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7. But does not this interpretation militate against the doctrine of Justification by Faith? Far from it. The sentiment which the name, thus interpreted, expresses, was uttered by the Apostle Paul in the exultant exclamation: "It is God that justifieth." And does that militate against the doctrine of Justification by faith? On the contrary that very doctrine is the sole ground of the apostle's triumph. Justification by Faith had been the great burden of all the preceding part of his epistle. And now to the words: "It is God that justifieth," he adds: "Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died; yea, rather, that is risen again; who is even at the right hand of God; who also maketh intercession for us." 1 Of this triumph the name before us is prophetic. "Jehovah is our Justifier." This shall be the glory of Israel. When? When Christ shall have come, and died, and risen again, and shall sit on the right hand of God to intercede for his people, that they may be justified. "It is God that justifieth." How? Through " Christ that died." "Through faith in his blood." This is the sole ground of the Christian's triumph in a justifying God. Although, therefore, he may not be able to say, that the name thus interpreted, expresses, in itself, the doctrine of Justification by faith, yet there is no room to doubt, that this ground of our triumph, no less than the triumph itself, was in the mind of the prophet, or rather of the Spirit that dictated the words of the prophet, as the reason why this should be regarded as an appropriate appellation for the Church of Christ, the true Israel of God. Christ died for us, therefore Jehovah justifies us. This is our triumph. The Prophet foretold it. "Jehovah is our Justifier." The Apostle uttered it. "It is God that justifieth." From age to age the church of the Redeemed re-echoes it. "It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died; yea rather, that is risen again; who is even at the right hand of God; who also maketh intercession for us!"

1 I use the common version. To translate all the clauses interrogatively would not change the force of the argument.

ARTICLE VII.
DR. GRIFFIN'S THEORY OF THE ATONEMENT.

BY EDWARDS A. PARK, AHBOT PROFESSOR, AKDOVER.

The personal history of Dr. Griffin gives to his Theological opinions a peculiar significance. He studied theology with Dr. Jonathan Edwards, a divine whose influence is destined to increase as the power of men to understand him increases. From the 4th of June, 1795, until the summer of 1801, Dr. Griifin was the pastor of the Congregational Church at New Hartford, Connecticut. "On the 20th of October, 1801, he was installed colleague pastor with the Rev. Dr. McWhorter [over the First Presbyterian Church of Newark, New Jersey]. The congregation over which he was placed was one of the largest and most respectable in the United States, qualified in every respect to estimate the labors of a most eloquent, gifted and devoted minister." 1 On the 28th of May, 1809, after having fulfilled there a pastorate of nearly eight years, he preached his Farewell Sermon to his church at Newark, and on the 21st of the following June he was inducted into the Bartlet Professorship of Sacred Rhetoric, at Andover Theological Seminary. The Institution was then in its infancy. Its founders, Mr. Abbot, Mr. Bar;let, Mr. Brown, were living, and were Visitors of the Seminary. Their own theological views are indicated by the exalted encomiums which they lavished upon him. His colleagues, Professors Woods and Stuart, avowed their substantial agreement with him in his theological speculations. "The stories," says Dr. Griffin, "about Dr. Pearson's abusing me, or quarrelling with me, or being unfriendly to me, are all false. He resigned on account of age

1 Sermons by the late Rev. Ed mini I). Griffin, D. D.; to which is prefixed a Memoir of his Life by William B. Sprague, D. D., Minister of the Second l'rcsbyterian Congregation in Albany, p. 53.

and infirmity. He is a good man, and is still an active and very useful friend of our [Divinity] College."1 It is not pretended that either Professor Pearson, or the other Professors, or the founders of the Seminary sanctioned all the assertions of Dr. Griffin; they did not agree with each other or with him in all minutiae; still they were pleased with the main principles and the leanings, as then developed, both of his theology and of his philosophy.

After having spent two years in the duties of his Professorship, Dr. Griffin was installed Pastor of the Park Street Church, Boston, on the 31st of July, 1811. His installation sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Worcester, of Salem, Mass. Here he officiated as pastor until April 27, 1815, nearly four years. "Though he spent more time in several other places than in Boston," writes Rev. Dr. Humphrey, " I have always been impressed with the belief that his pre-eminent usefulness was on that ground. When he went there, the piety of the pilgrim fathers had nearly ceased to warm the bosoms of their descendants. Calvinism was a byword and reproach. Orthodoxy hardly dared to show its head in any of the Congregational pulpits. It wanted a strong arm to hold up the standard of the cross, a strong voice to cry in the ears of the people, and a bold heart to encounter the scorn and the talent that were arrayed against him. And nobly, in the fear and strength of the Lord, did he ' quit himself.'

"Nothing was more striking in his character than the high ground which he always took in exhibiting the offensive doctrines of the gospel; particularly divine sovereignty, election, the total depravity of the natural heart, and the necessity of regeneration. These doctrines he exhibited with great clearness and power, before friends and enemies. The crisis required just such a master spirit, and Boston felt his power; or, rather, felt the power of God, which I must think wrought in him mightily during his short ministry in Park Street. From the time of his going there, Orthodoxy began to revive, and we all know how many flour

1 Dr. Spraguc's Memoir, p. 117. Vol. XV. No. 57. 12

ishing churches have, as it were, sprung from that one stock." 1

On the 20th of June, 1815, Dr. Griffin was installed Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey. There his ministry was attended with extraordinary success. In 1821 he was invited to the Presidency of the College at Danville, Kentucky; to the Presidency of a College in Ohio; and to the same office in Williams College, Massachusetts. The last named office he accepted, and discharged its duties from the autumn of 1821 until August, 1836, fifteen years. The Faculty of "Williams College wrote in 1837, that to Dr. Griffin, "probably more than to any other man, is it owing that this College was placed on a permanent foundation, and enjoys its present degree of prosperity. His labors in its behalf were arduous, persevering and successful. During his Presidency the College enjoyed several powerful revivals of religion, and it was especially from its connection with the cause of Christ that he watched over its interests, and prayed for it. Through his pupils his influence is now felt in heathen lands." a

On the first of October, 1836, he took up his residence for the third time in Newark, New Jersey, where he remained, highly venerated and perseveringly useful, until his death, November 8th, 1837. He was then in the 68th year of his age. His funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Spring, of New York. A discourse commemorative of his death was subsequently delivered at Williams College, by the Rev. President Hopkins.

Before he resigned his Presidency at Williamstown, Dr. Griffin had published various interesting pamphlets, and three extended volumes. The first of these volumes was his " Park Street Lectures," " a book, by the way," writes President Humphrey, "which will go down to posterity."3 He delivered these Lectures in Boston during the winter of 1812 —1813, " on successive Sabbath evenings, to a crowded

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audience, collected from all classes of society. [The] Lectures awakened the deepest attention both of friends and foes, and it is hardly necessary to say that they have passed through several editions, and have long since taken a prominent place among the standard theological works of our country." 1 The second volume which Dr. Griffin published was in 1819, on the Atonement. "As this," writes Dr. Sprague, "is almost throughout a work of pure metaphysics, it were not to be expected that it should have gained so extensive a circulation as the more practical and popular of his productions; but it was evidently the result of great intellectual labor, and could never have been produced but by a mind trained to the highest efforts of abstraction."2 The third volume of Dr. Griffin was published in 1833, entitled: "The Doctrine of Divine Efficiency, defended against certain Modern Speculations." He wrote this work in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He had then various controversial inducements to make expressions antagonistic to some which he had published in the highest vigor of his mind. He preserved his consistency, however, far more than controversialists are apt to do. In 1839, two years after his decease, two volumes of his Discourses were published, and a third volume appeared at a still later date. Unaccompanied with his majestic elocution, these Discourses give no adequate idea of the man whom Dr. Samuel Spring called the " prince of preachers," and whom Dr. Sprague denominates " the giant of the pulpit." His theological speculations were evidently affected by his desire to present the truth in an impressive and a practical form, especially in the times of religious excitement; and his eloquent sermons were, in their turn, affected by the type of his theology. A peculiar interest is added to his writings by this action and re-action of his metaphysical theories and his rhetorical appeals. He labored to awaken the zeal of the churches, and when it was awakened he preached with the most fervid eloquence. In the retreat of his study he remembered those

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