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“ ART. 5. - You believe that Christ Jesus has, by his sufferings and death, made atonement for sin ; and that all who are saved are justified wholly by grace, through the redemption which there is in Christ.

“Art. 6. - You believe that salvation is freely offered to all men, and that all men are under obligation immediately to embrace the gospel; but that such is the depravity of the human heart, that no man will come to Christ until he is renewed by the special agency of the Holy Spirit.

“ Art. 7. - You believe that all who embrace the gospel were, from the beginning, chosen unto salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth; and that they will be kept by the power of God, through faith, unto salvation.

“Art. 8. - You believe that there will be a resurrection of the just and of the unjust, and a day of general judgment; and that the wicked will go away into punishment, and the righteous into happiness, both of which will be without end.

“ ART. 9. — You believe that in this world the Lord Jesus Christ has a visible church, the terms of admission to which are a credible evidence of regeneration, baptism, and a public profession of faith in Christ; that the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper are to be observed to the end of the world; that none but members of the visible church have a right to the Lord's Supper; and that such, and such only, have a right to dedicate their infant offspring in baptism.

“Do you thus profess and believe ?

“COVENANT. “You come sensible that you are sinners ; that you have departed from your Maker, and have lived under the influence of that carnal mind which is enmity against God; that you have broken his law, and abused his love, and that you are unworthy his favor; and you give up yourselves to this God Jehovah as your God and Father, to the Lord Jesus Christ as your only Saviour, and to the Holy Ghost as your Guide, Sanctifier, and Comforter; and, in this . public manner, you dedicate yourselves to God in the bonds of his everlasting covenant.

* You unreservedly surrender all you have and are to his sovereign disposal; and engage henceforth to live to him, and not to yourselves.

“Depending on his grace, you promise to perform the various duties you owe to God, to your fellow-creatures, and to yourselves (and to bring up all committed to your care in the nurture and admonition of the Lord).

“You also covenant and engage, that you will sanctify the sabbath, and adorn your profession by a faithful adherence to the worship of God's house, and by diligently attending on all Christian ordinances, and holding communion in them, with this church, as

God in his word enjoins ; that you will watch over your brethren in love, faithfully reproving them when they go astray; and that you will submit to the discipline of Christ in his house, and to the regular administration of it in this church, — seeking its peace and welfare in all things, so long as God shall continue you here.

“ Thus you covenant and engage. (Here the church rise.)

“I, then, in the presence of God and these witnesses, and in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, pronounce you a member of this branch of his visible church; and we covenant and engage to treat you as such, and, in the connection we now sustain with you, to watch over you in the spirit of meekness and love, as your brethren and sisters in the Lord.

“And now, beloved in Christ, remember that the vows of God are upon you, and will remain through life, in death, at the judgment-seat, and for ever. The Lord preserve and guide you in the path of righteousness and peace, give you triumph through faith in the hour of death, and at last receive you and us to that blessed world where our communion and joy shall be for ever perfect. Amen.

" BIBLE PRINCIPLES. “1. This church is independent, so far as relates to its internal organization and the regulation of its affairs; it controls the admission, discipline, and removal of its members, according to its own understanding of the word of God.

“ 2. This church will extend to other evangelical Congregational churches, and receive from them, that fellowship, advice, and assistance which the law of Christ requires. It will extend the usual rights of communion, and practise the usual transfer of members, according to its own convictions of duty.

“3. This church will grant dismissions and recommendations to those members who are in good standing, and who conscientiously prefer uniting with other churches of any evangelical denomination, when they apply in a regular manner, and with a Christian spirit.

“4. This church deems it irregular, if any members withdraw from them, and unite in communion and worship with other churches, either on account of any offence, or on the plea of better edification, without giving notice to the church, and requesting a dismission.

5. Any member having cause of complaint against another, in cases of personal offence, should immediately seek to have it removed in a Christian manner, the directions given in Matt. xviii. 15-17 being his guide.

“6. In cases of offence against the church, it is the duty of any member cognizant of it to seek at once to have it removed, by personal labor, before making it a matter of public complaint.

7. It is a recognized principle in civil society, that every man shall bear his proportion to the support of its institutions. This church regards it as equally binding upon the members of Christ's house, that they shall bear their just proportion to the support of the gospel.

“8. This church regards slaveholding, the traffic in and use of intoxicating drinks as a beverage, gambling, and such like things, as inconsistent with Christian character.

“9. This church affectionately, yet earnestly, entreats its members to avoid all connection with dancing assemblies, theatrical exhibitions, secret societies, and similar associations, as tending practically to weaken the bond of Christian brotherhood, and to bring a reproach upon the cause of their Master.

The present house of worship was dedicated Feb. 14, 1849. Rev. A. B. Warner died May 26, 1853. Rev. Jacob M. Manning was ordained pastor Jan. 5, 1854.

GRACE CHURCH.

The liturgy of the Protestant Episcopal church was first used in public worship, in Medford, on Christmas Eve, A.D. 1847. About the same time, a hall was procured, and the services of a clergyman were engaged for a limited time, in the hope that it might be found expedient to form a parish. It soon became manifest that a sufficient number of persons were interested in the enterprise to justify this step, and a meeting was accordingly called ; and, on the 15th day of February, A.D. 1848, a parish was legally organized, under the name of Grace Church. In March following, the Rev. David Greene Haskins was chosen rector. In September, 1849, measures were taken for building a church. A convenient location was chosen, and a small but neat and beautiful edifice was erected, and, on the 11th of May, 1850, consecrated to the worship of God.

Mr. Haskins retained the charge of the parish until February, 1852 ; when he resigned, and was succeeded by the Rev. Justin Field, the present rector.

CHAPTER VIII.

EDUCATION.

Religion, and love of liberty, brought our pilgrim ancestors to Medford ; and as these principles sprang in them from intelligence and virtue, so they revealed to them the need of intelligence and virtue in their offspring. To educate, therefore, was to legislate for the future. The establishment of schools, during the first years of their residence, was an impossibility; and, consequently, domestic instruction was the only alternative. The Bible and Primer were the reading-books. In those towns or plantations where a clergyman could be supported, he usually occupied much of his time in teaching the young ; and it was common for boys to be received into the minister's family to be prepared for college. Those pastors who had been silenced in England, and who came here to minister to the scattered flocks in the wilderness, were men of strong thought and sound scholarship; and they kept up the standard of education. From the necessities of their condition, however, it is apparent that the children of our ancestors must have been scantily taught, and their grandchildren still greater sufferers; for learning follows wealth.

The first movement for the establishment of schools took place under the administration of Governor Prence; and, at his suggestion, the following order was passed in the Colony Court, 1663:

" It is proposed by the Court unto the several townships in this jurisdiction, as a thing they ought to take into their serious consideration, that some course may be taken, that in every town there may be a schoolmaster set up, to train up children in reading and writing.

“In 1670, the Court did freely give and grant all such profits as might or should accrue annually to the Colony for fishing with a net or seines at Cape Cod for mackerel, bass, or herrings, to be improved for and towards a free school, in some town in this jurisdiction, for the training up of youth in literature, for the good and benefit of posterity, - provided a beginning be made within one year after said grant.”

The occupants of the Medford plantation, being few and poor, secured instruction to their children by domestic teaching, and by using the schools of the neighboring towns. Towards the support of those schools, they were required by law to contribute; and that they were benefited by them, is apparent from the fact, that all the persons who appear, through a series of years, as officers in the town, were well educated. The leading idea of emigration to this country, and the spirit of the age, would not allow them to neglect education. They provided for it in a way that did not require public record at the time.

In 1701, the penalty imposed by the Legislature upon towns for neglecting to provide grammar schools was twenty pounds. It was required that “the schoolmaster should be appointed by the ministers of the town and the ministers of the two next adjacent towns, or any two of them, by certificates under their hands."

These early resolves concerning schools and education indubitably prove two things : first, that our Puritan Fathers believed that the establishment of schools was a duty they owed to justice and humanity, to freedom and religion; and, second, that they had resolved that these schools should be FREE. Here, then, was a new idea introduced to the world, - free schools! And, from free schools and congregational churches, what could result but republicanism? They held our republic as the acorn holds the oak. It is important to state that free schools originated in Massachusetts.

In 1671, Sir William Berkeley, first Governor of Virginia, writes to the king thus :

“I thank God there are no free schools nor printing-presses here, and I trust there will not be this hundred years; for learning breeds up heresies and sects and all abominations. God save us from both !”

Now look at Massachusetts. The Rev. John Robinson, before the Pilgrims left Leyden, charged them to build churches, establish schools, and read the Bible without sectarian prejudice. He said, “I am convinced that God has more light yet to break forth out of his holy word. Receive such light gladly.” Our fathers acted on this wise, Christian, and republican advice, and engaged Philemon Purmount“ to teach the children; for which he was to be paid thirty acres of ground by the public authorities.” How

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