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(HAP. V. V. Some on the other extreme have administered Year after it several times to the same person; and are therethe apo stles.
fore properly called anabaptists. I speak now of those that practised formal anabaptism, i. e. what they themselves owned to be anabaptism, or rebaptizing of the same person. And of such I remem
ber no more in ancient times, but the Marcionists. 40. Marcion taught, as Epiphanius says", that “it is
• lawful to give three baptisms: so that if any one • fall into sin after his first baptism, be may have • a second; and a third, if he fall a second time.' And here it seems he stopped his hand.
Yet Epiphanius says, that he had heard that his followers • went further, and gave more than three, if any ‘one desired it.'
He that writes the Present State of Muscovy, says', their way is, that “ persons of age, who * change their religion, and embrace the Muscovite
faith ; nay even Muscovites, who having changed • their religion in another country, are willing to * return to their own communion, must first be • rebaptized. He speaks also of some vagabond people among them, called Chaldæans, who do customarily, and by a sort of license, practise great extravagancies from the 18th of December to Epiphany; during which time they are excluded the church: but on twelfth day, when their license is • expired, they are rebaptized, (some of them having · been baptized ten or twelve times,) and looked
* Hæres. 42. (seu 22.] Marcionistæ. [Sect. 3. apud Op. tom. i. p. 302, &c.]
• Dr. Crull, chap. 11. [The Ancient and Present State of Mascovy, by J. Crull, M.D. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1698. vol. i. P. 194.)
upon as good Christians.' But Brerewood P, ch. 23, CHAP. V. says, (and quotes Possevin for it,) that they use not year after this baptism on twelfth day, as a sacrament, or as any purification of themselves; but only as a memorial of Christ's baptism received on that day in Jordan: and that the Abassenes do the same thing upon the same day upon the same account. So that it is to be hoped that Dr. Crull may be mistaken in the reason of their practice. And for what he says here of their rebaptizing all that came over to their religion; I have occasion to note something on it, at chap. ix. . 2.
Mr. Thevenot also tells a story9 of some people called Sabæans, living at Bassora in Arabia, that are, as he there says, improperly called Christians, that do reiterate the baptism which they use. But it is not the Christian baptism, nor given in that form. They have, he says, no knowledge of Jesus Christ, but that he was a servant to John Baptist, and baptized by him; and of the books of the gospel no knowledge at all. But however it be with any late sects, in ancient times there were, as I said, no sects that did this but the Marcionists.
I know that the name of anabaptists, or rebaptizers, was then by the catholics imputed to several heretics, and by some churches of the catholics to other catholic churches. But they that were so censured did none of them own, as the Marcionists did, that what they did was rebaptizing: they all
P (Enquiries touching the diversity of Languages and Religions, through the chief parts of the world, by Edw. Brerewood, 4to. Lond. 1622. p. 169.)
a Voyage, tom. ii. p. 331. (Travels into the Levant, p. ii. book 3. chap. 11. p. 164. edit. fol. Lond. 1687.)
stles. 2 10.
CHAP. V. pleaded that the baptism which the party had
received before was null and void; as being administered in a corrupt church, or by heretical bishops, &c.
The antipædobaptists now hold the same plea: but the ground of the plea is very different; for I never read, and I believe they cannot produce, any instance of any one that pleaded baptism to be void, because it was given in infancy. And as they disown the name of anabaptists, or rebaptizers; so I have nowhere given it to them: as, on the con-trary, I do not give them the name of Baptists, nor of the baptized people; for that is to cast a reproach upon their adversaries, as concluding that they are not so. Every party, while the matter continues in dispute, ought to give and take such names as cast no reproach on themselves nor their opponents, but such as each of them own: and such are the names that I use.
VI. The dispute about rebaptizing, or the imputation thereof, was one that troubled the church in former times as much as any. Many sects of heretics and schismatics were so bitter against the catholics, that they said ; All things were so corrupt among them, that baptism, or any other office done by them, was null and void: and therefore they baptized afresh all that came over from the church to them. And many churches of the catholics were even with them, and observed the same course with all that came over from them. But others would not : but said, that baptism, though given by the schismatics, was valid. And this came at last to be a bone of contention between the catholics themselves : each party finding fault with the
other's way of receiving schismaties into the CHAP. V. church.
Year after In St. Cyprian's time, the Christian world was
stles. divided into halves on this point. For he, and all 150. the churches of Africa, some of Egypt, and many in Asia, received not heretics into the church without a new baptism ; and one of the apostolic canons (can. 37, alias 46) orders, that they be not otherwise received. But the Christians at Rome, and most in Europe, used only to give them a new confirmation, or laying on of hands; and so admit them.
Afterward, this came to be a rule"; that they 200. • that came to the catholic church from such sects 'as used not the right form of baptism, [in the - name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the • Holy Spirit,] must be baptized at their admis*sion: but they that in any sect had been baptized * with those words, should be adjudged to have * already true baptism.'
VII. Yet the Paulianists were excepted from this general rule: though they, as Athanasius, informs , used the said form of baptizing; yet the council of Nice expressly decreed", that they must be bap-225. • tized anew, if they would come into the catholic
church, The reason seems to be; that they, though using the same words, of Father, Son, and
* Basil. de Spiritu Sancto, cap. 1. [Op. tom. ii. p. 291. edit. F. Ducæi, 1638. tom. iii. p. 1. edit. Benedict.—Or rather, see his first canonical epistle to Amphilochius, being the 188th in rol. iii. of the Bened, edit. p. 268——270; canon 1.]
• Orat. 3. contra Arianos, (Orat. 4. cap. 30–36. Op. tom. i. P. 640, &c. edit. Benedict.]
CHAP. V. Holy Spirit, yet meant by them so different a Year after thing, (for they took the Son to be a mere man,)
that they were judged not to baptize into the same faith, nor in the name of the same God, that the catholics and others did.
This shews the abhorrence tbat the Christians at that time had of an opinion that would now grow fashionable. And Photinus, a little after, in the time of Constantius, did no sooner make an attempt to revive this heresy, but that both the catholics and Arians (though they could hardly agree in any thing else) agreed in condemning him and his opinion: “which act of theirs,' says Socrates the historian “, “ was approved of all men, both at that * time present, and also in times following. He means, that all of the most differing parties and opinions agreed that such a doctrine was abominable. And Theodoret, who lived at the same time with Socrates, having reckoned up in one book all the sects that had attributed to our Saviour no
other nature than human, says in the last chapter 330. thereof x, ‘that they were at that time all extinct
• and forgotten; so that the names of them were • known to but few. And so they have continued till of very late years : unless the modern abettors of them will plead, that the succession of their doctrine has been preserved, from the year 600, in the churches of Mecca and Medina.
VIII. It appears how conscious these men are, that all antiquity is against them, by their setting themselves so bitterly against it. There is no sect of men now in the world that do use such en
u Lib. ii. cap. 29.