« AnteriorContinuar »
On looking at the formula? in the above table it will be seen that there is a tendency to similarity in those that are placed in juxtaposition ; and further, that the pre-ence or absence of the ambiens muscle, indicated by the signs + and —, is more constant than the other characters. Thus, among the Cueulia'a, the Ficida and Ardeida, the ambiens does not vary whilst one or other of the rest is inconstant. There are more reasons than the above for assigning primary importance to the ambiens muscle, which dej end on the nature of the tip of the oil-gland and the exca of the intestine. For, with but few exceptions, these birds which possess the ambiens muscle have caeca to the colon and a tuft of feathers on the oilgland, whilst those in which the ambiens muscle is absent, have either creca and a nude oil-gland, or a tufted oilgland and no creca. The true relationship of the exceptions is, howe\'er, indicated by other collateral characters, the most important of which is the presence or absence of the accessory femoro-caudal (B); that muscle being never found in those birds in which the ambiens is always absent, so that any bird with it developed, is certainly related to those in which the ambiens is present. These facts lead me to propose the division of the class Aves into two primary sub-classes,—the Homalogonati* in which the ambiens is present, and the A/ior/ialogonalii in which it is always absent. The former of these are printed in the above table in Roman letters, the litter in italics.
It may be asked, why, on the above principles, are the Ardeida: and the Strigida: placed with the Homalogonatous birds, especially as the latter have a nude oil-gland? The position of the latter of these two families is no doubt uncertain, but the sum of characters is in favour of the places assigned to it.
Next, respecting the most important sub-divisions of the Homalogonatous, and the Anomalogonatous birds. Taking the latter first, because they are fewer in number, and more clearly separable, they are found to fall naturally into three well-defined orders:—(1) those in which the oil-gland is nude and the ca=ca of the intestine present; (2) those in which the oil-gland is tufted and the caeca are absent; and (3) those in which the oil gland is nude and the coeca are absent. These three sections of the Anomalogonatous birds are indicated in Table I. by the corresponding numbers, the Picidae heading the first, the Pasieres the second, and the third comprising the Macrochirts only. To most ornithologists the not unreasonableness of this arrangement will be fairly apparent.
* With llic knee norm.il ; that is, with the ambiens crowing it. t With the knee abnormal; that is, with the ambiens deficient.
Table II. Class AVES
Order I. GALLIFORMES
Cohort (a) STRUTHIONES
Family I. Struthionida
Sub-fam. 1. Struthioninas
Family 1. Palamedeida
Sub-Jam. 1. Otidinas
„ 2. Pheenicopterinas
Sub-fam. 1. Centropinas
Order II. ANSERIFORMES
Family 1. Anatida
„ 03) Nasi;tm .
Family 1. Proeellariida
Sub-fam. 1. Fulmarina;
Order III. CICONIIFORMES
„ (fi) CATHARTE/E
„ (8) Steganopodes
Family 1. Falconidce
Order IV. CHARADRIIFORMES
Cohort (a) Columb.*;
„ O) LlMICOL.E
Family 1. Charadriida
„ 2. Gruida
„ 3. Lariaa
„ 4. Ale idee
Family 1. Ptcaria
Sub-fam. 1. Picidse
„ 2. Ramphastidie „ 3. Capitonidae „ 2. Upnpidce „ 3. Iiucerotida „ 4. A Iced initio:
Oraer II. PASSERIFORMES
Sub-fam. 1. Coraciinac
tVrr«- III. CYPSEUFORMES
Sub-fam. 1. Cypselinae
The Homalogonatous birds must be divided upon a different basis, and their myological formulae here come into service. Before going further it is necessary to show that the habits of the species are not the cause of their myological peculiarities in most cases, though probably in some they do affect them. The Heron and the Swallow have the same formula, and yet how different their habits? the same may be said of the Owls and the Swifts; the Kaleege and the Flamingo. The Auk and Guillemot, however, are most probably but distantly related to the Ducks and Penguins if the peculiarity in the nasal bones has the importance that I assign to it; nevertheless, the muscles of their legs agree more with them, than with the other Schizorhinal birds. By a glance at Table 11., the manner in which the Homalogonati may be best subdivided according to the facts that I have been able to bring forward, may be obtained. Commencing with the orders, the Galliformes include all those birds related to the Fowls; and notwithstanding the high opinions to the contrary, I cannot feel justified in separating the Struthious birds away from this group. It is not difficult, after having seen the formula of the Musophagidae and Cuculidae (Table I.), to recognise that these families have nothing to do with the Anomalogonatous birds, although they are peculiar in the former having no caeca, and the latter a nude oil-gland. The Psittaci also cannot be placed anywhere else.
The Ansertformes all agree, with the exception of the Storm-Petrels, which are also otherwise difficult to place, in wanting the accessory semitendinosus (Y), and in having the great pectoral muscle very elongate. The whole family of petrels are exceptions in this point also, and may have to be put in the next order, amongst the Ciconiiformes.
The Ciconiiformes include amongst them the Accipitres, but myology is in no point more clear than with regard to the unnaturalness of that family as at present defined. Every Eagle, Hawk, true Vulture, and Owl, has for formula A. The Secretary Bird, which is generally placed with them, is represented by B X Y; from which it is seen to be as different from them as it can possibly be. This shows that the position of Serpenlarius must be changed ; that it is not a raptorial bird at all; and that, as in formula and general appearance it resembles Cariama, it must be placed near it and the Bustards. Similar arguments indicate that the Cathartidas are not true Accipitrine birds, but must form an independent family, though still in the same order as the Falcons.
The Charadriiformes all possess the peculiar nasal arrangement which I have termed Schizorhinal. The Turnicida and Parndce are included with the Limicotee, and the Pteroclida with the Columba.
The justification of many of the smaller divisions of the above orders will be seen by comparing the myological formulae, and by a review of the osteological, pterylographical, and visceral arrangement of each.
In any attempt at classification on new facts, it must be remembered that there must be great inequality in the
importance of the results arrived at in each order as freshly defined. In one family there may be a uniformity in a particular structure which is greater than could possibly have been expected; whilst in another the previously constant character may be one of the most uncertain. For instance, the left carotid artery is alone presen; in all the Passerine birds that have ever been examined: but amongst the Bustards the Great Bustard has two, Daham's only the right, and Tetrax only the left. Thertfore it is not to be wondered at that myology is equallr uncertain in its indications sometimes, though on other occasions its teaching is most decided. In tie above attempt at a new arrangement, it has been my endeavour to bring forward the results of observations made during a considerable time, with the facts obtained from previous work always kept prominently in the foreground.
In a Corgregition held at Oxford on Feb. 10, ProC H. Smith introduced a statute providing that the certificate of the examiners appointed under the authority of the Delegates of the Elimination of Schools, when given in Greek, Latin, and Elementary Mathematics, be accepted in lieu of Responsions. He represented that in Mathematics the standard would be higher than in Resp jnsions; in Greek and Latin it would be equal, owing to the requirement of translation of "unseen pieces." The candidate would also have to pass in some other subject. It was therefore inconceivable that the idle should select tne Schools Examination as the easier. The standard would be kept up by the employment of the same class of examiners as in other University examination. The preamble of the statute wai accepted.
Dr H. Alleyne Nicholson, Profe sor of Natural History in University College, Toronto, has been appointed to the Professorship of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. vacant by the resignation of Dr. Traquair. Prof. Nicholson u known as the author of many papers on the Grnpt ohtes, and as a writer of several text-books of zoology.
The Smith's Mathematical Prizes have been adjudged to Mr. Walter W. R. Ball, second wrangler, 1S74, and Mr. George Stuart, B.A., Emmanuel College, Cambridge, brackets! fourth wrangler, 1874.
A Meeting of those who have signified their interest in the formation of the new Physical Society will be held on the 14th last, at 3 o'clock P.M., in the Physical Laboratory, South Ken sington.
A General meeting of the Provisional Committee for th* establishment of the Scientific Societies Club was held on Jan, :9 at the Westminster Palace Hotel, when an organising committee was appointed with a view to the early opening of the club. The number of "original members " is nearly complete, 231 gentlemen having given in their names. Among the Provisional Committee we notice the names of Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Lawson, and Prof. Morris, and others known to Science.
At the meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences on Feb. 2 the place of Correspondent of the Astronomical Section, left vacant by the election of Sir George Airy to a Foreign Associateship, was filled up. M. Tisscrand obtained 25 voes and M. Stephan 23. The former was therefore elected. At the same meeting the Academy, sitting in secret committee, received the report of the committee appointed to select candidates for the Chair of Embryology at the College of France. M. Bnlbiani was placed first, M. Gerbe second. The election was announced for the 9th inst.
We have just received from Mr. Gerard Kreflt the cast of a fossil specimen of extreme interest. It is that of one of the teeth of an extinct species of Ceratodus found with the usual Diprotodon remains in the alluvial deposits of the Darling Downs district of Queensland. This able naturalist has named the fish indicated by this fossil in honour of the present Colonial Secretary of Queensland, Ctratodus falmeri. It is larger than the corresponding tooth—the left upper dental plate—of C. forsteri, the enamel being rather coarser and the surface more undulated than that of Forster's fish. In the specimen under consideration, three of the prongs are perfect, being three-fourths of an inch in width. Mr. Krefft mentions that the existing fish is called •' Jecvinc," and not "Barramundi;" also that it never goes ashore, and is not caught, as supposed by some, with hooks baited with frogs.
The Academy has been favoured by Dr. Kirk with the following private telegram, which he received from BrigadierGeneral Schneider, C.B., Her Britannic Majesty's political Resident at Aden, with reference to the news of the death of Livingstone. Dr. Kirk considered that the details given in the telegram as published concerning Livingstone's death and the embalming of his body presented so many doubtful points which required dealing up, that he was anxious to ascertain whether Cameron had convinced himself of the accuracy of these reports by personal examination of the messengers who, it is said, preceded Livingstone's dead body to Unyanyembe, and among whom was Chumah, his servant; or whether the reports had come to his ear, before Chumah himself reached Unyanyembe, in the usual untrustworthy and exaggerated native manner. He therefore telegraphed to General Schneider ; but, as will be seen by the reply from General Schneider, it cannot be ascertained at present whether Cameron actually saw Chumah. The evil tidings may have preceded him by some days; and there is nothing for it but to wait the receipt of Cameron's written advice :—" General Schneider to Dr. Kirk.—Aden February 2 5.15 P.M.—Captain Prideaux merely says Chumah went ahead and gave intelligence to Cameron."
Tukre has been instituted by the French Government, under the Minister of Public Instruction, a Commission of Scientific and Literary Voyages and Missions. The object of the Commission, we learn from Les Mondes, is (1) to discover what are the most useful scientific and literary enterprises; (z) to examine the projected voyages and missions proposed to the Minister; (3) to study the programmes of these missions, to give detailed instructions to those who undertake them, and to carry on correspondence, if necessary, during the voyage ; (4) to examine, on their return, the works on which the voyagers have reported, and prepare their publication in a record of Missions, when that is founded; (5) to name to the Minister such voyagers as may be worthy of honourable reward after the completion of their enterprise; (6) to appeal to the various administrations to concentrate on certain enterprises all the resources at the disposal of the state. The Under-Secretary of State is President of the Commission, and M. Beule Vice-President; while, among the members are, MM. Felix Ravaisson, Conservator of the Louvre Museum, Leon Renier, Chevreul, Milne-Edwards, D'Avezac, President of the French Geographical Society.
The Paris "jfoutnal gives a curious account of an hotel situated in the Rue des Pet ties Ecuries, which has a client He of living phenomena. It is an hotel of the lowest order, which was fitted up by a French barman for housing extraordinary creatures. The konime chien and his son Fedor lived there for some time. The giant of Folies Bergeres (8 ft.) dwelt there. He was an intimate friend of a dwarf whom he carried in his arms every evening, when taking his daily promenade after dark. There art also a good many acrobats and lion-tamers admitted
into the house. Mdlle. Christine, the double sisters, were not a lodger; they had an agent of their own, an Englishman. Most of these curious specimens of humanity are placed under the direction of the hotel-keeper, who procures engagements for them at certain prices, according to their demerits, and directs them either to some of the minor theatres, concert-halls, or to the booths erected at suburban fairs. A Table d'hote of the Petites Ecuries Hotel, where all these strange creatures come together, is the most extraordinary sight in the whole town.
The sale of several works on the book-stalls at railwaystations, has ' been prohibited by the Minister of the Interior, Amongst these we notice "Les Ballons du Siege," by M. W. de Fonvielle, who, as it is known, escaped from Paris in a balloon during the investment of Paris, and delivered lectures in London. M. W. de Fonvielle, who was just returning from London when the prohibition was issued, has written to the minister in order to ascertain the real facts of that extraordinary decision.
Dr. A. Ernst prints (unfortunately in Spanish) under the title "La fecula y las plantas farinaceas del nuevo mundo," a list of 100 plants of the New World which yield starch, with detailed accounts of the more important ones.
In the discussion which followed, Sir Bartle Frere's address, at the opening of the African Section of the Society of Arts, Mr. Hyde Clarke read a letter from Lieut Maurice, Private Secretary to Sir Gamet Wolseley, dated "Head Quarters, Yancoomassie," from which we take the following extract; it may prove of some interest to students of the Science of language :—" A somewhat curious piece of word-coining, which has fallen under our notice here, may interest you in connection with the broader aspects of the subject of which you write. The Ashantees having experience of our rockets only as they come to them in destructive form at the end of their journey, call them by the sound they make, 'Schou-schou,' or something of the kind. The Fantecs, on the other hand, adopt bodily into their Language our own names for those things which they have not seen before. Thus to the Houssa or the Fantee, in speaking to one another, our rockets are named rockets, while their enemies call them schou-schou. It is possible that as war has not been in savage times an uncommon condition of mankind, analogous causes for different names having been adopted by different nations may have been not unfrequent in the past."
The Council of the Statistical Society have founded a bronze medal, under the title of " The Howard Medal," to be presented to the author of the best essay on some subject in "Social Statistics," a preference being given to those topics which Howard himself investigated, and illustrated by his labours and writings. The title of the Essay to which the Medal will be awarded in November 1874, is as follows:—"The state of Prisons, and the condition and treatment of Prisoners, in the Prisons of England and Wales, during the last half of the eighteenth century, as set forth in Howard's "State of Prisons," and work on 'Lazarettos.'" The Essays must be sent to the Assistant Secretary of the Society on or before September 30. The competition is open to any competitor, providing the Essay be written in the English language.
We called atten'ion last week to the course taken by the Perthshire Society of Natural Science, in reference to the present election of Members of Parliament. The Society sent questions to the candidates for the City and County of Perth, relating to the appointment of a responsible Minister of Education, to State help for Science, and to the promotion of scientific exploration expeditions, such as that of an Arctic expedition. The Liberal candidates sent no reply; the Conservative candidates sent favourable answers. The following is the reply of Sir William Stirling Maxwell, the Conservative candidate for the County of Perth :— "In reply to your letter, I beg to say that I have long been of opinion that the Existing Education Department, and all our Public and Literary Institutions should be placed under the general supervision of a responsible Minister. In Parliament I was generally inclined to favour the expenditure of money for scientific objects when the Government thought proper to sanction them; and an Arctic expedition, and various researches, unremunerative in a pecuniary sense, might fairly fall into the list of such objects."
In June last year Prof. O. C. Marsh, the discoverer of Dinoceras andBrontothcrium, started on a five months' geological expedition to the Rocky Mountain regions and the Pacific coast, to study, as he had done on previous occasions, the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations, which are there so rich in vertebrate remains. From Fort McPhcrson, Nebraska, they proceeded to Niobrara under the escort of two companies of United States cavalry, which were indispensable on account of the hostile position of the Indian tribes. Among the other places visited were Fort Bridger, Wyoming; Idaho and Oregon; Colorado and Kansas. The expedition was very successful, and the collections procured were large, containing many new forms. It is much to be regretted that no English geologists have accompanied Prof. Marsh, as most of the fossils peculiar to the regions he is exploring, are quite unknown in this country, except from descriptions.
There will be held at Christ Church, Oxford, on Saturday February 28, an election to a Junior Studentship in Physical Science, tenable for five years from the day of election. It will be of the annual value either (1) of 100/. (inclusive of an allowance foi room rent), if the Governing Body shall so determine; or (2) of 85/. (also inclusive of an allowance for room rent), which sum may be raised to the larger sum above-named after the completion of one year's residence, if the Governing Body shall so determine. Candidates must call on the Dean on Wednesday, February 18, at 1.30 P.M. The examination will follow at 2 r.M. Candidates must not have exceeded the age of 20 on the 1st of January last, and must produce certificates bo'h of the day of their birth, and of good character. Papeis will be set in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology; but candidates will not be expected to offer themselves for examination in all these subjects.
Prof. Cope has recently explored the beds of the late tertiary formation, called Pliocene, as it occurs in north-east Colorado. He discovered twenty-one species of vertebrata, mostly mammals, of which ten were new to science. Four are carnh-ora, six horses, four camels, two rhinoceroses, one a. mastodon, &c. The most important anatomical results attained are that all the horses of the formation belong to the three-toed type, and that the camels possess a full series of upper incisor teeth. The discovery of a mastodon, of the M. ohioticus type, constitutes an important addition to the fauna. One of the horses is distin. guished by its large head and slender legs, much longer than in the common horse. A full account of these results will shortly appear in the report of Dr. Hayden's Geological Survey of Colorado.
The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the past week include a Suricate (Suricata Scnic) from S. Africa and a West African Python (Python seba), presented by Mr' J. H. Coonley; a Feline Douracouli (Nyclipithecus fdinus) from Brazil, presented by Mr. G. Hollis; a common Kingfisher (Alccdo ispida), British, presented by Mr. A. Yates; a Collared Fruit Bat (CynonycUius collaris), an Axis Deer (Cervus axis), and a Molucca Deer (C. HtolucccnsU), bom in the Gardens ; two De Fillippi's Meadow Starlings (Sturnella Jt filippi) from Rio de la Plata, received in exchange.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES
London Royal Society, Jan. 22.—"On the Physiological Actual the poison of Naia tripudians and other Indian Venomou Snakes," II., by Drs. Brunton and Fayrer.
The results of these investigations show that the poison of tit cobra is similar in its action to thatofOphiopbagus, Bungarus, Ik other Colubrine snakes, whilst that of Daboia is similar to >*« virus of Echis, the Trimeresnri, and other viperine "inakes, the cliff difference between them being the greater tendency in rh! viperine poison to cause haemorrhage or more severe local symptoms. The blood of animals killed by the viperine ;nii« generally remains fluid after death, whilst that of animal* killed by colubrine snakes form a firm coagulum.
The conditions caused by the action of the poison sue illustrated by the symptoms manifested by man and the lower animals. The Cobra, Ophinphagus Ilydrophidsc, and Bungarus are all very deadly. The Viperine Daboia, ami Echis are scarcely less so, whilst the Indian Crotalid.v, "such as the Ttimeresuri, are much less 50. A series of experiments is drtailci which illustrate the physiological action of the virus on the nervous system, the muscles, the blood, the respiration, thc circulation, and the function of excretion, and also the modeui which death is produced.
The fatal action is shown to be due (t) to arrest of the respiration by paralysis of the muscular apparatus by which tint function is carried on. (2) Or by rapid arrest of (he heart's action, in cases where the poison has lound direct entry by a vein, i:g. the ju ular. In such, death is almost instantaneous, and the heart is found to have ceased to beat when in systole. The physiological import of this 13 very interesting and important, and it was demonstrated by Dr. liiuntun, who explained its probable mode of action in certain ^anrlionic centres in the heart; a subject which gave rise to soie dutossion; (3) or death may be due to a combination of arrest of respiration and of the heart's action; (4) or it may be jtie where the quantity of poison is small, or its quality Ics^a'-tive, to secondary causes of the nature of other septicemia, a purely pathological question not discussed.
The mode in which paralysis of respiration (the ordinary form of death) is induced, has been most thoroughly investigated, ml it may be said that the question is now settled.
The virus absorbed into the blood either by inoculation into the areolar tissue, or by application to a mucous rceraurani-, affects the cerebro-spinal nerve-centres, the nerves and their peripheral distribution, more especially of the motor nerves. The sensory nerves are less and later atiec ed, and the intellige111* generally latest of all, and slightly. The complete loss of it, and the convulsions which precede death, is mainly caused by the circulation of venous blood, the result of the impeded respiration.
Muscular force and co-ordination are gradually lost ; paralysis and asphyxia being the evidence thereol. In ordinary cases, die heart goes on beating vigorously long after apparent death, »»d with artificial respiration, may be kept up for many hours.
The investigations recorded, were made with cobra and
daboia poison, sent to England from Bengal in the dried state.
a condition in which it resembles gum arabic, and its activity is
j great. The animals experimented on were dogs cats, rabbitt.
1 i;ui"ca-pigs, fowls, pigeons, small birds, frogs. Its action on lU
I these, and the mode in whieh functions and tissues are affected,
are recorded in detail, as well as the extent to which the aclii"1
of the poison is modified when introduced through ditftW1
It has now been clearly shown that the poison acts-, wl"-'3 introduced into the stomach, or when applied to a mucous"' serous membrane. The idea that it was only effective wben injected directly into the blood, is erroneous. It is, no douM. more certainly and rapidly fatal when it enters the blood direct.
It is also shown that it may be eliminated by the exctelifS organs, and that there is, therefore, reason to hope that life m1! be saved if it can be artificially sustained long enough to octal of complete elimination being accomplished, as in the cose01 curare poisoning ; but from the more complex action of the cobra poison this remains a subject of doubt
By artificial respiration the circulation has been maintained, both here and in India, by Dr. Ewait and Mr. Richards, format"}' hour9; and in one case, after complete paralysis had occurred, symptoms of reaction and elimination were obtained; but no
complete recovery has yet occurred. The doubt still remains ■whether the nervous system that has sustained so much damage, is capable of ever resuming its functions, even though elimination be complete.
The so-called antidotes appear to be inert; all that have been submitted to trial, including the intra-venous injection of ammonia, have failed to have any satisfactory effect. Artificial respiration has certainly prolonged life, and par ial recovery lias followed, but no life has actually been saved by it.
The microscopic appearances of the blood are described, but no very remarkable change was observed beyond crcnation of the corpuscles or diminished aggregation into rouleaux. Chemical examination of the blood and its gases is still needed and farther analysis o( the poison is desirable.
It is shown that the activity of the poison is scarcely impaired by drying, excepting perhaps so far as regards its local action.
Dilution with water, glycerine, liq. ammonki1, and liq. potassx* did not destroy its activity, nor did coagulation by boiling in the ordinary way. The boiling for half-an-hour under a temperature of to2u C. seemed to destroy the activity of one specimen which was injected into a bird.
The poison acts on all life, on the lower and higher vertebrata, the invertebrata, and even on vegetable life ; for it retards, although it may not arrest the germination of seeds. But it acts most vigorously on the warm-blooded animals.
The most remarkable fact connected with it is that it has little or no effect on poisonous snakes. They can neither poison themselves nor their congeners; or if at all, very slightly so, whilst the poison acts rapidly and fatally on innocent snakes, lizards, fish, and mollusca.
With reference to the means of preventing death, it may be said that those that mechanically prevent the entry of the poison into the circulation by means of the ligature, excision, or cautery are the most reliable, but that they are only so when applied immed lately.
No means that offer any hope of benefit should be neglected, and it is po-sible that stimulants such as alcohol and ammonia may be useful ; and in some cases, where the poisoning has been severe but not fatal, do good and even determine recovery where death would have otherwise resulted. The so-called antidotes, however, beyond any actions of this kind that they may possess, are apparently quite inert.
Transfusion of blood is alluded to, but the experiments hitherto proposed have not met with success. A more perfect way of accomplishing it may be more successful.
Zoological Society, Feb. 3.—Dr. E. Hamilton, vice-president, in the chair. The secretary read a report on the additions that had been made to the society's menagerie during the month i>f January, 1874, amongst which were specially noticed a female Water-Deer (Hydropotes intrmis), a pair of Pink-headed Ducks (Anat caryofhyllacta), and a Dusky Monkey (Sentnopithectts obscurus), acquired by purchase, and two Vulturine Guinea-fowls (Xumida vuliurina), presented by Dr. J. Kirk.—An extract was read from a letter addressed to the secretary by Mr. Luigi M. L. Alberlis, containing an account of a new species of kangaroo, of which he had lately obtained a living specimen from New Guinea, and which he bad proposed to call Halmaturus liuluosus.—Dr. Cobbold communicated the second part of a series of papers entitled " Notes on the Entozoa ;" being observations based on the examination of rare or otherwise valuable specimens contributed at intervals by Messrs. Charles Darwin, Robert Swinhoe, Charles W. Devis, the late Dr. W. C. Pechey, Dr. Murie, and others.—Mr.Garrod read a paper.inwhich heproposed a newclassification of birds, details of which will be/ound in another page.
Chemical Society, Feb. 5. —l'rof. Odling, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—The secretary read a preliminary notice on the action of benzyl chloride on the camphor of the Laurace;u (Laurui eamphera), by Dr. D. Tommasi •—Dr. C. R. A. Wright had 'a piper on the Isomeric Terpenes and their derivatives: Part III. On the essential oil; of wormwood and citronelle; being a detailed account of his experiments on these sulstances, a preliminary notice of which was communicated to the society some time since.—The other communications were a preliminary notice on the perbromates, by M. M. Pattison Muir, F. R.S. E.; and on the coals from Cape Breton, their cokes and ashes, with some comparative analyses, by Henry How, D.C.L. The latter paper giving the amount of coke produced by slow and quick coking, from the main seam coal of Sydney mine, Nova Scotia, and the Lingan coal, also analyses of the ashes left by these coals. , '.
Royal Microscopical Society, Feb. 4.—Anniversary meeting.—Chas. Brooke, F.R.S., president, in the chair. The report of the council and the treasurer's statement of accounts were submitted and adopted, and the officers and council for the ensuing year were elected. The president delivered an address, and concluded with obituary notice of Fellows deceased since the last annual meeting. The following gentlemen were elected as officers and council. President—Chas. Brooke, F.R.S. VicePresidents—Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S.; J. Mi.lar, F.L.S.; W. Kitchen Parker, F R.S. ; F. H. Wenham, C.E. Treasurer —J. Ware Stephenson, F.R.A.S. Secretaries—II. J. Slack, F.G.S.; C. Stewart F.L.S. Council—J. Bell, F.C.S. ; F. Crisp, B.A. ; Dr. W. J. Gray ; J. E. Ingpen; S. J. Mclntire, H. Lee, F.L.S.; W. T. Loy; Dr. H. Lawson; H. Perigal, F.R.A.S.; A. Sanders; C. Tyler, F.L.S.; T. C. White. Assistant Secretary—Walter W. Reeves.
Royal Horticultural Society, Jan. 21. — Scientific Committee.—A.. Smee, F. R.S., in the chair.—The Rev. M. J. Berkeley sent portions of holly stems pierced by the larva of the wood leopard moth (Zeuztra sEscufi).—Prof. ThiseU. Dyer exhibited a small branch of VUis gongylodes from the Victoria Mouse at Kew. The end appeared to have been broken off, and the adjacent internodes had (apparently in consequence) swollen into a mass like a small cucurbitaceous fruit.—Prof. Lawson remarked that an Indian vine (Vitis ijuj,iiaiigularis) ordinarily had the internodes swollen, though not to anything like the same extent.—A conversation then arose as to the production of aerial roots by vines. —Mr. Worthington Smith, K.LS., detailed the results of a series of experiments made with the object of ascertaining how far perfectly sound potatoes can be contaminated by contact with infected ones.—Mr. Andrew Murray, F.L.S., made some remarks on interesting plants suitable for horticulture .which he had met with in the Rocky Mountains.
General Meeting.—Mr. W. A. Lindsay, secretary, in the chair.—Prof. Thiselton Dyer made some remarks on a parasitic fungus, which was proving-exceedingly destructive to hollyhocks. It has been identified by Berkeley in this country, and subsequently by Durieu de Maisonneuve, in France as Puccinia Maivacearum of Montagne; it was first described from specimens collected in Chili by. Bertero.
Geological Society, Dec. 18, 1873.— On some points in the connection between Metamorphism and Volcanic action, by Prof. Geikie, president. After adverting to his previously published views regarding the connection between the protrusion of granite and ordinary volcanic rocks, the author proceeded to point out that the facts were probably capable of a wider interpretation. The metamorphism of large areas was well known to be intimately relateJ to the contortion and plication of rocks, highly metamorphosed regions being those where the rocks had undergone the most intense pressure and crumpling. Heat would necessarily be evolved in the process of compression, and might have been in some parts sufficient actually to fuse the rocks. Such lused portions were probably recognisable in the masses of granite, syenite, porphyry, and other so-called igneous rocks so common in metamorphosed regions. These views were shared by many able geologists of the present day. Tne author, referring to the recent memoir of Mr. Mallet, pointed out that such conditions as those indicated by the facts of metamorphism were eminently suggestive of the probability that volcanic action had accompanied metamorphism. The extensive crumpling of the rocks of a region indicates a weak part of the crust of the earth through which the internal heat would for a time be more easily transmitted to the surface, while the effect of that crumpling would be greatly to increase the store of heat out of which volcanic energy arises. Hence both by the access given along the line of weakness to the internal heated mass of the earth, and by the increased temperature due to the contortion, water finding its way downward from the surface would encounter conditions eminently favourable for the production of volcauoes. If this speculation has any ground of truth, we should expect to find some evidence of the association of volcanic nu.:^cs wit h wide tracts of metamorphism. Without travelling beyond our own country, we seem to have corroboration of it all along the flanks of the highly-contorted, and, over the Highlands, intensely-metamorphosed Silurian hills. The author tiien gave some details as to the probable thickness of rock under which the present metamorphosed rocks of the Highlands lay at the