent the state of our knowledge of these acts at the present time. M. Barrande is well known to be a determined opponent to the theory of evolution, and doubtless this stionj; bias has prevented him from seeing and accepting many facts which would otherwise, to so keen and careful an observer, have seemed inconsistent with such strong views. The list of fossils given by him from the Cambrian formation, and which is reproduced m Nature, is most incomplete and inaccurate when made to refer to the Cambrian fauna of this country, as will be evident at once by referring to p. 249 of the same work, where a list of fossils discovered by me in the " Hailech or Superior Longmynd" group of Wales is given, and which includes several trilobites; and yet in the above-mentioned article it is stated "that no trace ot a trilobke has been found in the Cambrian formation." Surely no English geologist will be bold enough to deny to the name Cambrian its right to these Harlech and Longmynd rocks, whatever else it may not be entitled to. Nor, indeed, did Sir R. Murchison and the Geological Survey ever attempt such a breach, and I cannot believe that M. Barrande has realised what such an assumption means, or what it would lead to; nor can I believe that it is possible for him to have lollowers in this country in such a "violation of historic truth," and, as observed by Frof. Sterry Hunt (in the Canadian Naturalist, vol. vi. p. 448), for no oilier reason than "thatthe primordial fauna has now been shown by Hicks to extend towards their base." Surely this country, which has not only given to scientific nomenclature the name Cambrian, but which has given to all other countries the groundwork upon which to build up theirs, should have a right to explain the succession in its own way, and especially when it is proved that its succession of these rocks is clearer and more natural than has been hitherto found to be the casein any other country. Indeed it is quite clear that M. Barrande has not yet succeeded, in Bohemia, in reaching this early fauna, and it is evident also that his first zone of life is only equal in order of appearance to the latter part of our second zone, and hence the mistake to attempt to correlate our fauna with his zone.

At St. David's in South Wales, the Cambrian of the Geological Survey, consisting of red, purple, and green rocks, attains a thickness of over live thousand feet of beds resting conformably, and of these beds over four thousand feet have yielded evidence, in the form of fossils, ot life having existed in the seas in which they were deposited. The forms of life comprised annelids, brachiopods, pleropods, bivalve crustaceans, trilnbites, and sponges, and I think it would be seen on examination that the pictuie offered by this early fauna is not one in discordance with Darwinism, as assu-ried in the article in question. But as M. Barrande and the author of the article have restricted their remarks almost entirely to the trilobites, I will only ask to be allowed space to reply to the facts stated with regard to these forms of life. Trilobites have now been discovered as low clown as 4,oco ft. in these red and green rocks at St. David's, that is, in the very earliest fauna known, and amongst them are forms hitherto not discovered in any other country; still if we are to believe with some that we are here near the beginning of life on the globe, or even of trilobitic life, we can expect but little evidence to support or to disprove Darwinism. For, considering the frequent changes in the sea bottom which must have taken place at this period, to produce at one time a shingle, then a sand or grit, and then a tine muddy deposit, and such beds frequently repeated, we cannot possibly expect that during all these physical changes an unbroken record of these forms should be preserved to us. No, rather we should expect to find that the necessary migrations would produce alterations in the forms, and that they should now and again return modified and altered in proportion to the time which had intervened and the circumstances which surrounded them. And this is real y what we do find, and which is apparent at once to the pala;ontologist, who is prepared to allow and to recognise in these very marked physical changes a controlling influence capable of greatly affecting the life of the period. Again, can any one really believe, when thinking of the enormous time which must have elapsed during the accumulation of the great Laurentian scries, and possibly of other series previous and succeeding, all antecedent to the lime when the Cambrian fauna made its appearance, that the seas in which these were deposited were entirely barren of life? Surely not; therefore, why so readily jump at conclu-ions when there is so much room for doubt? Again, this Cambrian fauna is not without evidence in favour of evolution. Trilobites we know develope by increase of the body segments, and therefore M. Barrande says that the earliest trilobites should have the smallest number of segments in the thorax—" but that those of the primordial fauna are generally characterised by the opposite condition, while the number is less in those of the succeeding faunas." Now it does not seem to have occurred to M. Barrande that trilobites show every indication of having culminated at or about this period, that Iney had attained their maximum size and development, and that from this time they seem to have gradually dimini,hed in size, and to have degenerated, doubtless much in the order in which they had previously progressed. This will explain also why the number cf segments should, as he says, diminish in number in the genera of succeeding faunas. One of the very earliest trilobites we know of is the little Agnostus. It is also the simplest and apparently the most rudimentary of the group. It has no eyes, only t;vo segments to the thorax, and usually an illdefined glabella. In tracing a species of Paradoxides from the eailiest stage upwards, I was struck with the very great resemblance which, at an early stage, it had to the little Agnostus. The glabella was indistinct, and much shorter in proportion to the length of the head than in the fully grown specimen, and the eye very faint, scarcely marked out, and the outline of the head more evenly rounded, with scarcely any indication of spines. Before the discovery of the Cambrian fauna at St. David's, no genus of trilobites had been found with four segments to the thorax, therefore we had to jump from one with two to one with six, as in Tri nucleus or Am pyx. Now, however, since the discovery of Microdiscus with four segments, the gap has been filled up, and the genus, unfortunately for those holding M. Barrande's views, appears in our earliest fauna, and where the evolutionist would be most inclined to look for it. It is also a most interesting and instructive genus. It is somewhat larger than Agnostus, but like it, has no eye--. The glabella is better formed, more distinctly marked olT from the checks, and instead of being irregularly grooved, as is usually the case with Agnostus, it is furrowed regularly as in an advanced stage in the development of Paradoxides. In the caudal portion the axis is partly divided into segments, and in one species the lateral lobes are slightly grooved as if into rudimentary pleura;. It is very plentiful in the beds at St David's, and since its discovery there, species have also been found in Canada and tlsewhere.

From this stage fi rms have been found to represent every step in development as to the number of segments, and indeed often to show marked stages in other parts. Anopolenus is really a Paradoxides with enornv.us eyes, reaching to the hinder margin, and with several of the hinder pleura; consolidated together to

form a large spinous pygidium. Another Paradoxides has the eyes nearly as large as Anopolenus, but w ilh a few more segnirnt; to the thorax, and a smaller pygidium. Other jpecies show various gradations in the eyes and in the pygidium until we attain to P. Davidis, which has small eyes, a small pygidium, and the greatest number of thoracic segments. Indeed there are form* to represent almost every stage, and there can I think be no doubt that in the fauna of the Tremadoc group, which is trpsraled from the earlier Cambrian hy several thousand feet of deposits indicating a period of veiy shallow water in which large brachiopods and phyllop>d crustaceans were the prevailing forms of life, we witness a return to Very much the same conditions as existed in the earlier Canibrkn periods, and with these conditions a fauna retaining a marked likeness to the earlier one, and in which the cirlier types are almost reproduced, tlioiu;U of course greatly changed during their previous migrations. The Niobe (?) recently found in the Tremadoc rocks is truly a degraded Paradoxides, retaining the glabella and head spines, but with the rings of the thorax, excepting eight, consolidated together to form an enormous tail. Instead therefore of having here, as stated by M. Barrande, "a very important discord between Darwinism and facts," we find in tliese early faunas facts strongly favouring such a theory, and in support of evolution. Ilendon, Jan. 27 Henry Hicks

ACCORD I Ng to a notice in N Atu BE, vol. ix. p. 2 2S, a distinguished continental naturalist finds an important discordance between Darwinism and certain facts connected with Trilobites and other fossil crustaceans. But his argi m ml appears to be based on an assumption that we are acquainted with a "primordial fauna," that we are .justified in dating the beginnings of life at or near some known geological period. This, however, the whole history of geology ought to make us less and less inclined to believe. It is one of those assumptions, essentially based on ignorance, on which so little dependence can rightly be placed. We hive no right to call any fauna the earliest, merely because, as it happens, we know of none earlier.

A point is made of the fact that the earlier known Trilobites have more segments than the later, while individual Trilobites, as they develope, increase in number of their body segments. It may be granted at once that in this case the development of the individual is not an accurate picture of the past development of the species. But Fritz Muller has long ago shown that we could not, on principles of Darwinism, expect it always to be so; and surely, if Trilobites have been gradually developed rather thin abruptly created, there must have been Trilobites withySrc before there were Trilobites with many segments, so that after all, the development of the individual will carry us back to an early stage in the history of the family. It could scarcely be expected to give us all the alternations and complications which that history may have presented in its whole course.

Those who on other grounds accept the tlieory of evolution, far from finding any obstacle to it in (lie large number of geneia of Silurian Trilobites, will consider the largeness of that number clear evidence that life in general, andTrilobite life in particular, must have nourished on the globe for a very long period prior to the Silurian age.

The argument that we do not find connecting links between different genera has little immediate force. It must await the verdict ol time and further investigation. Of 252 species 0 Trilobites, 61 are assigned to England. The true reading of this piece of statistics must surely be that that which great research has done for a small area may be equalled, and fur surpassed, when as close a scrutiny is applied to the whole available surface. If no gaps between species, and genera, and orders are filled by the results of such a search, thcu it will be time to say that we have "an important discord between Darwinism and facts."

Torquay, Jan, 27 Thomas R. R, Stebbing

Perception in Lower Animals

I Relate the following, as it has some bearing on a question lately ventilated in Nature.

A friend and mysell were watching on one occasion the actions of two hall-bred Persian cats on seeing for the riw rime a freshly caught cobra, which had been placed in a wire-gauze covered box near the verandah. First of all one nf the cats, a black one, stalked carefully up to the box in which the snake was keeping up a perpetual "swearing," with extended hood, and after a

minute survey, crept away about 7 or 8 ft. off and sat down wkh its back to the snake. The other cat, a white one, now caught sight tif the strange object, and, in a like stealthy manner, advanced to within a few inches of the gauze, and was in the act of examining the cobra, when my friend, to see the result ot a suIden sound—for up to this time we had both been still as mice—moved hit feet on the gravel. Had the effect been due to electricity, it would not hare been more instantaneous, nor more startling. At the first grate of the pebbles the white cat flung himself backwards, tumbling—to use expressive terms— 'heels over head" and "allofaheap "for about a couple of yards; whilst the black cat shot vertically upwards to somewhere near four feet in height, the impulse given by the spring of his hind legs being sufficient to throw these and his tail higher than his head.

Now both these cats are tame, and bold to such a degree that they reign supreme over all thj dogs in the house, so that thetr great timidity on this occasion was evidently due to a perception of danger. I have since found, however, that all snakes are not equally feared by them. They will let the harmless green tree snake (Fasstrtia mycterizans) twine round them without showing any signs of repugnance, and soaie other harmless snakes receive but little notice fro n them. Why is this? Is it that the hood of the cobra renders it so frightful an object, or have the cats in their nocturnal wanderings been struck at by cobras? Such is possible, for we know that in nine cases out of ten the strike is made without intention to exert the deadly power of the fangs. I believe indeed that unless irritated by an attacking enemy, or to secure active prey such as rats, &c, the cobra never strikes viciously. Experience of the ease with which ill fangs are drawn an i its helplessness without them would teach it to be careful of them.

Mangalore, Sept. 17 E. H. Pringle

Earthquake in New Guinea

When crossing the main land of New Guinea, from theG;elvinks Biy in the north, to the south coast, I slept on the night of the 12th to the 13th of June, 1S73, in the swamps of the MacCluer Gait (famous for trie murder of some of the crew and the ship's-doctor of H.M.S. Panth-.r and Endeavour, Capt. MacCluer, ia 1791, and by the attack on Signor Cerruti, the Italian traveller, several years ago). About 2 A.m. ol the 13th I awoke, in consequence of a rattling noise like that ol gun-shooting. I roused my six Malay companions, who slept around me in a small native prouw, seized my guns, and listened to what would follow. But nothing happened. It was unintelligible to me what had been the cause of this noise, the natives of these parts having no guns, so far as 1 knew, and even il they had intended an attack, would not announce then' arrival by firing their guns, instead of approaching in silence. Oa the other hand, when sleeping in a virgin forest like that which bordered these swamps, crashing noises from falling trees and from animals breaking down rjtten branches often occur, but never so many together.

Nothing more being heard we fell asleep again. At about 4 A.M. the same thing happened once more. 1 remained awake. At dawn the Papooas, whom I had brought with me from the north coast—ten men—came back to my resting-place ; they had left me, to sleep apart, had heard the noise, but could njt understand it cither.

When on the 13th I came back to Papooan houses at the River Takasi, which falls into the MacCluer Gulf—a mimi'e description of which will be published very soon in " Petcrmann's Mitlheilungen "—I heard the account of a heavy earthquake, which had taken place the night bef ire ; this of course explaining the noises we had heard: many trees having broken down at the same moment in consequence of the movement of the grjund. We did nat fee! the earthquake in our small boat, because it lay entirely in the swamp, which had not propagated the shock.

On the 1SU1 I was back at my little schooner, which was at anchor in the Geelvinks Bay, near a place called Passim. The earthquake had been felt here at the same time, accompanied by heavy underground thunder, and I could make out that thedirection had been N.W. to S.E.

After some days I came to a place just at the foot of the so much spoken of Arfak Mountains, called Audai; the earthquake had been heavy here, and even more shocks were felt on the following day. The direction had been W. E. Several native houses, built on very high poles near the slope of a hill, were

destroyed, the Papooas (Arfaks) still frightened and of opinion that the earthquake had been " made" by their enemies, another tribe on the mountains.

But in the Bay of Dorey, which has so often been visited by expeditions to New Guinea and by naturalists, where I arrived a fortnight later, the shocks appeared to have been the heaviest. All the Papooas in the different settlements there were living on shore in small shelters or huts, hastily erected, whereas they are known always to live in those large houses on the water s> often described. Several of these large houses had broken down, and the natives were still very much frightened ; they would not remove into their houses on the water. On the island of Manaswari (Vtansinam), in the Bay of Dorey, the seat of a missionary, the shocks had been from S.W. to N. E. I afterwards sought information about the extent of this earthquake, and male out that it was felt at Amberbaki, on the North coast of New Guinea, at Salwatti, the island in the North-west, and on the island of Tobie, in the east. The centre had been undoubtedly 01 the Arfak Mountains. Light earthquakes sometimes occur in New Guinea, heavy ones seldom. The destruction by the last heavy one in 1S64 could even be seen by me in 1873 along the seashore from Dorey to Wariab, and up the Arfak Mojntains, in the south of the bay of Dorey. Volcanic eruptions in these parts are not known or recorded from earlier times. But one of the tops of these mountain chains bears in the native language the name of "Fire Mountain," and some of my hunters pretended to have seen on one of their excursions (some thousands of feet high) the ground split open quite fresh, in consequence ot the earthquake, as they believed.

This earthquake has not been felt in Halmabeira and the Molukkos Islands, where shocks occurred some weeks afterwards, so that the convulsions, referred to above, appear to have been local ones in New Guinea. Dr. A. B. Meyer

Sensitive Flames at the Crystal Palace Concerts

Last Saturday, Jan. 31, at the Crystal Palace, while Mr. Vernon Rigby was singing Beethoven's "Adelaida," I heard what I thought was strangely out of place—an accompaniment to the song played on the highest notes of a violin, sometimes closely following the air note for note, at other times being onethird lower. I soon found that this proceeded from one or two sensitive gas jets, notwithstanding they were at the end of the winter concert-room farthest away from the orchestra. The very perfect manner in which they responded to every note, no matter how piano, was curious.

It happened that the gas pressure had just been increased. Had this occurred earlier the effect of Mdme. Normin-Neruda's fine performance of Mendelsohn's violin concerto would have been totally destroyed, as far as regarls a large part of the audience. This shows that it is a matter of no snnll importance in a concert-room to have the size and number of the gasburners properly proportioned to the gas supply.

King's College, Feb. 3 W. N. Hartley

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

THE metropolitan photographic journals contain evidence that th2 Photographic Society of London is menaced with revolution or dissolution. If both were to befall it, the interests of Science would hardly suffer,since a more singularly inefficient organisation, under the guise of a scientific body, it would hi difficult to find, or one whose results in the scientific world are so trivial.

It is difficult indeed to conceive that a society into whose hands, fautc dc mieux, the recognition and fostering of research in so important a branch of science as photography has fallen, should have done absolutely nothing for so many years but organise itself into a pocket borough in the direction of which no man of eminent scientific capacity takes part; which not only has no scientific reports or even investigations, but seems to care only to make of itself a weak mimicry of an ar; club the chief objects of which are to prove that a photographer ought to have a chance for the Royal Academy, to discuss the most effective style of getting up portraits to revive the trade demand, and to discuss such questions as to whether portraits may be re-touched or not, and whether the printing of a photograph from a half-dozen negatives, more or less, is to be regarded as a work of design or not.

It is not sufficient to put the names of two or three wellknown men of science on the council of a society if the society show no care for science; and if the Photographic Society can do nothing more to merit the nominal position which it holds (without filling it), it is time that it should retire and give place to another. Photography has now become one of the most important aids to research in many fields of Science; every new discovery which shall develop this assistance and make its efficiency more complete is of importance to the whole world—of an importance which makes it almost incredible that the Photographic Society should not only take no part in the investigations which would lead to discovery, but should never even take recognition of them even when made, while the petty jealousies of the dominant clique have driven out of the society most of the really capable and successful investigators who have ever been in it. If the efforts at reform now being made should lead to success and the society become what it should be, a scientific body, so much the better; but if not, it is time that some new organisation should be formed to take in hand seriously the exploration of the still untried fields of chemical research, and make Photography a real branch of Science, and not deal with it merely as an amusement or a trade.

ASTRONOMY IN THE ARGENTINE CONFEDERACY TAR. GOULD, the director of the new Observatory in ■*--' the Argentine Confederacy, continues to send encouraging accounts of the progress of the great astromical works that he has there undertaken. Having laboured to determine accurately the relative brightness of all the stars in the southern heavens visible to the naked eye, he announces that a few weeks will enable him to begin the preparation of this work for publication. Great care has been taken to make a thorough and accurate comparison of the results of the four assistants, and the rule has been to determine the brightness of all the stars down to the 73 magnitude, in order to make sure of losing none as bright as the seventh.

The labour ot the Uranometry was undertaken before the arrival of the large meridian instrument, and as soon as the latter was established (namely, on Sept. 9, 1872), the observations of the zones of all stars as bright as the ninth magnitude were commenced in earnest. Each night three zones are observed whose lengths average about one hundred minutes, the entire observations for the year occupying at least eight hours. The weather is described as having been exceedingly unfavourable for astronomical work during the winter and early spring, until March, April, and May of the present year, when magnificent opportunities were enjoyed. Dr. Gould states that he has observed in all during the p.ist year about fifty thousand stars, and considers that somewhat more than half of the work of observing is already finished.

Astronomers, however, know how great a labour of computation still awaits Dr. Gould and his assistants before his results can be put into that form which is most convenient for use. The photographic work undertaken by him at his own private expense has been prosecuted with all the success that could be expected with a broken lens. Finally, however, he concluded to bespeak another object-glass, which will be purchased for the use of the observatory; and the new lens having arrived in perfect order, he hopes before long to be able to resume his labours under better auspices.

The Cordoba Meteorological Bureau, established [at his urgent representation by the national Government,

has been organised and brought into working condition as rapidly as was practicable ; but as the instruments were necessarily ordered from foreign countries, not more than half of them had arrived at the latest advices. Dr. Gould has, however, had the gratification of finding :»o gentlemen who have each carried on an uninterrupted series of observations for some dozen years past—one in Buenos Ayres, and the other near the Patagonian frontier —and he has secured the co-operation of about nfiKB correspondents. The programme issued for the instruction of his observers differs apparently but little from that of the Smithsonian Institution, the hours of observation being seven, two, and nine, local time.

[merged small][graphic][graphic]

Fig. 63. Fig. '!».

Fir,. 63.—Muscles of the Right Side of the Tongue, i. stylo-glor-a; ;,

stylo-hyoid ; 3, stylo-pharyngcus; 4, hyo-glossus; e, gemo-hywd: «.

gemo-elnsMts; 7. lingualis. Fig. 64.—Head of the Frog Phytlomedusn, showing the tongue fueJ in

front, but free posteriorly.

or tongue-bone. The tongue-bone of the frog 15, as we have seen, relatively far greater than is that of man, and the same may be said-lor the muscles attached to it> since we have no less than four muscles descending from the skull, and implanted into it, on each side. _ This fact might well be supposed to bear direct relation to the size and mobility of the frog's tongue. Th« organ in the frog and toad is singularly different from the tongues of most familiar animals, in that it is not free and moveable in front, but behind. These Batrachians take their food by suddenly throwing forwards, out" of the mouth, the free hinder end of the tongue. The inscr.t or other small animal struck by it, adheres to it, on account of a viscid saliva with which it is coated. The prey is then suddenly drawn into the mouth and swallowed.

Here then is a ready explanation of the development of the os-hyoides and its muscles. There is a difficulty however in that two toads already described, the Pips and the African form Dactylethra (Figs. 11 and 12), have no tongue whatever.

Moreover, there is another toad {Rhiuophrynus) which is even more exceptional in its order than these two; in that its tongue is not free behind, but, like that of ordinary vertebrates, in front (Fig. 13.)

The fact is, that the large tongue-bone of these animals serves, with the muscles attached to it, as much to facilitate respiration as nutrition.

It has already been said that the frog has no ribs by the elevation and depression of which it may alternately fill and empty its lungs. Neither does it possess that transverse muscular partition, the diaphragm, or midrif, which in man's class is the main agent in carrying on that function.

The lungs of the frog are inflated as follows:—The mouth is filled with air through the nostrils and kept shut while the internal openings of the nostrils are stopped by the tongue, and the entrance to the gullet is closed. Then, by the contraction of the muscles attached to it, the os-hyoides is elevated ; and every other exit from the mouth being closed, except that leading to the larynx, air is thus driven down the glottis into the lungs.

* Continued from p. 189. •

Thus for pulmonary respiration it is necessary to the frog to keep the mouth shut ; and in this way, but for the action of the skin, the animal might be choked by keeping its mouth open.

It has been already stated that the typical segmentation of the limbs is wanting in all fishes, but present in all Batrachians that have limbs at all. Similarly in all Batrachians that have limbs at all the muscles of those* limbs have essentially and fundamentally the same arrangement as in higher animals. In the higher animals, as in man, the muscles of the limbs belong to different categories named from the kinds of motion to which their contractions give rise.

Thus, when two bones are united by a moveable joint (as the thigh-bone and shin-bone) muscles which, by their contraction, tend to make the angle formed by such bones

[graphic]

Fig. 65.—Deep muscles of cxor surface of Frog's hind foot. (Tiic numbers indicate the digits to which the muscles belong.—No. I indicating the first digit or great too). ai<, abductors ; nd. adducli T ; fb, flexor brcvis; fp, flexorcs profurdi; /ph. flexorcs phalangium; op, kopponens muscles: tm, transverse muscles.

acute are termed "flexors.'' Those, on the contrary, which tend to open out such an angle are termed "extensors."

In the forearm of man, and allied animals, there are muscles which tend by their contraction to place the hand in a position either oi pronation or of supination.

When the arm and hand hang down, the palm being directed forwards, the position is that of supination, and the bones of the firearm are situate side by side.

When the arm and hand hang down, but the back of the hand is turned forwards, the position is that of pronation, and the radius crosses over the ulna. When we rest on the hands and knees, with the palms to the ground, the forearms are in pronation.

Muscles which tend to place the forearm and hand in the position of pronation are termed pronators; those which, by their contraction, tend to render it supine are called supinators.

It is somewhat surprising to find in an animal so nearly related to fishes as Menobronchus definite flexors, extensors, pro- and supi-nators essentially like those of

higher animals ; and these distinctions once established, persist up to man himself with increasing complications.

The muscular conformity between the highest and lowest of typically-limbed vertebrates is strikingly shown by the structure of the thigh and leg, the leading muscles of these parts in the frog being so like those of man that the practice of calling them by the same name is abundantly justified.

The perfection of man's hand has been justly the theme of panegyric, esteemed as widely as it is known. The delicacy and multiplicity of the motions of which it is capable are of course greatly due to the number and arrangement of the muscles with which it is provided.

One of the most important of these motions is that of the thumb as placed in opposition to the fingers, and effected by a muscle termed opponens pollicis.

An "opponens" muscle is one which passes from the bones of the wrist to one or other of the bones of the middle of the hand called metacarpals, and the opponens pollicis passes of course, as its name implies, to the metacarpal of the pollex or thumb.

No other finger of man's hand is furnished with such a muscle except the little finger, which possesses an opponens minimi digiti, passing from the wrist to the fifth metacarpal. The same condition obtains in the apes, though in them the opponens of the thumb is smaller and weaker than in man. Though the foot of man is furnished with many muscles, like the hand, yet not one of the toes is provided with an "opponens" or muscle, passing from the bones of the ankle to one or other of the bones of the middle of the foot, which latter are called metatarsals. The same is the case with the apes, except that the Orang-utan has a small "opponens ■ attached to the great toe.

This being premised, the foot of the Frog may well excite surprise as to its rich muscular structure. In addition to very numerous other muscles on both surfaces every one of the toes is provided with a separate opponens muscle, each having a muscle which passes from the bones of the ankle to its middle foot bone or metatarsal.

The question naturally occurs on beholding this prodigality of muscles—What special purpose is served by the Frog's foot? Surely mere jumping and swimming cannot require so elaborate an apparatus.

In fact, however, the Frog docs make use of his feet for a purpose requiring actions no less dexterous and delicate than nest-building.

In 1872 Dr. Gunther observed a Frog busily occupied, and industriously moving its hind legs in a singular manner. On approaching closely he found it had constructed for itself a shelter in the shape of a little bower, constructed of dexterously interwoven blades of grass. The circumstances have been kindly transmitted to the author by the observer, in a private letter, as follows :—

"The 'nest-building' Frog was a large example of Rana temporaria, or esculenta (I forget which), which I had brought into the garden behind my house. It had taken up its abode in grass, near the edge of a tank, from which the turf sloped abruptly to the level of the garden. When I first disturbed the Frog from its lair, I found that it had lain in a kind of nest, which I cannot better describe than by comparing it to the form of a hare, with the grass on the edges so arranged that it formed a sort of roof over it. Sometimes the animal returned to it, sometimes it prepared a new form close to the old one, which remained visible for several days until it was obliterated by the growing grass.

"When in its nest, nothing could be seen of the Frog but the head.

"One day I poked the Fiog out of its 1 lir; af'.er two or three jumps it returned to the old spot, and, squatting down on the grass, by some rapid movements of the hind legs it gathered the grass nearest to it, pressing it to

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