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Todhunter (J., M.A., F.K.S.), Experimental Illustrations, 323;
Toulouse Observatory, 513
Topham, (John), Power of Memory in Bees, 484
Trades Guild of Learning, 213, 249
"Training, in Theory and Practice," by A. Maclaren, 401
Transit of Venus, 117, 183, 230, 350, 389, 403, 447, 452, 487
"Treasury of Botany," 344
"Trees, Chapters on," by Mary and Elizabeth Kirby, 4
Trilobites, Joachim Barrande on, 228
Tristan d'Acunha, Botany of, 4S5
Tucker (R.), Todhunter's "Mathematical Theories of Attrac-
Turner (Prof.), Localisation ol External Functions, 131
Turners' Company, Freedom presented to Dr. John Phillip*,
Tuscany, Museum at Massa Marritima, 115
TjIorfEdw.B., F.R.S.), Col. Mar, hall's "Todas of South India,"
Tvmlall (Prof. J., LL.D., F.R.S.), Acoustic Transparency and
"Typhoid Fever," by W. Budd, M.D., F.R.S., 280
Units Dynamical and Electrical, of, 18
Units; Report of British Association, 312
Universities; Scientific Education at, 337; their Adaptation to
the wants of the Age, 457
Vtlocipides, Utilisation of, in Paris, 373
Venomous Caterpillars, 6
Venezuela Society of Physical and Natural Science, 71
Venn, Transit of, 117, 183, 230, 350, 389, 403, 447, 452, 487
i enus, Signalling between the Earth and, 273
Vertebrate Skull, The, 467
Vesuvius, expected Eruption, 191, 273
Victoria; Microscopical Society, 216; Philosophical Institute,
Vienna; Academy of Sciences, 175, 236, 275 ; Geological In-
Vine, Origin of the, 192
Vine Disease, 427
Vivisection, 121, 144, 177, 242, 243
Vogel (Dr. II.), Spectra of Comets, 193, of Fixed Stars, 274
Volcanic Action in New England, 332
Volcanic Eruptions, 382
Volcanic Phenomena in Italy, 427; in North Carolina, 451
Volcanic Theories, 61, 103, 322
Volcanoes, Distribution ol, 141
Wrtebrate Skull, Prof. Parker on the, 424
"Walking, Swimming, and Flying," by Dr. J. B. Petligrew,
Guinea, 102; Belt's "Naturalist in Nicaragua," 218; Sharp's
"Zoological Nomenclature," 25S; Animal Locomotion, 301,
Wallace (Dr. William), Endowment of Research, 71
Waller (T. II., and Procter, IT. R.), Kohlrausch's "Physical
Waves, Observations on their Motion, 17
on board the Challenger, 1S2
117; Killing Entomological Specimens, 162
"Elementary Geometry," 81 ; Volcanic Eruptions, 382
Wind Instalments, 516
Jordan on "Ocean Tides and Currents," 238
Yellowstone Expedition (U.S.), 92
Zodiacal Light, 42
Zoological Gardens, Additions to, 34, 54, 72, 93, 115, 132, 152,
"Zoological Nomenclature," by David Shaip, 258, 321
Zoological Society, 35, 76, 115,215, 253, 295, 334, 375, 415,
Zoological Station, Naples, 70
Zoology; Bell's "British Quadrupeds," 437; Results of the
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 1873
THE GOVERNMENT AND OUR NATIONAL MUSEUMS
WE referred last week to the intention of the Government to transfer one of the Metropolitan Museums under the control of a responsible Minister of the Crown, to the fifty irresponsible Trustees of the British Museum, this step being contemplated without referring the question either for the opinion of the Science Commission, now inquiring into these subjects, or for the authority of Parliament. We have learnt since that the measures for effecting this change are in active progress. Lord Ripon and the Trustees of the British Museum having agreed that the transfer was to be made if practicable, Sir Francis Sandford, Mr. MacLeod, and Major Donnelly, on behalf of the Science and Art Department; and Messrs. Winter Jones, Franks and Newton, on behalf of the Trustees of the British Museum; are now busy as Commissioners to find out if the transfer be practicable, and they have been exploring the South Kensington Museum for this purpose during the last week, taking notes of its contents, inspecting its refreshment rooms, its waiting rooms and the like.
What the Commissioners will propose as practicable is of course known only to themselves, if it be known even to them. Thus much, however, is known: the South Kensington Museum must remain the head-quarters of Science and Art Teaching, unless that too is to be put under the Archbishop of Canterbury and his co-Trustees, and if not, then there must be a dual Government in one and the same building, unless Mr. Lowe's project be abandoned. Now the dual Government means that one officer will represent the Archbishop of Canterbury and his co-lorty-nine trustees in the Museum, and another the Lord President of the Council. The officer representing the Department will take orders from the Lord President The officer representing the Trustees must from time to time go to Mr. Winter Jones to ascertain what the fifty Trustees have decided, and to receive his instructions how their decision is to be interpreted. Mr. Winter Vol. ix.—No. 210
Jones' labours, already said to be.ill-remunerated, will be increased, and his well-known powers of organisation sorely taxed. 'If there be two things which nature puts in ferocious antagonism one to another, it is two public officers under different responsibilities. No envy, hatred, or malice like that between two public officers. How every officer adores the Treasury! how the Audit Office loves the Treasury! what models of civil Letters the Treasury always writes to the Officer of Works, and so on.
The public has had already a specimen of this kind of dual Government at the South Kensington Museum, which has had disastrous results for Science. When the "Boilers" were first erected in 1856, the Commissioners of Patents had assigned to them a portion at the south end of the building for exhibiting those Mechanical and Scientific objects, which under a fiction were supposed to have derived their origin in "Patents." It was necessary that the visitors to all parts of the " Boilers" and to the Picture Galleries should pass through the " Patent Division." The Lord President made sensible rules for admitting the public on three days, open from 10 A.M. to 10 P.m., and three days called "Students' days," when persons not students paid sixpence each, or ten shillings a year, the object being to have three days free from crowds and kept quiet for study. After a while the Commissioners of Patents were scandalised at thus receiving public money (they are the instruments for taking seventy thousand a year from Inventors and misapplying it to General Taxation) and they said they preferred crowds every day as the most convenient public arrangement. The authorities came to open discord on the point, and the matter could only be resolved by separating the " Patent" from the other collections. So the Patent Commissioners built a separate entrance for themselves. What has been the result? About eight millions of visitors to the South Kensington Museum who would otherwise have seen the "Patent Museum" have not done so, and the Commissioners have deprived themselves and their museum of the moral support of these great numbers. And what has been the result of this? The Chancellor of the Exchequer has been allowed to sack more than a million of pounds sterling realised from the taxes imposed on inventors' patent fees, and has not allowed one farthing to be spent for the provision of a suitable building for the "Patent Museum." Anything more discreditable to the nation than the building now crowded with models cannot be conceived. Many of the passages are not eighteen inches wide! What the present Lord Chancellor, the head Patent Commissioner, would say if he were ever to see it, cannot easily be imagined. We advise his Lordship to hold a Board in the building as soon as possible. It will probably be the first Board of Patent Trustees that ever sat there. We are satisfied that the result would be that he would instantly cause the present exhibition to be closed, and adequate space found elsewhere. Then what have inventors got in return for the tax of a million drawn from them? And what may not invention have lost by this indefensible principle of taxation?
Here then is already a very practical illustration of dual government in the South Kensington Museum already ; one part of that government being composed of Trustees,who,it is reported traditionally, have never once met as a Board in their own Museum to see what was imposed upon a suffering public, upon their responsibility. We do not believe such a state of things would have been suffered under South Kensington administration. Mr. Lowe, when Vice-President, of the Council would not have suffered it.
The indifference of the British Museum Trustees to some of the best interests of Science in their own museum has been denounced again and again by commissions and committees, who report and report, but make no impression on a corporation of fifty trustees. That alone is a reason why they should not be allowed to meddle with South Kensington.
Although, as we have stated, this proposal was made without reference either to theopinion of those to whom the interests of Science and Art are more precious than they are to the members of the present Government, or to the opinion of the House of Commons, we learn that Mr. Mundella has extracted a promise from Mr. Gladstone that nothing shall be decided until Parliament meets again. Mr. Gladstone is perhaps surprised that there is any public interest in the subject. In the meantime, to assist him to form a correct judgment, we advise every learned society, which takes any branch of Science under its care, to memorialise the Prime Minister, and point out the crying necessity of a Minister, who shall be responsible to Parliament for Science, among other matters, and for all museums; that to transfer a museum already so represented to irresponsible trustees is a step worthy of the Middle Ages ; and finally, that while the South Kensington system represents everything that is best in the way of progress, so much, to say the least, cannot be urged in favour of the present management of the British Museum.
We can well understand the reason for the proposed change. It lies in the individual responsibility of a Minister and the energetic executive management which have raised in a few years the South Kensington Museum into an institution of which the nation has the greatest reason to be proud; which has made it the centre of the chief intellectual activity of the country, which has utilised its resources for the teaching of hundreds of thousands of our teeming populations. The British Museum Trustees have done
none of these things; they have given no trouble; they have borne snubbing admirably when they have moved, which has not been often. They have, in fact, proved .in admirable buffer between subordinates anxious for progress and the Government; and, further, they have not been represented in the Cabinet. The moral which the Government has drawn from these facts is, that the South Kensington energy should have such a buffer, and in the existing members of the British Museum have found one ready to their hand. Hence the proposal which, if we mistake not, will, when it is generally known, not find J single supporter out of the Cabinet. It is quite possible that already it finds not many supporters in it.
BAIN'S REVIEW OF "DARWIN ON EXPRESSION"
Review of" Darwin on Expression.'' Being a Postscript to "The Senses and the Intellect." By Alexander Bain, LL.D., Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. (Longmans, Green, and Co.)
'"THERE is nothing in this Postscript to " The Senses and the Intellect" so important to psychology as the declaration and announcement contained in the following sentences: " In the present volume I have not \ made use of the principle of Evolution to explain either the complex Feelings or the complex Intellectual powers. I believe, however, that there is much to be said in behalf of the principle for both applications. In the third edition of 'The Emotions and the Will,' now in preparation, I intend to discuss it at full length." No man can claim to have done more for the study of psychology than Prof. Bain; and in now recognising the principle of evolution and in incorporating it with his system, he is doing the science the greatest possible service. This is more than in some quarters was ever hoped from Prof. Bain, and more than was ever feared by those of his disciples who—after the manner of disciples—have clung most tenaciously to the defect* of his system.
Though accepting the principle of evolution, Prof. Bain does not, it would seem, always look at phenomena from the evolutionist's point of view, as we understand it. Thus, in speaking of the large extent to which Mr. Darwin uses the principle of inheritance to account for the phenomena of expression, he says :—" Wielding an instru ment of such flexibility and range as the inheritance of acquired powers, a theorist can afford to dispense with the exhaustive consideration of what may be due to the primitive mechanism of the system; he is even tempted to slight the primitive capabilities, just as the disbeliever in evolution is apt to stretch a point in favour of these original capabilities." But whence the so-called " primitive mechanism" which is here made separate and distinct from, set over against the products of inheritance? is not the "primitive me chanism" the "original capabilities " of every creature the res ults of evolution?
Mr. Darwin is accused of not having given sufficient attention to " spontaneity of movements," which, according to Prof. Bain, " is a great fact of the constitution.' Now it may be that a " readiness to pass into movement, in the absence of all stimulation wh atever," is a fact of the constitution; but we fail to see that Prof. Bain has given any proof that such is the case. He says :—" We may never in our waking hours be wholly free from the stimulation of the senses, but in the exuberance of nervous power, our activity is out of all proportion to the actual solicitation of the feelings." What is the right proportion of activity to feeling? the proportion that Prof. Bain takes as his standard by which to discover that at times our activity is out of all proportion to feeling. Is not the simple and the whole fact this, that the amount of bodily movement that goes along with a given amount of feeling is different in each individual, and in the same individual from hour to hour. He continues :— "The gesticulations and the carols of young and active animals are mere overflow of nervous energy; and although they are very apt to concur with pleasing emotion, they have an independent source? their origin is ttwre physical than mental." Is not the origin not of these only, but of all movements, entirely physical, though it is also a fact that some movements, and certainly these among the number, concur with pleasing emotion? Mr. Darwin has instanced the frisking of a horse when turned into an open field, as an example of joyful expression; on which it is remarked, this " is almost pure spontaneity it does not necessarily express joy or pleasure at all. How carious! One must really be a psychologist before he can see common things in such an uncommon light. Fethaps. no movement necessarily expresses any state of consciousness whatever: but no ploughboy, we venture to think, ever doubted that the frisking of his horse, when he turned it loose in the field, was an expression of delight. But, then, ploughboys have no theories about spontaneous activity. All mental states correspond to certain physical conditions; that "the nerve-centres and the muscles shall be fresh and vigorous " is the physical condition of much bodily activity, and at the same time of Vbe pleasure that goes along therewith. Granting that "the kitten is not seriously in love with a worsted ball," it thoroughly enjoys the sport nevertheless. Its amusement being mere play does not preclude its being real pleasure. And if our memories can be trusted, the worsted balls of our childhood were far more delightful lhan the gold and substantial realities we seriously love in our o'.d age. S.
"LAHORE TO YARK AND"
Lahore to Yarkand. By Geo. Henderson, M.D., and
Allen O. Hume. (L. Reeve & Co.)
TO Mr. Forsyth, the able conductor of the expedition which they describe, the authors dedicate this handsome volume, which, instead of being a continuous narrative, is divided into three separate parts, each of which will appeal to a different class of readers. The description of the route, and the incidents encountered oa it, are given by Dr. Henderson, who with Mr. Forsyth iad Mr. Shaw were the only Europeans that went to Yarkand on this " friendly" visit, sent by our Government to the Atalik Ghazi; it occupies two-fifths of the work, The natural history of the living forms met with, mostly by Dr. Hume, fills about one-fourth; the rest consisting of meteorological observations taken by Dr. Henderson on the journey. The difficulties that had to be encountered en route were
many and severe; the'desert nature of the road between the districts of Ladak and Yarkand made it almost necessary to discontinue the expedition, and the great heights that had to be surmounted put a check on rapid progress, in some parts rendering it impossible.
Several opportunities occurred for the observation of the physiological effects of higher altitudes and rapid changes of barometric pressure, one pass near Gnishu which had to be traversed, named Cayley's Pass after Dr. Cayley its discoverer, being 19,600 feet above the level of the sea. From Dr. Henderson's remarks, however, it appears that mountain sickness is not dependent on the rarity of the air alone, for during the time that the expedition was in the pass mentioned, no note was recorded of any of the number suffering from it, whilst previously, on the Chang-la, which is 18,000 feet, most of the camp suffered from severe headache, nausea, prostration of mind and body, together with irritability of stomach and temper; nevertheless observations at the time showed that the pulse was not unusually rapid and the respiration was but little, if at all, increased. The feeling of suffocation occasionally experienced on waking during the night usually passed off after a few deep inspirations had been made. It is much to be regretted that, with the opportunities of verifying and extending Dr. Marcet's observations on the effects of ascending and descending mountains, Dr. Henderson was not in a position to do so, which he undoubtedly would have done if he had been acquainted with them.
Shortly after leaving Patsalung, and when on the southern boundary of Hill Yarkand, " nearly ten miles of the way was over a plain about five miles wide, which was covered to a depth of many feet (in one place where cracks existed, to not less than twenty feet) with sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts), pure and white as newlyfallen snow." This shows the abundance of a magnesian limestone in the surrounding higher ground, and as the water-supply of the city of Yarkand was from rivers which rose in this or similar hills, the author's remark that "about every third man we saw was afflicted with goitre," is scarcely more than was to be expected, and we think that if, instead of making "over to the D;ld Khwah a quantity of iodine, for the treatment of goitre, at which he was very much pleased," he had proposed a change in the water-supply, the Yarkandis would have been the gainers in the long run.
As the Atalik Ghazi was away at the time Mr. Forsyth arrived at his destination, and as the latter had strict orders to return before winter, the mission was partially unsuccessful. The return journey being later in the year, the cold and discomfort were greater than on the march north; an idea may be formed of the acuteness of the cold from the author's note on the Sukat pass. "My ink was constantly hard frozen, and on several occasions when I thawed it before the fire and attempted to write in my pencil notes, it froze at once on the point of the pen. Several times 1 tried to photograph, and once or twice succeeded, but usually the tepid water used for washing the plate froze as I poured it from the jug, and instantly destroyed the picture."
The illustrations of scenery, which in many books of travel are but indifferently drawn, and disappointingly inaccurate, are in this work replaced j by "heliotype prints"