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clusively constructed to pass the whole of their lives in trees that they can move along the ground only with difficulty-—such is the case with the sloths. Porcupines, which in the old world have short tails, in the new world have long and prehensile ones. An animal allied to the Badger — the Kinkajou (Ccrcoleptes caudivolvulus)—similarly acquires in South America a long and prehensile caudal appendage. Even the Fowl and Peacock Order of Birds becomes in South America more strictly arboreal than elsewhere (being represented by the Curassows), and the very geese find there a congener {Palamedia) specially

adapted to dwell in trees and destitute (like the frog Phyllomedusa before mentioned) of a web-like membrane between the toes.

We have now advanced a further stage in seeking a reply to the question, " What is a Frog?" We have now viewed it in the light to be derived from a consideration of the more noteworthy forms of the frog's order.

We may next inquire what are its next nearest allies? What other animals of the class Batrachia constitute an order which approaches nearest to the frog's order Anoura?

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his class other creatures (insect-eating, flesh-eating, and of the squirrel kind) which more or less closely resemble some of the lower members of man's order. When, however, amongst Batrachia, we go outside that order to which the frog belongs, we find in his class no creatures whatever which present anything like such an approximation to any members of the frog's order as is presented by the mammals above referred to certain members of man's order.

The Efts (or Newts) with their allies—hereinafter noticed — constitute the second order Urodcla of the class Batrachia.

This order is very unlike the first and already described order {Anoura), in that it is composed of creatures which in many respects are strangely divergent; and though most of the species more or less resemble our own Efts (or Newts) in shape, yet the Urodcla are very far from constituting such a homogeneous group as are the Anoura.

It will be well now to review some of the more striking forms contained in the order.

The Land Eft (Salamandra), though common in Holland and France (as well as the rest of Europe), is unknown in this country.

Genera allied to the European genera Triton axuiSalamandra, and to the American genus Amblystoina, may have the body and tail more and more elongated and the legs reduced, as in Spclerpes, Chioglopa, and (Edipina, till they attain the condition of Batrachoceps. The greatest excess of this development, however, is found in the North American genus Amphimna, the minute limbs of which have cither three or two toes, according to the species. These creatures are called by the negroes ■ Congo Snake," and arc quite erroneously regarded as venomous.

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to each hind foot. Passing its whole life in perpetual darkness, it is blind and colourless, except the external gills, which are red. This animal retains during the whole of life not only the gill aperture on each side, but also the external plumose gills which are transitory in the Anoura and in all the Urodela hitherto mentioned. Here then we first meet with an animal which may be said to be a permanent and persistent Tadpole, yet rather like an Eft-tadpole than like that of the Frog.

A North American Urodele, misnamed (for it is silent enough) Siren, also presents us with permanent external gills, and it offers another interesting resemblance to the tadpole of the frog in that it is furnished throughout life with a horny beak. It has also another remarkable character in which it stands alone in its class. Hitherto every reluive of the frog has had, like it, four limbs in the adult condition. In the Siren, however, we for the first time make acquaintance with a creature belonging to the class (though not to the order) of frogs and toads, which is devoid altogether of hinder (or p-lvic) limbs, being in this respect like the whales and porcupines amongst beasts, and like the little lizard, Chirotes, amongst reptiles.

Another North American Urodele, Menobranchus, possesses throughout the whole of life both gill openings and external gills. But it is furnished with four limbs, and in other respects more or less resembles in appearance, as it does in size, the genus Mcnopoma before noticed.

Finally there is a genus of this order (Urodela) which has of late presented circumstances of peculiar interest. This is the Axolotl of Mexico, which was long considered by Cuvier to be a large Eft-tadpole, possessing as it does permanent gills and gill-openings, with some other characters common to the Eft-tadpole stage of existence. At length, however, its mature condition was considered to be established by the discovery that it possesses perfect powers of reproducing its kind.

For some years, individuals of this species have been preserved in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and a few years ago one individual amongst others there kept was observed, to the astonishment of its guardian, to have transformed itself into a creature of quite another gtnus— the genus Amblystoma, one rich in American species, Since then several other species have transformed themselves, but without affording any clue as to the conditions which determine this change—a change remarkable indeed, resulting as it docs not merely in the loss of gills and the closing up of the gill-openings, but in remarkable changes with respect to the skull, the dentition, and other important structures.

There is, moreover, another and very singular fact connected with this transformation. It is that no one of the individuals transformed (although we must suppose that by such transformation it has attained its highest development and perfection) has ever yet reproduced its kind, and this in spite of every effort made to promote reproduction by experiments as to diet and as to putting together males and females both transformed, also transformed males with females untransformed, and males untransformed with females transformed. Indeed, the sexual organs seem even to become atrophied in these transformed individuals. Moreover, all this time the untransformed individuals have gone on bringing forth young with the utmost fecundity, no care or trouble on the part of their guardians being required to effect it.

A fact more noicwortny could hardly be imagined in support of the view of specific genesis put forward recently.* Here'we have a rapid and extreme transformation taking place according to an unknown internal law of the species which trans'orms itself. No one, moreover, has been able to detect the conditions which determine such transformation (though it takes place under the eyes, and in the midst of the experiments of

• Sec Genesis of Species, chap. xi.

its observers). This latter fact affords abundant eviderjo how obscure and recondite may be the conditions whit> determine the transformations of specific genesis, at. how utterly futile are observations as to an apparent bom» geneity of readily appreciable conditions. Tbey ar: since it seems to be just such recondite ones which reii determine the changes just referred to, and protubl; therefore, other changes analogous to them.

It may be a question whether the genus Mcnobra'.: :■ may not also be a persistent larval * form, and one vr'tas now never attains its once adult form. If so, it is Bk probable that its lost state was similar to that of theaclusively American genus Speterprs, the larva of wriii Menobranchus much resembles. With respect to Pro'-.. and Siren no conjecture of the kind can yet be made,

Individuals belonging to the common English spece (Triton cristalus) occasionally retain some of the esters:.' characters of immaturity, in spite of having attained reproductive capability; and a European species (Tn~ ajpertris) often matures the generative elements while si as to external appearance, more or less in its tadpole siiP I of existence. The adult condition, however, is nann:^ and generally at ained by it

The geographical distribution of the Urexirla is wrj remarkable. North America is the head-quarters of tt£ order, and, with rare and trifling exceptions, the wh^ 1 are confined to the Northern hemisphere. The exception I are certain forms which extend down the Andes tats South America, and one or two species of Atnb/rsbx~ which similarly descend along the highlands of Soc« Eastern Asia. Urodeles are absolutely wanting K Hindostan, Africa south of the Sahara, the Indian Ardvpelago, Austialia, and New Zealand. As might be & pected, that part of Asia which is nearest to Nora America, namely China and Japan, is the region o( tM old world most richly peopled by species of Urodela- Ar together the world's surface may be divided accordmf TM its Urodele population into three regions. The first wiu comprise Europe, Africa north of the Sahara, and North Western Asia. The second will include Japan and Eastern Asia. The third will be formed by Now America, with a slight extension southwards into Sou'J America—a division which by no means coincides it'"1 that indicated by the Anoura.

The above two orders (Anoura and Urodela) coropns? all the animals most nearly allied to the common frog,oI all those outside its own order. There is, however, another small ordinal group of animals which remains w be here noted, because of all existing creatures they connnearest to the frog, after the Urodela.

(To be continued?)


Opening Address By The President
T T is now seventeen years since the Government first
■^ recognised the claims of our Society to encouraSJ'
ment and assistance on the part of the State, as one«'hic»
devoted itself to scientific pursuits unremunerative to its
members, but tending directly or indirectly to public
benefit; and since then a sense of the justness of suc"
claims on the part of pure natural science has become
gradually more general. We are no longer in the A1/5
when a Peter Pindar could turn the Royal Society and its
president into ridicule as boiling fleas to ascertain
whether they turned red like lobsters. The Times, f-
stead of a short leader dismissing the British Association
meetings in a similar strain of banter, devotes dad)'?
during the time of its session, half a dozen columns to trie
details of its proceedings. And our own department in
natural science is now admitted to be one of the most im-

* The young of the Frog or Eft is called a larva.

portant branches of general science, specially important iu its relation to our material prosperity. Our food and raiment, the essentials of life, are derived exclusively from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and biological products contribute largely to many of our luxuries, whilst on the other hand some of the greatest calamities with which we are afflicted are due to the rapid development of animal or vegetable life. Many arc the associations, under Government as well as individual patronage, devoted to the improvement and increase of useful animals and plants ; and of late attention has been also devoted to the arrest of the ravages of the noxious ones, the balance ol natural selection being disturbed by the interference of agriculture and animal education. The due study of the means of restoring this balance, of turning it more and more in our favour, of calling in to our aid more and more of the hitherto neglected available species, or of the hitherto latent properties of those already in use, of checking the progress of blights and murrains, requires a thorough knowledge of the animals and plants themselves, and that thorough knowledge can only be obtained by that scientific study not only of particular animals and plants supposed a priori to be useful or noxious, but of till animals and plants, which it is the special province of our Society to promote. And in this respect 1 think it will be generally admitted that we have not been neglectful of our duty, and that we have done our part in rendering effective the support we have of late years received from Government as well as from individuals, and in establishing a sound claim for its increased continuance. Besides the aid afforded to scientific researches by our largely augmented library, the great value of the papers published in the recent volumes of our Transactions and Journal has been acknowledged abroad as well as at home. It is in our Society, for instance, that the great Darwinian theories were first promulgated ; and it must be recollected that the five or six hundred copies of our publications regularly sent out, place the researches they exhibit at once at the disposal of the leading followers of the science in all parts of the world. It is true that these great additions to our efficiency are not entirely due to Government patronage, but arc the direct results of the reforms introduced by Dr. Hooker in 1855. Those reforms, however, would have lost much of their effect had we remained confined to our old quarters in Soho Square. Cramped for space in those obscure and dingy rooms, it required a strong devotion to science to induce an adequate attendance at our meetings ; and saddled with a heavy rent, we could neither purchase books for our library nor find room on our shelves for those presented to us.

In the spring of 1S56, however, an opening was made for our obtaining rooms in Burlington House. I was then on the Council, and joined heartily in the conviction of the importance of availing ourselves of the opportunity, notwithstanding the heavy expense it might entail, which 1 fell confident we could cover by a subscription amongst our fellows. Our President undertook the preliminary negotiations, and at the meeting of our Council on June 11 a letter was officially communicated to us addressed by the Secretary of the Treasury to the President of the Royal Society, allowing the temporary location in Burlington House of the Linnean and Chemical Societies with the Royal Society, upon certain conditions; those which affected us being, that the Royal Society should be put in possession of the main building of Burlington House on the understanding that they would, in communication with the Linnean and Chemical Societies, assign suitable accommodation therein for those bodies, and that the Fellows of the three societies should have mutual access to their three libraries for purposes of reference. Our Society/at a special general meeting held on the 17th of the same month, authorised the Council to take the ne:essary steps for carrying out the proposal of the

Government, and in the following February 1857 the Royal Society assigned to us the rooms which we have since occupied under the above conditions. A subscription was organised which ultimately amounted to nearly i, 100/., sufficient to defray all expenses of parting with our old rooms and fitting up the new ones, with a very small surplus, which was carried to the general account. In the same month of February I was associated with our then active and zealous President and Secretary, and with Mr. Wilson Saunders as a Removal Committee, and on Tuesday June 2 the Society was enabled for the first time to meet in their new rooms.

Our position, howes-er, although so great an improvement upon Soho Square, was not yet quite satisfactory. It was provisional only, and under the wing, as it were, of the Royal Society, and liable at any time to be exchanged for a worse or a better one as the case might turn out. This uncertainty is now removed. The Government, rightly understanding the relations which ought to prevail with the scientific societies judged to be deserving of their support, obtained from Parliament adequate means for providing ample accommodation to the six societies here located, without reserving any right of interference with or control over their scientific operations. Thus our new quarters have assumed a permanent and independent character, the rooms have been built and fitted up expressly for [our Society, and, having followed out all the arrangements, I feel bound to acknowledge the effective manner in which the liberal intentions of Government have been promoted and carried out in detail by the architects, Mr. Barry and the late Mr. Bankes. When the plans for the new building were first being prepared, some six or seven years since, we were applied to for particulars of the accommodation we should require for our library and meetings, for the transaction of the business of the Society and for the residence of our librarian and porter. We were not consulted, it is trae, about the general arrangements in relation to the other societies, and we have to regret the cessation of that close juxtaposition and intimate intercourse with the Royal Society which was so agreeable to us, but in all other respects our requisitions were fully complied with in the plans prepared and sent to us for approval, and the only alteration since made has been the curtailment of a portion of the basement premises in favour of the post-office, which rather inconveniently limits the stowage room for our stock of Transactions. With this sole exception we have the space we asked for, and the bookshelves and such other fittings as have been provided by Government have been worked out in the most satisfactory manner.

Our removal here has necessarily been attended with considerable expense, the precise amount of which cannot yet be calculated, but it will probibly exceed 6od/. The Council have, however, not thought it necessary to call for any special subscription. The investments made during the past year have been partially with a view to the present occasion, and the gradually increasing sale of our publications and general appreciation of the value of our labours has been so far adding to our receipts that we closed last session with a much larger balance in hand than usual, and we hope to clear ourselves of the liabilities we are incurring, without reducing our invested funds much below 2000I. At the same time, we must not conceal from ourselves that we shall be called upon for a considerable increase in our expenditure. Our enlarged accommodation, combined with high prices, will add much to our household expenses. We are threatened with a repeal of the Act which exempts us from parochial rates. Nearly the whole of our library having within the last three weeks passed through my hands, 1 have become convinced that it will require a large outlay in binding, as well as in filling up gaps to render it really etricient. And, above all, we must bear in mind that the chief means we have of promoting the scientific objects fcr which we are associated, the only way in which we can render them available to our numerous Fellows resident in our colonies, is through our publications, and heavy as have been of late years our printer's and artists' bills, they will and ought to become heavier and heavier still. To render fully available the assistance we have received from Government, we require continued and increased support from our Fellows, and from the scientific public. We reckon already among our Fellows the great majority of those who have acquired a name in zoology, or botany, and I sincerely hope that all men of means who take a sincere interest in biological pursuits will think it a pleasure as well as a duty to contribute directly or indirectly to the support of the Linnean Society of London.

With regard to future arrangements in the new phases of life into which the Society has entered, the Council has kept in view three great objects, the endeavour to render our Meetings attractive, the extended usefulness of our library, and the steady maintenance of our publications. On meeting-nights the library will be open at 7 o'clock, the chair will be taken in the meeting-room at 8 o'clock, as at present, and after the meeting the Fellows will adjourn to tea in the Council Room upstairs, opposite to, and in direct communication with the library. The extended shelf-room in the library has enabled a classification of the books which will render those most frequently consulted much more readily accessible than heretofore; and as evidence that there is no relaxation in our publishing department, I have to announce that besides the two numbers of our Journal, one in Zoology, and the other in Botany, which have been sent out since our last meeting, two new parts of our Transactions are in the course of delivery, the concluding one of Volume XXVIII., and the second of Ccl. Grant's Volume XXIX. The first part of Volume XXX is in the printer's hands.


ON Thursday night last the Chemical Society met for the first time in the new apartments assigned to it in the right-hand front wing of Burlington House. The event was a notable one, and it is not often that such an occasion happens to the president of a hard-working body of scientific men as last Thursday fell to the lot of Dr. Odling when he rose to welcome the fellows to their new home, and he might well feel it his duty to break for once the tradition which imposes silence on the president on the first night of the session.

Dr. Odling accordingly rose and proceeded to bid them welcome to the new rooms, and then to give in a few words a general statement of what had been done in relation to the taking possession of them by the society. This it seems had been by no means an easy matter, as but a few days back the society was still in its old quarters without a book of its library moved, and the present apartments were in a damp and generally unfinished state.

Thanks, however, to the exertions of the Council and especially of the Junior Secretary (Dr. Russell), who were most kindly met and aided in their endeavours by Mr. Barry (the architect) and the Clerk of the Works; the new rooms were got into a habitable condition, the books in great part placed in their cases, and the meeting-room provided with seats in time for the first meeting of the session.

The rooms in question at present in use consist of the library, a noble room on the second floor, well capable of holding the books of the society for some time to come. That for meetings, below the library and overlooking Piccadilly, is capable of seating nearly twice the number of listeners that could be provided for in the old quarters. The seats, however, are somewhat crowded, and though

the room is provided with double windows there is a cons derable noise from the street The president, however, held out hopes of a wooden or asphalt pavement being before long laid down in front of the building, and we hope a poio: of such importance will not long be neglected by theauti* rities. The most noticeable point, however, is a laborator; placed on the right-hand side of the meeting-room ini opening into it with double doors immediately behind the lecture-table. This, though at present not quite ready for use, is supplied with every fitting of a goal laboratory, and will shortly be provided with the necessary apparatus and re-agents. According to the president "whatever may be its subsequent use, it is intended at pre sent to place it at the disposal of those authors whi may wish to illustrate their papers with experiments. We do not know whether the words of the presides imply an intention on the part of the society to aid rt search by granting the use of its laboratory in such case-, as it may think deserving, but in any case the socier. deserves the thanks of every scientific man for so admirable an innovation as a room for the preparation of expe riments.

Dr. Odling in his speech alluded to the " childish pleasure, childish in its earnestness and simplicity," whi which a chemist looks upon a new experiment. Wt quite a>_;ree with him as to the fact of its existence, hat we think that this desire to see answers a far higher purpose than that of mere pleasure. The science of the chemist is essentially a science in which, to quote a popular phrase, "seeing is believing," and nothing cun be more wearisome than the constant repetition of the description of reactions, or the recounting of qualitative 01 quantitative results unenlivened by a single experiment. Such descriptions quite fail to lay hold upon the mind. except at the expense of a wearisome strain, and the consequence is that many a valuable paper loses half or all its effect when read (which should be to raise discussion 1, simply because in an attempt to describe lacts the author loses sight of the necessity of succinctly generalising therefrom.

In the meantime what have the other societies afiectw by the changes in Piccadilly been doing to provide fci the experimental illustration of papers? and especial!* what has the Royal Society done in the direction to which we have alluded? We are informed on the best authority —nothing! The rooms of the latter consist as did the temporary ones, simply of those requisite for the accomodation of the library and for the reading of papers. Now is the Chemical Society right? If so the Royal Societ; is wrong. It has not done all when it has provided coin fortable reading-rooms for its members, and a placr where its secretaries can read the papers to a few silcni Fellows who are sparsely scattered over the benches. The reading and publication of papers is not all that a great and wealthy society can or ought to do for the advancement of science. Whyshould its laboratories notentt as well as its library?

There is no reason why the meetings of the societies instead of being, as some of them now arc, dull reunions only attended by the Fellows as a matter of duty, should not be made more useful to men of scienceWhat could be better than to see them attended by the more advanced of the younger students of science, as the meetings of the Chemical Society now very often are, who might there see how the better known workers demonstrate their discoveries, and how their papers arc examined and discussed. Unless some attempt is made to give the other societies a greater gTasp over the several classes of workers to which they moie directly appeal, they will infallibly lose the guiding power they hate hitherto had, and the advantages conferred by their organisation in the propagation of scientific knowledge will be lost. It behoves the Royal Society in particular to show the way to the others in following in the steps taken with such signal success by the chemists. If it does not do so, but allows itself to be left behind, it must soon see many of the most important papers sent to the Chemical or to such of the other societies as may choose to provide the means of properly illustrating them.

It may be urged that if papers are to be experimentally illustrated, all cannot possibly be read. We can only say so much the better. Why should not a society's council exercise a wise discretion, and relegate some classes of papers at once to the "Journal," the proper place for many a mass of numerical data now perforce read, but of which discussion is impossible?

F. C. S.


We regret to announce the death, on the loth inst., of Mr. B. F. Duppa, F.R.S., well known for his numerous and important researches in organic chemistry. He was educated at Cambridge, and was afterwards, in the year 1857, a pupil in the Royal College of Chemistry. Within a period of eleven years he published, partly alone and partly in conjunction with Mr. W. H. Perkin and Dr. Frankland, no less than twenty papers, most of which appeared in the Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society. The most important of these researches related to the action of bromine and iodine on acetic acid, the artificial production of tartaric acid, the formation of organic compounds containing mercury, and the synthetical production of numerous acids of the fatty and acrylic series. Mr. Duppa was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1S67. Being a man of independent means, he never applied for, nor held, any scientific appointment, but formed one of that small band of enthusiastic and disinterested amateur workers of whom England may justly feel proud, and to whom she is so much indebted for a very large proportion of the contributions which she has made to the progress of science.

Mr. Mitchell, of Old Bond Street, is, we believe, about to publish a portrait of the late Dr. Bence Jones, engraved by Holl from the beautiful drawing by Mr. George Richmond, R.A.

The following awards have been made by the French Geographical Society :—2,000 francs to M. Dournaux-Dnpere\ who has just set out for Timbuctoo; this gentleman has also received a similar sum from the Minister of Public Instruction; 2,000 fr. to M. Francis Gamier, to aid him in his explorations along the Blue River in China, and which have Yun-nan and Tibet for their objects; 1,500 fr. to MM. Marche and Compiegne, who have already proceeded a considerable distance along the course of the Ogowe with the design of penetrating as far as the great African lakes, and joining Livingstone.

The subject for the Le Bas Prize (Cambridge) for the present year is " The Respective Functions of Science and Literature in Education." Candidates must be graduates of the University of not more than three years' standing from their first degree when the essays are sent in, which date is fixed before the end of the Easter Term, 1874. The essays must each bear some motto, and be accompanied by a sealed paper bearing the same motto, and enclosing the name of the candidate and that of his college. The successful candidate is required to publish the essay at his own expense.

Mxssrs. Trubner And Co will publish, n abaut ten days, Mr. George Henry Lewes' new work, entitled "Problems of Life and Mind."

With reference to the paragraph in last week's Nature on the discovery of the conversion of spherical into plane motion, Prof. S)Ivester writes: "I feel it an act of simple justice to another to say that I should never have hit upon the instrument which effects this, had it not been for the previous,

wholly original and unexpected, discovery made nine years ago, by M. Peaucillier, of the conversion of circular into rectilinear motion, with which I was recently made acquainted by M. Tchebicheff, and which seems to have been little noticed in the discoverer's own country, and to have remained wholly unknown in this. M. Peaucillier has succeeded by the mo<t simple means in solving a kinematical problem which had baffled the attempts of all mechanicians, from our James Watts downwards, to accomplish, and a simple Captain of Engineers in the French army has actually accomplished by a stroke of inspiration the mathematical solution of a question which many of the most profound and sagacious mathematicians of the age have been long labouring, but necessarily (as it is now obvious) in vain, to prove to admit of none. The conversion of circular into rectilinear motion before M. Peaucillier's discovery was gradually growing to be classed in the same category of questions as the quadrature of the circle, and by a great number of mathematicians was actually deemed to be equally impossible in the nature of things. A working model of Peaucillier's machine constructed by my friend M. Garcia, the brother of Malebran and the inventor of the laryngoscope, is in my possession at the Athenaeum Club, and several copies of it have been already made by its admirers, which term comprises all who have seen it The'wonderfully fertile kinematic and mathematical results which I have succeeded in educing from the simple conception involved in this machine may form the subject of another communication to Nature."

Prof. Jeli.nek, of Vienna, writes us that the death of Prof. Donati is the only unhappy event connected with the Meteorological Congress of Vienna, which in all other respects has prove d successful The fact of all countries of Europe (France exce pted) and the United States of North America being represented at the Congres s, and the-conciliatory spirit in which all the proceedings were held, the general desire to arrive at an uniform system of observation and publication make us hope, he thinks, that further decisive steps in this direction will be taken. The Congress has expressed the wish, that an other Congress of Me teorologists shall meet in three years, and it has appointed a permanent Committee under Prof. Ruys Ballot of Utrecht, as President, and with Prof. Bruhns of Leipzig, Cantoni of Pavia, Jelinek of Vienna, Mohn of Christiana, Director Scott of London, and Director Wild of St. Petersburg, as members to prepare the solution of certain questions especially relative to the best form of publishing meteorological observations and to the extension of the existing system of meteorological observations. The permanent Committee has been also charged with the preparatory steps towards the convocation of a second Maritime Conference (the first having been held at Brussels in 1S53). There will be three editions of the proceedings of the Congress. The one German, the other French, the third under the care of Mr. Robert Scott, in English.

Rather an unusual incident has recently occurred in the Belgian Academy of Sciences, about which, according to the two gentlemen most concerned, erroneous statements have been made in the Belgian papers and La Revue Scientifique. The common statement is that at the seance of June 7 last M. E. van Beneden, son of the well-known Professor of Zoology at the Catholic University of Liuvain, and himself Professor ol Zo >logy at Liege, by appointment of the present Catholic Ministry, read a paper on the results of a vo\age which he had recen'ly made to Brazil and La Plata. Speiking of the difficulty of obtaining a d ilphin on account of the superstitions of the Brazilian fishermen, he is reported to have referred to the ancient belie' in Europe tuat dolphins were in the habit of bringing dead bodies on shore, and to have said, " The fable of Jonah is an embodiment of this belief." Thereupon, it is said, M. Gilbert, Professor

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