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past few years to encourage the study of physical science; we hope the results will lead her to do so to a still greater extent.

The fund being raised for the purpose of providing a suitable memorial to the late Prof. Sedgwick, of Cambridge University, reaches nearly 10,000/. The form of the testimonial will be some new and suitable buildings for the schools of geology, and a full-length statue of the late professor.

The Cape mail brings word that the Challenger has arrived at Simon's Bay. On her voyage from Bahia she touched at Tristan d'Acunha, and made a survey of the groups of islands to which it belongs. Two Germans were found who had lived there for a couple of years, and who gladly availed themselves of the opportunity of leaving.

The annual course of lectures of the Brown Institution, under the Government of the University of London, will be delivered in the theatre of the University by Dr. Burdon-Sanderson, F.R.S., on successive Tuesdays and Fridays during the present month, at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. The first lecture will be given on Tuesday next the 9th inst.

Professor E. Weiss, of the Vienna Observatory, we learn from the Bulletin International of the Paris Observatory, has identified the comet recently discovered by Coggia, with the first comet of 1818, discovered by Pons at Marseilles.

We understand that the Lords of the Privy Council on Education have decided to unite the Professorships of General and Applied Chemistry in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and that this joint professorship will be conferred on Mr. Galloway, for many years the Professor of Applied Chemistry to the College. The only vacancy to be now filled up in the college staff is therefore that of the Professorship of Zoology.

Prof. N. L. Shaler, Geologist of the State of Kentucky, in a recent letter to the Frankfort Yeoman, makes a rather novel suggestion for improving the navigation of the Ohio River, and at the same time preventing the enormous destruction of property which its floods now occasion at intervals, by washing away its banks. In what has hitherto proved a vain endeavour to accomplish the former object, a large amount of money has been already spent under appropriations of the United States Congress, for wing-dams and other structures to concentrate the flow during the season of slack water; and schemes have been considered with more or less favour that involved the expenditure of from ten to forty million dollars. The waste by floods, of property bordering the river, is estimated by Prof. Shaler at 400,000 dols. per annum. He thinks that both objects could be accomplished by simply planting willows upon the banks, as he finds that wherever such a plantation has been effected, the resulting growth not only holds the soil in which it is rooted, but accumulates that which is brought down by the river. When the banks have been sufficiently strengthened and extended by means of such plantations, a deepening of the channel must result, which will improve navigation. The entire cost of planting the banks of the river from Pittsburgh to its mouth is estimated by Prof. Shaler at 100,000 dols.

On Monday, Nov. 24, a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society was held in the theatre of the University of London, Burlington Gardens; Sir Bartle Frere in the chair. Two papers were read—one by Capt. J. Moresby, R.N., "On recent discoveries at the eastern end of New Guinea," and the other by the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, on three visits to New Guinea. Capt. Moresby's paper entered at much length into the configuration and aspect of the country, which the author described as not unlike that of Australia. From all he saw of the people, the old idea that they were the most savage of all races must be aban

doned. Capt. Moresby's paper described the utensils used by tK? natives, and looked forward to a better future for them in rome quence of their connection with England. The Rev. Mr. GUI then related his experience, which in general confirmed that of Capt. Moresby.

The late Mr. Robert M'Andrew, F.R.S., of Islewx>rtb House, Middlesex, has bequeathed to the University of Cambridge a very large and valuable collection of recent shells. The collection is one of great scientific interest, and is well known to persons engaged in the study of this branch of natural history. Mr. M'Andrew also bequeaths to the University "such of the purely conchological works in my library as the Vice-Chancellor or any Professor or other official nominated by him shall select, provided they are works which the said University does not already possess (otherwise tlian in the Public Library of the said University), and such works are to be placed in the Natural History Museum or some library connected with it."

A Correspondent asks whether any of our readers can inform him if there exists any description of a fine section of Rhtetic beds which is to be found about half a mile outside the town of Newark-upon-Trent?

We have received copies of the New York TribuneTor October 29, 30, 31, containing full reports of the recent meeting of the American Academy of Sciences, in New York. The reports are very detailed, and have evidently been prepared with great care for the Tribune, which, moreover, to judge from the numbers referred to, seems to devote something like one-third 01 its space to matters more or less connected with Science, not to mention literature. We fear this would not pay in this country; it evidently does in America. The American Academy, appears to be a kind ol select upper Association for the Promotion of Science. It started with filty members, and adds only five new members each year; there seems to be but little [prearrangement as to the meetings.

The earthquake on the 91I1 November, in Western Asia Minor, was rather remarkable. It was felt at 10 A.m. at the Dardanelles and Broossa. It reached to Ak Hissar, Phocea, and the islands of Samos and Nisyros, in fact from N. to S. At Smyrna a first shock was felt at 9.49 P.M., and another at 3.20 A.M. [of the next day?]. After the first shock a strong smell of sulphur pervaded the atmosphere and entered the houses. A thick mist which had hung about for days dispersed, and the night was clear. Nisyros was supposed to be the centre. At the Dardanelles the shock was preceded by a rumbling noise. At Broossa there was a second shock at I P.M. An earthquake was felt on October io, at 4.45 A.m., at San Salvador, in Central America. It was slight.

The naturalists connected with the U.S. Yellowstone Expedition of the summer of 1873 have all returned from the field, and are at present engaged in preparing reports for transmission to the Secretary of War. The opportunities furnished by the occasion were not so good as had been hoped for, the region proving to be much more destitute of animal and vegetable life than anticipated. Everything was done, however, by them that the circumstances would allow. The collections embrace a full series of everything met with in the form of animal and vegetable life. The collections of butterflies and of plants were especially rich ; of fossils not many were obtained, but among them will doubtless be found some new species. Among these was a large ammonite, 3 ft in diameter, presented to the party by Lieut. P. H. Ray. A few uncharacteristic bones of fossil vertebrates were picked up, but the expedition failed to reach any of the great bone deposits of the Mauvaises Terres, as they had hoped to do.

We have recently had occasion to notice the fact that the plans of the new observatory at Cincinnati, U.S., had been approved, and were about being carried into execution. It gives us pleasure to record the rapid progress that has been made in this work, as evinced by the fact that on the 28th of August the corner-stone of the new building now in process of erection on Mount Lookout was laid with becoming ceremonies. The site chosen for the new observatory is about four miles north-east of that on Mount Adams, where the original observatory, founded by Prof. O. M. Mitchell, was established. The comer-stone that was laid in 1843'on that elevation by John Quincy Adams has been carefully removed to the new site, and appropriately forms the corner-stone of the new equatorial pier. The observatory has, by means of a tripartite agreement with the city and th: heirs of Nicholas Longworth, now passed into the hands of the Cincinnati University. The proceeds, amounting to 50,000 dols., realised on the sale of the property on Mount Adams have been invested for the support of the art department of the university. The city, however, has pledged itself to maintain the observatory when once established, and the establishment has itself been hastened by the lit>erality of Mr. John Kilgour, who has given four acres of ground as a site for the new building, and added 10,000 dols. for the latter. The site is admirably adapted for the purpose of the institution. It is one of the highest points in the county, commanding a beautiful and extended view, and it is not likely that the difficulty experienced at the old site from the smoke and vapours of the city will for a long time if ever, trouble the astronomers on Mount Lookout. The new edifice faces south, having a width of about sixty feet, a depth of ninety feet, and two wings, making the breadth through the wings about one hundred feet. One of the wings will be used for the meridian instruments ; and in the centre of the building, on a brick pier thirty-six feet high and seventeen feet in diameter, will rest the big telescope. The building will be two stories high, except in the centre, where the revolving turret of iron for the equatorial will add half a story. The structure is to be of pressed brick, with freestone trimmings.

The additions to the Zoological Society's collection during the last week include an Arabian Baboon {Cynocephalus hamadryai) from Arabia, presented by Miss Sandon; a Wild Cat (Ftiis ralus) from Scotland, presented by Sir T. Riddell, Bart; three Gray's Terrapins (Clcmmys crayi), and some Moorish Tortoises (Tcsludo mauritanka) from Persa, presented by HonE. Ellis; an African Goit (Capra hircus) from Bedah, presented by Mr. J. A. Croft; a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus) from India, presented by Lady Stirling; two Blue-throated Parrots (Pionui sordidus) from Venezuela; an Active Amazon (Chrymtis agUii) from Jamaica, and a Blackish Sternothere (SternotJtoerus supniger) from Madagascar, purchased.

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS

The Journal of Menial Science, October 1873. This journal is still occupied with only medico-psychological subjects. The Morisonian Lectures on Insanity for 1873 begun in this number are of great interest, and mark the advance of Science in this painfully important branch of knowledge. Nothing, we think, can be more evident than that Dr. Skae proceeds on a scientific principle when he attempts to classify the various forms of insanity according to the bodily disease or condition, as far as it can be ascertained, which proceeds or accompanies the insanity. And it is surprising that even Dr. Maudsley should be found among those who cavil at Dr. Skae's classification, instead of adopting his principle and making the most oi it. With insanity Science has made a beginning, but that is all.—In an article by Dr. J. T. Dickson on "The Functions of Brain and Muscle Considered in Relation to Epilepsy " we have a rather singular hypothesis concerning the functional relation of the brain to the muscular system. We cannot afford to indicate this curious theory; we doubt U* we quite understand it ; but we can inform the scien

tific world generally, on the authority of Dr. Dickson, that what they have been in the habit of believing on this subject "is not only improbable, but impossible." Dr. Hughlings Jackson has, it seems, been at the pains to quote against Dr. Dickson some passages from Herbert Spencer's Psychology; but he could have little known with whom he had to deal Dr. Dickson quietly remarks—" From this it would seem that Spencer holds somewhat the same, though the untenable view. Was there ever a finer example of how completely original ideas can free a mind from the degrading thraldom of authority? Does Spencer differ from me > why then that is the worse for Spencer.—The article of most general in'erest is "The Morbid Psychology of Criminals," by Dr. D. Nicolson, continued from last number, and still unfinished. It abounds in valuable observations, and good practical common sense. When in prison criminals offer good opportunities for observation, but we do not perceive that their "emotional displays" can with strictness be said to mark anything specially morbid. From all that is said, we cannot gather more than that criminals are like the much larger class to which they generally belong, namely people of a low type of mind. The unfortunates that find their way into our prisons are, we regret to think, far from the only people who cannot help insanely acccusing others of wicked designs against them; whose minds are lawless and undisciplined; who must have their "breakings out;" and for whom, when they become intolerably insolent and violent, "a good drubbing on the spot" would be the most appropriate medicine. People, when inclined to what they ought not to do will not be deterred by the fear of punishments that aie not painful, or which are too distant to act on their dull imaginations. This leads to large considerations, but we can only say that it would be a great matter for social progress if our tender-hearted philanthropists—those who busy themselves with theories of home, school, and prison discipline, distributing gratis wonderful receipts for the painless cure of all bad habits—could be brought to understand a little better than they do the real nature of the material on which they have to work. The review of the Lunacy Blue Books will be found interesting; also "Antiquarian Scraps relating to Insanity," bv Dr. T. W. McDowall. b 7''

Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, vol xiii. Part 3, for the session 1872-73, contains E. T. Hardman on the occurrence of gypsum in the Keuper Marls, near Coagh, Co. Tyrone.—Prof. T. Rupert Jones, on some Foraminifera from the chalk of the North of Ireland.—P. S. Abraham, notes on the geology of the Hartz.—Prof. Macalister, a description of two Veddah skulls, and Presidential address (which latter gives an able summary of the work done by German petrologists with the object of determining the mineral constitution and structure of plutomc, metamorphic, volcanic and other rocks by the aid of the microscope).—Prof. E. Hull, on the microscopical structure of the Limerick carboniferous Trap Rocks, and on the microscopical structure of Irish granites.—CoL Meadows Taylor, the Coal fields of Central India.—R. J. Ciuise, Analysis of the

Leitnm coal, remarks on the coal area of the district. Dr.

Studdert, on the Lough Allen coal from the Arigna District, Co! Leitrim.—G. H. Kinahan, on the carboniferous ingenite rocks of the County Limerick.—E. T. Hardman, on the occurrence of siliceous nodular brown Hjematite (Gothite) in the carboniferous limestone beds near Cookstown, Co. Tyrone, &c, and on an analysis of whi e chalk from the County of Tyrone, with notes on the occurrence of zinc therein.—Rev. Dr. Macloskie, on the sihcified wood of Lough Neagh.— Dr. Tichborne, on the formation of crystalline minerals having the spherical form.

The 2nd and 3rd numbers of the 7th volume of the Canadian Aaluraltsl commence with a paper by Dr. Dawson on impressions and footprints of aquatic animals and imitative markings on carboniferous rocks, those considered being invertebrate. The paper originally appeared in Sil/iman'j Journal.—Mr. G. F. Mathew continues a description of his impressions of Cuba, and

enters into detail respecting the botany of the island. Mr.

Whiteaves gives an account of a deep-sea dredging expedition round the island of Anticosti, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in which upwards of 100 species of marine invertebrata new to'the Gulf of St. Lawrence wete added to the previously recorded fauna.—Dr. Dawson also contiibutes a paper on the geological relations of the iron ores of Nova Scotia, considering first the bedded ores of the Lower Helderberg series, and of Nictaux and Moose River; next the veins of iron ore of the East River of Pictou, Shubenacadie, and other parts. —Dr. Nicholson, of Toronto, describes some new fossils from the Devonian rocks of Western Ontario, including Zaphrtntis fenestrata (n.s.) Blothrophyllum approximatum (n.s.); Heliophyllum colbornensis (n.s.); Pctraia logani (n.s.) ; and Alccto canadensis (n.s.).—A detailed report is given of the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of which an abstract has already appeared in our pages.

Journal of the franklin Institute, Oct. 1873.—We have here the second portion of Prof. Thurston's valuable paper on the molecular changes produced in iron by variations of temperature. He comes to the conclusion that at temperatures above 6oo° and below 70° F., iron conforms to the general law for solid bodies, that increase of temperature diminishes tenacity but increases ductility and resilience, while decrease of temperature has the opposite effect. Below 70° the tenacity increases with diminishing temperature at the rate of 0-02 to 0-03 per cent for each degree F., while the resilience decreases in much higher ratio. Between ordinary temperatures and a point somewhere between 5000 and 600", on the other hand, iron shows marked deviation from the law, the strength increasing to the extent of about fifteen per cent, with good iron. The practical result is, that as iron does not lose its power of sustaining "dead" loads at low temperature, but greatly loses its power of resisting shocks, the factor of safety in structures need not be increased in the former case, where exposure to severe cold is apprehended; but that machinery, rails, and other structures which have to resist shocks should have large factors of safety, and be protected, if possible, from extremes of temperature.—Mr. Lowe communicates "something new concerning the physical properties of steam," viz., that the external work given out by steam in expanding from the temperature (t"\ to the temperature (I), bears a constant ratio to the difference; that is, to {t1 - t). He considers the latent heat performs the internal work, while the sensible heat only is available for external work; in which lase that vapour whose latent heat is the smallest, other things equal, would be the best agent for converting heat into work.— A paper on statistics of coal, is compiled from Mr. James McFarlane's "Coal Regions of America."—Mr. Bilgrani furnishes an " Elementary treatment of Zeuner's slide-valve ;" and Mr. Murphy has a paper on "Bridge building considered normally."—There are descriptions of machinery for utilisation of coal waste, a stone-cutting machine, and a machine for making paper boxes. The latter produces match-boxes at the rate of 3,000 in an hour. Paste is dispensed with, the slips of wrapper being fastened by delicate staples of iron wire.

American yournal ofScience and Arts, November, 1873. In this number we find two contributions in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in one of which it is shown that by solution of cast-iron in an acid, there may be obtained, besides gaseous bodies, which escape with the hydrogen, volatile hydrocarbons, boiling between 93° and 155° C, and probably belonging partly to the saturated, partly to the nonsaturated series. Of the latter, considerable quantities may be condensed by combination with bromine, af er having passed through a freezing mixture.—Prof. H. L. Smith gives a series of investigations made in the Queen's Chamber of the Great Pyramid, as supporting the view that a high degree of geometrical and astronomical knowledge must have been possessed by the builders, but without superhuman accuracy. In a paper on rocks of the Helderbcrg era, in the Connecticut Valley, Prof. Dana endeavours to show that Staurolitic slate, hornblendic rocks, gneiss, mica schist, &c, are extensively developed in a formation of Helderbcrg age, and probably the Upper Helderberg or Lower Devonian. There is a letter from Dr. B. A. Gould, Director of the Cordoba Observatory (date Aug. 5), giving an account of work recently done there. Zone observations had been begun in September last year, and were nearly half completed, some 50,000 stars having been observed. From a note on the hypsometric work of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, we learn that four stations were established : at Denver, 5,000 feet above the sea ; Canon City, 6,000 feet ; Fair Play (in the South Park), 10,000feet; and Mount Lincoln, 14,000 feet ; the observations at each being taken three times daily. The U.S. Signal Service have recently esiaoiished a permanent meteorological station on the summit of Pike's Peak, about 14,000 feet high ; the observations will be published daily by telegraph, and will doubtless be of high scientific and popular interest.—Of the remaining matter we may note suggested improvements in filler pumps, and in the arrangement of shutters in a dome for an equatorial telescope.

Poggendorffs Annalett dcr Physih und Chimie. No. 7. 1S73. In this number, M.Quincke continues his "Optisobe Untersnchungen," investigating at some length the behaviour o! polarised light on its passage through gratings.—M. Kiess enunciates thus a new kind of reaction of currents: a wire circuit, part of which i» traversed by a given (Leyden) battery current, remaining unaltered, various secondary currents, produced in it successively, react on the primary, so that the weaker secondary corresponds to the stronger primary. — I>r. Vtillir has examined the influence of temperature on electromotive force of galvanic combinations, and finds that with salt solutions in contact with copper or zinc, tJie lorce is diminished by rise of temperature, whereas with acids it is increased—An interesting paper bv Prof. Villari treats of the time tlint gla^s takes to be nn.-netUcd, demagne'iscd. and to turn the plane of polarisation. He rotated a glass cylinder between the poles of an electro-magnet, where it acted like a cylindrical lens to polari-ed li»;l t passing through the poles. When not magnetised, the cylin ler, whether in motion or at rest, was neutral to the light; but when magnetised, its plane-rotating power considerably diminished with increasing velocity of rotation; the reason being that, in such quick revolution, each diameter remained loo short a time in the axial direction to acquire all the magnetism it would otherwise Have. To give flint ^'-ass such diamagnetic intensity, as became observable by rotation of the plane, required at the least o"ooi244, while to give it all the diamagnetism it is capable of taking under a strong magnet, at lea>t c^oo^l was necessary. —" A contribution 10 the theory of thermal currents," by M. Avenarius, appears fa be an appropriation of results published by Prof. Tail in 1S70, and which are incorporated in the professor's Rede Lecture for this year. A similar remark will apply to M. Toprer'* application of air-friction to the deadening of galvanometer needles, &c, which is simply Sir \V. Thomson's dead-beat principle.—M. Raye criticises unfavourably M. Z<illner's theory of sun-spots and protuberances; his own theory represents, in the sun, something like what occurs in our cyclones, in which there is an upward air-current carrying with it aqueous vapour, which forms above into a cloud. lie thus differs from Faye, who supposes a descending current, in the solar cyclones. —M. Hennig describes an apparatus for quantitative spectrum analysis, and M. Schneider continues his account of salts of sulphur. We find ulso notes on galvanic reduction of iron under the influence of an electromagnetic solenoid, and on the reflection and refraction of sound; from the St. Petersburg and Vienna academies respectively.—An abstract of an instructive paper by M. Vo^jel on the spectra of comets we hope to give shortly.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES London Geological Society, Nov. 19.—Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.—The following communications wcre read :—•' Supplemental .Vote on the Anatomy ot iiypsilephodon Foxii" by Mr. J. W. Hulke, K.R.S. The material lor this note was a slab from Cowle.i/.e Chine, containing portions of two individuals of HypsUophoJon Foxii, one consisting ut a skull with a great part of th.: vtr.ebia! coluiin, the'otiie.'of a portion of the vertebial column. The author described some details of the structure of the skull, and especially the palatal apparatus. In connection with the question oT the generic rank of Hypsilofhodm, the author slated that in Ilypsilophodcn the centra of the sacral vertebra; are c\linnroid and roundtd below, whilst in Iguana/on they are coaiiressei laterally and angulated below.—" The Drift-beds of the Nirth-wct of England, Part I, Shells of the Lancashire and Cheshire Low-level Clay and Sands," by Mr. T. Mel lard Keadc. The author gave a list of the localities in which shells weie found, and stated that in all fort)..i.\ species had been rnetwilh distributed through the clay-beds, those found in the sand-seams being rare and generally fragmentary and rolled. IK contended that the admixture of shells in the boulder-clay wa- ilue to the tendency of the sea to throw up its conttiitson the beach, whence changing currents and floating ice might again remove them, and to the oscillations of the land bringing all the be Is at onetime or another within reach of marine cro>ivc action. lie maintained that it is in the distribution of land and sea a: the period of deposition of the Lancashire deposits, and not in astronomical causes, that we must seek the explanation of the climate of that

period, the conditions of which he endeavoured to explain by a consideration of the proportions of the species and the natural habitats of the shells found in the drifts.—" Note on a deposit of Middle Pleistocene Gravel near Leyland, Lancashire,'' by Mr. R. D. Darbishire. The bed of gravel, about forty feet thick, and about 240 feet above the level of the sea, is covered by yellow brick clay, and overlies an untried bed of fine sea-sand. The shells and fragments occur chiefly at the base of the gravel. The author considered the Leyland deposit, like those on the west of the Derbyshire hills, to be more probably littoral and truly climatic than that of the Liverpool clays, the subject of Mr. Reade's paper, and hazarded the conjecture that the latter were sea-bottom beds, into which, during some process of degradation and redistribution, the specimens found and enumerated by Mr. Reade had been carried down from the former more ancient retreating coast-lines.

Geologists' Association, Nov. 7.—Mr. Henry Woodward, F. R.S., president, in the chair.—At this, the first meeting of the session 1S73-74, the president delivered the oDening address of the new session, in which he gave a review of the progress of geological science during the past year. Mr. Woodward referred to the progress made in the acceptance by botanists and zoologists of the doctrine of evolution. "Darwin's theory has already passed through the fire like crude ore, it has been roasted, crushed, sifted, washed, and after all the pure metal remains. Our speculations, however, bring us no nearer to the discovery of the origin of life itself."

Meteorological Society, Nov. 19.—Dr. R. J. Mann, president, in the cha:r.—The following papers were re»d :—The thunderstorm at Brighton on Oct. 8, 1873, and its effects, by F. E. Sawyer, and some considerations suggested by the depressions which passed over the British Islands during September 1873, by F. Gaster.—A discussion took place on the best form of thermometer stand. It was resolved that the following conditions should be fulfilled:—(1) The contained thermometers must at all times be shielded from the direct rays of the sun; (2) The stand must be so arranged that even when its own external temperature is raised, the thermometers shall not be thereby affected; (31 As reflected heat must diminish the accuracy with which thermometers indicate air or shade temperature, these disturbing causes should be excluded ; (4) The temperature of the air alone being desired, it is necessary that the readings of the thermometers be not affected by radiation to the sky ; (5) It being desirable that one pattern of stand be used in all loca ities. it follows that it should be absolutely independent of all surrounding objects; (6) There must be free access of air round the thermometers; (7) No rain should ever reach the dry-bulb thermometers, for if it does, it improperly lowers their temperature, making them read even lower than the wet bulb ; (8) The stand must also be unaffected by snow, both as a direct fall or from obstructed circulation of air; (9) It is very desirable that the stand require no attention between the hours of observation; (to) It is desirable, but not absolutely necessary, that room be provided for a duplicate set of instruments; (11) The stand should not be costly; (12) It should be capable of easy transmission bv rail or otherwise. Mr. Prince pave an account of some experiments he had made, and was of opinion that the true temperature of the air could be obtained without a stand. Mr. Symons thought that a stand constructed on the Kew and Stevenson pattern combined, but smaller than the former and larger than the latter would be the best form of stand to adopt The meeting not having the results of the comparison of the observations made with the different stands at Strathfield Tungiss, the discussion was adjourned till after these are published.

Anthropological Institute, Nov. 25.—Prof. Busk, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—Mr. F. W. Rudler read a report on Anthropology at the meeting of the British Association at Bradford.—Dr. G. W. Leitner, Principal of the Government College of Lahore, gave an account of the Siah Posh Kafirs, a race of people inhabiting Kafiristan, on the south-eastern slope on the Hindu Rush. Kafiristan may be said to form a triinirular tract of country lying between 350 and 360 N. lat., and 70° and 720 E. long., and is bounded on its sides by Kabul, Badakshan, and Kashmir. The name of Siah Posh Kafirs was given to them by the Mohammedans, "Siah" meaning "black," "Posh" clothing, and " Kafir "infidel; for in fact a Kafir, according to the Mohammedans, was any one who did not follow the teaching of Mahomet. The Kafirs claimed to be a sort of country cousins of the British. Slavery existed within their own country, and also within five miles of Peshawur, where the Kafirs were sold in

the open market. The consequence was that the Kafirs in retaliation, kept the road- leading to Central Asia in a state of insecurity, and murdered all travellers coming within their reach. Dr. Leitner, referring to the asserted Macedonian origin of the Kafirs, said that that supposition was founded on very loose and vague data, and that they themselves knew nothing of Alexander. The Tunganis, another of those races, claimed direct descent from Alexander's soldiers. Another theory was that the Siah Posh Kafirs were Zoroastrians, who were supposed to have been forced into the hills by the Arabs, and the existing customs among the Kafirs certainly seemed to support the idea that they were ethnologically connected with the Parsees. He inclined to the opini >n that they were Aborigines; and if they were not descended from the same stock as the "Arian" rice, they were certainly, as far as language was concerned, equally related to the Sanscrit.

Entomological Society, Nov. 17.—Prof. Westwood, president, in the chair.—Mr. Higgins exhibited DeilephUa euphorbia and Sphinx pinastri, bred from larvae taken in June 1872, near Harwich.—-Mr. Champion exhibited several rare Coleoptera taken at Braemar and other places during the past season.—Mr. Boyd exhibited a Trichopterous insect, Brachycentrus subnuhilus, a species which constructs quadrangular cases, which had been reared from the egg state. —Mr. Miiller remarked on some galls found by Dr. Masters on the roots of Deodara, which he considered identicil with the galls of Biorhiza aplera, Fab., usually occurring on the roots of oak.—Mr. Bird exiibitej Chita s;i;anlelliis from Horning Fen, and Mr. Vanghan PtmfxHa davisellus reared from Furze. —Mr. Stevens exhibited some rare Lepidoptera taken on the South Coast.—A paper was read, entitled " Notes on the Habits of Papilio merope AucL, with a Description of its Larva and Pupa," by J. P. Mansel Weale, B.A. Also a paper entitled "Observations on Papilio merope Auct., with an account of the various known Forms of that Butterfly," by Roland Trimen, F.L.S., &c.—Some remarks were communicated by Mr. Miskin, of Brisbane in Queensland, respecting Myitis guermioX Wallace, which he considered identical with At. gtoffroyi Guerin, and directing attention to the singular habit of the pupa;, which were suspended in groups of three or four individuals, united at the tails.

Royal Horticultural Society, Nov. 12.—Scientific Committee.-A. Grote, F.R.S., in the chair.—The Rev. M. J. Berkeley sent a Capsicum from Transylvania with two small fruits produced from the placenta.—Mr. Anderson Henry sent fruit of Tacsonia quitensis, produced in a cool greenhouse.—Mr. Wheble sent wood and bark of Sequoia sempervirens, the latter being extremely similar to that of the large tree exhibited at the Crystal Palace.—Prof. Thiselton Dyer exhibited preparations of the buds upon the leaves of Malaxis, prepared by Prof. Dickie.

General Meeting.—H. Little in the chair.—Prof. Thiselton Dyer called the attention of the meeting to the fine plant of Vanda aerttiea with four panicles; a plant of the recently introduced Batemanut Burtii from Costa Rica ; specimens of a species of Stylidium (probably S. ci/iatum), an Australian genus with the radical leaves in a Crassula-like tuft ; flowering spe;im->.is of Cunonia capettsis from Syon House; and a "grape-rail,"' a contrivance by which grapes could be preserved through the winter. The pieces of cane to which the grapes were attached were inserted into holes in long zinc rod-like boxes which contained a mixture of fuller's earth, starch, sugar, charcoal, and water. It was remarked by Mr. Jennings that Vanda ca-rulca was fast disappearing from its native localities. At the present rate the ruthless removal of the plant must determine its extermination at any rate in the Khasia hills.

Anthropological Society, Nov. 18.—Dr. R. S. Chamock, president, in the chair. Extracts from letters from foreign correspondents were read, one of which announced an alleged discovery of a Phoenician inscription of the 4th century, B.c, near Rio de Janeiro, and one from Captain Burton, mentioning the discovery at Maeshowe, in Orkney, of Scandinavian inscriptions, in Arabic letters. — Personal observations of the Sae-lie* or Flathead Indians of NorthAmerica, byJ.Simms, M.D., of New York The discourse treated of the manner of fashioning or deforming the head, the customs, dress, diet, disposition of the dead, &c. Dr. Simms also gave a brief description of the Quatsino Indian?, who inhabit the north-western coast of Vancouver Island, the mode of fashioning their peculiar, sugar-loaf form of heads, their superstitions, food, &c. He also gave a very interesting account of the Digger Indians of California, the ircolour, form, dress, manner of living, general habits, including badges of mourning, food, &c. The Snakes, Utes, Piutes, Foxes, Siouxs, and other tribes were briefly described.

Cambridge Philosophical Society, Nov. 17.—"On a suspected forgery in the Vatican Manuscript Record of the Trial of Galileo before the Inquisition," by Mr. Sedley Taylor, late Fellow of Trinity College. The object of the paper was to show, in accordance with the views of recent German and Italian authorities, that the sentence pronounced against Galileo in 1633 was based on a spurious document fabricated for the express purpose of securing his condemnation. The evidence adduced to support this conclusion was taken partly from the works and letters of Galileo, and partly from the contemporary records of the trial preserved in the Archives of the Inquisition, portions of which have been lately published for the first time. The result of the paper was to exonerate Galileo completely from the charge of contumacy which all his biographers have hitherto either advanced or tacitly admitted.

Manchester

Literary and Philosophical Society, Nov. 4.—R. Angus Smith, F.R.S , vice-president, in the chair.—"On the Bursting of Trees and Objects struck by Lightning," by ProC Osborne Reynolds, M.A. The results of the experiments referred to in this paper were exhibited to the meeting. The suggestion thrown out by Mr. Baxendell at the last meeting— that the explosive effect of lightning is due to the conversion of moisture into steam—seemed to him to be so very probable, that he was induced to try if he could not produce a similar effect experimentally. He tried various experiments by sending a discharge through pieces of damped wood, and through glass tubes with and without water. The pieces of wood, whieh varied in size, yielded various results, and the glass tubes, which also were of various sizes, were shivered to pieces.—The Rev. W. N. Molesworth, M.A., brought under the notice of the Society some Roman and Celtic antiquities, to which he thought that sufficient attention had not been given in this country.

Nov. 18.—E. W. Binney, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair. —" On the Bursting of Trees and Objects struck by Lightning," by Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A. In a paper on this subject read at the last meeting I stated that the tube which was burst by a discharge from a jar would probably withstand an internal pressure of from 2 to 5 tons on the square inch ; and I made use of the expression the tube might be fired like a gun without bursting. These statements were based on the calculated strength of the tube, and with a view to show that there was no mistake, I have since tried it in the following manner.—I made 3 guns of the same tube. No. 1, which was 6 inches long, had its end stopped with a brass plug containing the fuze hole. No. 2 and No. 3 were 5 inches long and had their breeches drawn down so as only to leave a fuse hole. These tubes were loaded with gunpowder and shotted with slugs of wire which fitted them, and which were all \ inch long. No. 1 was first fired with \ inch of powder, the shot penetrated \ inch into a deal board, and the gun was uninjured. No. 2 was then fired with I \ inches of powder, and the shot went through the 1-inch deal board and } inch into some mahogany behind, thus penetrating altogether 1^ inches; the tube, however, was burst to fragments. Some of these were recovered, and although they were small they did not show cracks and signs of crushing like those from the electrical fracture. No. 3 was then fired with J inch of powder, and the shot penetrated -J inch into the deal board. It was again fired with I inch of powder, and the shot penetrated 1 inch into the deal. Again it was a third time fired with i\ inches of powder, when it burst, and the shot only just dented the wood. These experiments seem to me to prove conclusively the great strength of the tube and the enormous bursting force of the electrical discharge.—On the colour of Nankin cotton by Edward Schunck, Ph.D., F.R.S.—An improved method for preparing Marsh Gas, by C. Schorlemmer, F.K.S. The author found that by heating an intimate mixture of anhydrous sodium acetate with more than twice its weight of lime and sodium carbonate, a very regular and quiet evolution of marsh gas took place. The gas thus obtained always contains some acetone, which is easily removed by shaking it with water, or, better still, with a solution of acid sodium sulphite.

Dublin

Royal Geological Society of Ireland, Nov. 12. — Prof. E. Hull, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—Mr. J. E. Gore, C.E.,

read a note on a bed of fossiliferous kunkarin the Punjabi The

president read a series of notes on the Microscopic Strucrtxaxe «V Irish Granites:—1, Graniteof Aillemore, Co. Mayo; 2, Gi-a.nitOJ Quartz Porphyry of Attilhomasreagh, Co. Galway ; 3, Granite cri Ballynockan, Co. Wicklow.—Prof. Reynolds exhibited speo

mens of the new minerals Uranoline and Walpurginc Frof.

Traquair exhibited specimens for the Rev. J. Emerson, a€ soiccoal fossils from the Jarrow Colliery, Co. Kilkenny, anum; which were noticed portions of the skeletons of UrtxatJvt"~r axr *desjordii and Ichthyerf*t?n bradltyi described some time sines as from a neighbouring colliery, by Huxley and Wright j mis* the palate tooth of Ctcnaion crutatus, patches of scales of .Vcs--lichthys hiiberii, and some vertebrae and scales of a Rhiintioxfsts.

Royal Irish Academy, Nov. 10.—Rev. Prof. Jellett, president, in the chair.—A paper was read by Messrs. Draper sujd Moss on some forms of Selenium, and on the influence of lig-iit on the electrical conductivity of this element.—-Prof. MacaJL.rcread a paper on the anatomy of a species of Aonyx tnrnx tVUpper Indus. The species had been sent by the late Ear! oj Mayo to the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, but difieroi ir. no marked degree from the one described by HorsfjelJ ai A. Uptonyx.—Mr. H. W. Macintosh read a paper on the myology ol Arclo/ithuus blainvillH.

EDINBt'RGH

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Dec. 1.—Sir Roiral

Christison,'vice-president, in the chair.

The following communications were read :—

1. Laboratory Notes, by Prof. Tait.—(1) First Approximjnoo to a Thermo-electric Diagram. (2) On the Flow of Water through Fine Tubes.

2. Note on the use of v in Curvilinear Co-ordinates, and on the Transformation of Double and Triple Integrals, by Prof. Tait.

2. On the Physiological Action of Ozone, by James Dewar and Dr. M'Kendrick.

4. On a Compound formed by the addition of Bromacettc Acid to Sulphide of Methyl, and on some of its Derivatives, by Prof. Crum Brown.

5. Note on the Expression for the Action" of one Currentelement on another, by Prof. Tait.

Glasgow Geological Society, Nov. 13.—Mr. E. A. Wiinsch, vicepresident, in the chair. A paper on the Post-tertiary Beds (Kyles of Bute), by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey and David Robertson, was read to the meeting. The succession of beds, as found at various parts of the Kyles, in proceeding from high to low water mark, is as follows:—(1) Bo olderclay, hard, compact, unfossiliferous, and red in colour; (2) A highly laminated clay, precisely similar to that which occupies the same position at Paisley and many other localities, has been found to contain the remains of some species of Foraminifera; (3) A bed of clay and sand, exceedingly rich in characteristic Arctic shells; (4) The rccttn ma xtmm bed, has been fonnd cropping out in various localities.—Mr. Jas. Armstrong read a paper on the Fossils found in the Carboniferous Shales of Garc and Westerhouse, illustrated by a series of finely-preserved specimens collected from these localities, about three miles to the north-east of Carluke.—The Chairman exhibited some interesting specimens of the junction of granite and slate from the island of Arran, and made some remarks 011 the various theories which had been propounded regarding its origin.

CONTENTS Pace

Dr. Meyer's Expedition To New Guinea. Uy Dr. A. B. Meyer . 77

Microscopic Petrography 79

Our Book Shelf 3t

Letters To The Editor :—

The Southern Uplands of Scotland.—Prof. A. Gbikik, F.R.S. . . Bt

TheHuemul.—Dr. Burmeistbk Bj

The Diverticulum of the Small Intestine considered as a Rudimentary Structure.—Prof. Struthers . S>

The Atmospheric Telegraph.—R- S Culley S3

Sensation In The Spinal Cord. By G. H. Lewes 83

The Artistic Representation Op Nature. {WithIllustratian) . $4 On The Science Op Weighing And Measuring, And The Standards Of Weight And Mkasukb, IX. By H. W. Chisholm, Warden

of the Standards ()Vitk Illustrations) 87

Earth-sculpture, II. By Prof. A, Geikie, F.R.S 89

Notes 91

Scientific Serials 93

Societies And Academies 04

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