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CHAP. VI.

The opinions of the ancients concerning the future state of infants,

and other persons that happened to die unbaptized, p. 180.

§. 1. They do all understand that rule of our Saviour, John iii. 5,

Except one be born again, &c., of water baptism. Calvin's new

interpretation of that text ; and the advantage which the anti-

pædubaptists do take of it. Also they do all by the kingdom of

God in that text, understand the kingdom of glory. The in-

consistency of some later interpretations with the words of the

text, p. 183. §. 2. Their opinion of the case of martyrs dying

unbaptized, that they went to heaven, p. 189. $. 3. The case

of converts believing, but dying unbaptized. Those that bad

contemned or neglected baptism, condemned. Those that had

fully resolved to take it, but missed of it, went, as some thought,

to a middle state ; as others thought, to heaven, p. 190. §. 4.

Of infants dying unbaptized. All agree that they hiss of the

kingdom of heaven. They go, as the Greek Fathers think, into

a middle state ; as others, into some degree of punishment,

p. 197. §. 5. Of the degree of their punishment. St. Austin

thinks it to be a very moderate one ; a state better than no

being at all, p. 201. The books in which the more rigid opinion

is held, are Fulgentius' and not bis, p. 204. §. 6. The opinions

of the following ages. Fulgentius, anno 500 ; Pope Gregory,

600; Anselm, 1000; do speak of their being tormented, p. 206.

The schoolmen, anno 1200, go over to the opinion of the Greek

church, that they shall be in a middle state, p. 208. The coun-

cil of Trent were about to determine the opinion of their being

tormented, to be a heresy, p. 210. $. 7. Some in the middle

age have conceived hopes of some unbaptized infants going to

heaven. Hincmarus Rbemensis, p. 210. Wickliffe, p. 212. the

Lollards, Hussites, &c. p. 215. (and the schoolmen for infants

dying in the womb) and in the latter times, Cajetan and Cas-

sander, p. 218. 9.8. The opinions of the protestants, Lutherans,

Calvinists, Church of England, English presbyterians, antipe-

dubaptists, concerning the possibility of salvation of unbaptized

infants, p. 219. 9. 9. That all baptized infants, dying such are

sered; the generality of the Christian world has agreed, p. 225.

The ancient Prædestinarians, and Semipelagians, consented in
this. Of the modern Prædestinarians, some few bave doubted
or denied it, p. 229. §. 10. The ancients never refused to bap-
tize a child on account of the parents' wickedness, as some
Calvinists now do, ibid.

CHAP. VII.

An account of the state of this practice from the year 400 till

the rise of the German antipædobaptists. Of the Waldenses ;

asd their chief accusers, St. Bernard, Petrus, Cluniacensis,

Reynerius, Pilichdorf, &c. The confessions of the Waldenses

themselres, p. 230.

1. 1. There are no pretences of any one in this period, before

ibe time of the Waldenses, being against infant-baptism, but

wbat are proved to be mistakes, p. 230. The instance of Hinc-

marus, bishop of Laudun, shewn to be such, p. 232. . 2. Of

Bruno bishop of Angiers, and of Berengarius archdeacon of the

same church, tbere are reports, that they beld doctrines that do

orenbrow infant-baptism ; but they never owned any such,

p. 235. . 3. A general account of the Waldenses, anno 1150.

What the popish historians do say of their tenets. What the

present remainders of them do say of their ancestors. Some of

their old Confessions. The present debate, whether they were

anciently pædobaptists or antipædobaptists, p. 238. $. 4. That

there were several sects of those men, whom we now call by

that general name Waldenses, and that some of them denied

all water-baptism. The distinct account of their several tenets

about baptism, given by Reynerius, &c. p. 247. §. 5. That one

sect of them, viz. the Petrobrusians, otherwise called Henri-

cians, did own water-baptism, and yet deny infant-baptism,

p. 2;5. Four witnesses of this. The Lateran councils under

Innocent the Second and Innocent the Third, p. 265. Mr. Sten-

Det's pretence to the disciples of Gundulphus, anno 1025,

examined, p. 262. §. 6. That all the rest of them owned

infant-baptism, p. 267. $. 7. Those that denied it, quickly

dwindled away, or came over to those that owned it, p. 268.

$. S. The life of Peter Bruis, and Henry, the two first antipædo-

baptist preachers in the world, p. 273.

The present state of this controversy. That all the national

churches in the world are pædobaptists. Of the antipedobap-

tists that are in Germany, Holland, England, Poland, and

Transylvania, p. 278.

§. 1. All the national churches in Europe are pædobaptists,

p. 279. §. 2. So are those in Asia, p. 280. A disquisition con-

cerning the Georgians; of whom sir Paul Ricaut had heard,

that they held formerly, that children ought not to be baptized

till the age of fourteen, and that they now hold, that they are

not to be baptized till eight years old. The mistake of this

report shewed from sir John Chardin, who travelled in that

country. Of the Armenians, Jacobites, Maronites, Christians

of St. Thomas, &c. They do all baptize infants, p. 287. §. 3.

The two sorts of Christians that are in Africa, viz. the Copbti

and Abassens, do both of them baptize their infants forty days

after their birth or circumcision. A mistake in the print of

Mr. Thevenot concerning what he heard by the relation of an

ambassador from the Abassens, that before the Jesuits came

there, they did not use to baptize till forty years, putting years

for days, p. 291. g. 4. Of the antipædobaptists in Germany, anno

1522. An inquiry whether that opinion was then set up anew,

or had been continued from the time of the Petrobrusians,

p. 292. A letter written to Erasmus, anno 1519, concerning

the Pyghards, p. 295. §. 5. Of those in Holland and the Low

Countries; their insurrection at Amsterdam. Of Menno, and

the present Minnists; their tenets, &c. p. 299. §. 6. Of the

English antipadobaptists. Some Dutchmen in England, but

no Englishmen, of this way in the reigns of Henry VIII, Ed-

ward VI, Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, p. 306. No consi-

derable number of English till the times of the rebellion,

P. 315. The great encouragement given them by Oliver Crom-

well. Their great increase at that time, p. 317. The present

state of them, p. 323. Their tenets concerning, 1. Separation.

2. Immersion. Their reasons for the necessity of it. The word

Bantitw does not include dipping in its signification, p. 326.

3. Baptizing naked. 4. The form of ba sm. 5. The flesh of

Christ, p. 335.

6. The millennium. 7. Eating of blood,

8. Sleep of the soul. The opinion of the ancients concerning

Hades, and the state of souls in it, p. 344. 9. Singing of Psalms, p. 353. 10. The use of the Lord's Prayer. 11. Extreme unction. 12. Way of marriage. 13. Posture in receiv. ing the Lord's Supper. 14. The Saturday-sabbath. 15. Confirmation, or laying on of hands. 16. Prædestination. 17. Original sin. 18. The divinity of Christ, p. 359. 19. Their disputes with the Quakers. 20. Their church officers. 21. Their way of adjusting differences in money matters. 22. Church discipline against scandalous members. 23. Of the Jesuits creeping in among them, p. 371. Bishop Stillingfleet's sagacity in discovering Hallingham, Coleman, and Benson, to bare been Jesuits. Of one Everard a papist, who having got in Cromwell's time a commission for a troop of horse, set up for a preacher against infant-baptism. All the papists do of late years industriously put it into their books, that infant-baptism cannot be proved from Scripture. The weakness of some late antipædobaptists, in valuing themselves on the papists thus siding with them in the dispute, p. 378. $. 7. Of the antipædobaptists in Poland, Hungary, Transylvania, &c. Those that were formerly in Poland, were mostly Socinians; and so are they that are at present in Transylvania, p. 380.

CHAP. IX.

The ancient rites of baptism, p. 383. 9. 1. The adult used prayer and fasting before it, p. 383. §. 2. The ordinary way of baptizing was by immersion ; but in case of sickness, &c. they gave it by affusion of water on the face. Some ancient proofs of this from a letter of St. Cyprian. The examples of Novatian, St. Laurence, Basilides, the jailor, in Acts xvi. &c. p. 384. An account of the times when immersion was left off in the Latin churcb : France was the first country in Christendom that left it off: then Italy, Germany, &c. p. 393 ; and last of all, England, not till the time of queen Elizabeth, p. 399.

The Directory forbids dipping, p. 403. The church of England at the Restoration reestablished it, in case the child be able to bear it, p. 404. The opinion of Mr. Mede, bishop Taylor, Mr. Rogers, sir Norton Knatchbull, Mr. Walker, Dr. Towerson, Dr. Whitby, sir John Floyer, &c., that the general use of it ought to be restored, p. 407. All vations of Christians in the world, except those that are or have been under the pope, do dip their infants, if in health, p. 414.

§. 3. The ancient Christians baptized naked. The care that

was taken to preserve the modesty of women, p. 417. $. 4. The

head of the baptized was thrice put under water; once at

the naming each name of the holy Trinity, p. 419. $. 5. The

forehead was signed with the sign of the cross, p. 424. 9.6.

A mixture of milk and honey given to the new-baptized person.

A quotation out of the epistle of Barnabas to that purpose,

p.426. §. 7. The white garment put on after baptism, p. 429.

§. 8. Of the two anointings; one with oil before the baptism;

the other with a rich ointment or chrism after baptism, toge-

ther with the laying on of hands of the bishop, ibid. §. 9.

The professions made at baptism, both of the adult and infants :

and first, the promise of renouncing the Devil and all wicked-

ness, p. 435. §. 10. The profession of faith : the form of it at

first; only to say, 'I believe in the Father, and in the Son, and

* in the Holy Spirit.' It was afterwards made in the words of

the creed that was in use in each church. The copies of the

most ancient creeds are lost. The substance of them collected

from rules of faith delivered by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Ter-

tullian, Origen, Cyprian, &c. p. 439. §. 11. The Nicene creed

the eldest copy of any public creed that is extant. Eusebius'

creed; the creed of Alexander ; of Arius ; of some Arian coun-

cils at Antioch ; of Eunomius. Julian the apostate's applause

of Photinus' belief. The abhorrence expressed by the Arians,

as well as Catholics, against it. All the Catholic Christians of

the East used the Nicene creed at baptism, p. 450. $. 12. The

Constantinopolitan creed. What is added to the Nicene. Of the

sense of those words, 2 Cor. iii. 17, ó Kúpos TÒ Tveüpá ¢oti,

p. 462. §. 13. The Roman creed : no copy of it extant, elder

than the year 400: what clauses have been added to it since

that time: the descent into hell, &c., and how it came to be

called the Apostolic creed, or the Apostles' creed, p. 466. §. 14.

The baptismal professions made twice by the adult; but once

in the case of infants. Infants never ordinarily baptized with-

out godfathers making profession in their name, p. 475. 9. 15.

The eucharist given quickly after baptism : always to the adult,

and in some places and ages of the church, to infants. Mr.

Daillé's charge against the ancients for doing this, examined.

No proof of its being given to mere infants, till after the year 400.

The mistake of those that say St. Austin calls it an apostolical

tradition, p. 478. §. 16. This custom continued in the church

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