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deeds to die out. During this interval Cyme 1 was engaged in hostilities with the Ionians, and the situation of Smyrna, as the outpost of the Aeolic colonies, makes it not improbable that she often bore the brunt of war. In fact Strabo says she was irepifid-)(T)To<; del. From a hint preserved by the Plutarchian2 author of the life of Homer, we may also infer that the city was occasionally exposed to Lydian aggression; the story ran that about the time Neleus, the son of Codrus, led out the Ionian colonies, Smyrna was on one occasion actually in the possession of the Lydians, under king Maeon; but being hard pressed by the Aeolians, they gave it up. The story is made a little suspicious by the explanation of the name of Homer (from ofirjpelv to follow, because Homer followed the Lydians out) which is founded on it. It is to be observed, however, that the author of the life quotes the weighty authority of Aristotle; and there is no improbability in the circumstance itself, or flaw in the chronology to lead us to reject it.

One other historic incident we are inclined to refer to this period,— an attack made by the Chians while the inhabitants were engaged in the rites of Dionysos outside the city walls, in the hope that the town would fall an easy prey in its defenceless state.8 Contrary to the expectations of the Chians, however, the Smyrnaeans charged vigorously, routed and killed them, and took their ships. This repulse was long dwelt on with civic pride, and commemorated in religious rites; every year in the month of Anthesterion, when the festival of Dionysos took place, a galley was borne in procession to the Agora, in which sate the priest of Dionysos, and a coin4 of Smyrna, with the impress of a ship's prow, is thought to refer to the same incident. The time of this attack is indeed nowhere mentioned. But in the absence of other chronological determinations, the presumption is in favor of the Aeolic period; in this case it would be an attack of Ionians on Aeolians; while, if we put it later it

> Nicol. Dam. fr. 53. 1 h 3

* Arist. no\. I. p. 373; id. nposf L p. 440; Philoitr. Vitt. Soph. 1, 25, 1.

« Eekhel. L 2, p. 553.

would be Ionians against Ionians, a thing not unheard of, to be sure, but yet not so probable. Furthermore, the cult of this Dionysos evidently goes back to the Aeolic period; the inscriptions of the town show that he bore the name of Bprjaevi; or Bpeiaetk (=Bpi<rev<{). The origin of this name was doubtful to the ancients themselves. Somei derive it from the name of Brisa, a promontory of Lesbos; others from the verb fip%eiv. But all accounts agree in declaring it an Aeolic cult, the chief seat of which was at Lesbos. It belongs, therefore, in the early period of history; and we shall soon learn from a similar anecdote that the Aeolian festival of Dionysos was celebrated without the city walls.

The Cymaeans were famous for the dulness of their perceptions. According to their neighbors they did not know enough to go into the house when it rained.2 At Smyrna new surroundings and stirring events must have awakened their descendants to a new life. Strangers thronged the streets of the town, and it was the great emporium for all the country round. Thus the harmonizing effect of commerce, the kindly nature of the soil and climate, and the sweet influences of their gentler Ionian neighbors prepared the way for a form of culture, of which we yearn in vain for some history. But though the incidents of that busy and restless time are gone irrevocably, the infinite grace and beauty of its culture are preserved to all time in the Homeric poems.

The increasing power of the Ionians began in time to be felt northward. Nearly on the boundary between Aeolis and Ionia lay the river Hermus, and doubtless they often looked with longing eyes to the fertile strip south of the Hermus, which was wanting to their geographical integrity. Still the accession of Smyrna to the Ionic confederation was not due to any concerted action of the Ionians as a whole, but to the treachery of exiles from a single Ionian city.3 The Smyrnaeans had sheltered some citizens of Colo

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phon who had been banished from their town in a civil dissension; these exiles, watching their chance, while the natives were celebrating the Dionysia outside the town, suddenly closed the gates and gained the mastery. The news of this treachery brought the whole Aeolic league to the assistance of Smyrna, but singular to relate, the twelve cities united were not able to make head against the exiles — unassisted for all that we are expressly told. Probably, however, the Ionic confederation had come to the aid of the exiles, since Herodotus in speaking of the original capture of the town calls them " Colophonian men," but afterward in speaking of the agreement of the two contending parties speaks of "Ionians." 1

This was the downfall of the Aeolic town. The worsted Aeolians were allowed to take their movable possessions and scatter among the remaining eleven Aeolic towns. Henceforth Smyrna appears in history as the thirteenth town in the Ionic league, to which it was admitted on the motion of the Ephesians.a

When did this important transfer take place? Herodotus gives no clue to the time, and Pausanias, whose brief notice is substantially the same with Herodotus, is equally dark. It was evidently before Ol. 23=688, B. C, since Pausanias (5, 8) and Eusebius (Can. Chron., p. 285) mention as the victor in the first boxing-match in the Olympic games one Onomastos, an Ionian Smyrnaean; Pausanias adding that Smyrna had at that time passed over into the hands of the Ionians. We have, therefore, a decided terminus ante quern. But is Ol. 23 the earliest terminus? May it not have occurred long before Ol. 23? There is certainly no proof to the contrary; and there are strong considerations in favor of the earlier epoch. Herodotus speaking in another place

1 Suida* finds in this compact the explanation of the name of Homer, from tliTipos, hostage.

* Her. 1, 143. Pans. 7, 5, 1. Strah 14 init. The name nANinNIOC (Mionnet, Descr. dc Med. IIL p 207, No. 1124) found on coins of Smyrna probably refers, as Eckhel I. 2, p. 509. has seen, to the Panionian Apollo. Vitruvius, 4, 1, makes an enormous blunder about the incorporation of Smyrna into the Ionic league, which is not worth repeating.

of the Ionian Smyrna, calls it "the Smyrna which was founded from Colophon." 1 Probably this second foundation, so to speak, or colonization, was the occasion on which the population of the city was augmented. Eusebius2 says "Samos condita et Smyrna in urbis modum ampliata." This event he puts 233 years before the foundation of Rome, i. e., 986 years B. C. If, now, this* augmentation of the city was the result of the Colophonian capture—and there is no other period in the history of Smyrna to which it can be referred — we have arrived by a different way at the point Midler labors to establish by the assumption of a colony from Ephesus, namely, wc find in Smyrna Ionic men and Ionic ways about the time of Homer. Thus we can explain why his "heart beats with an Ionic beat;" we can find with the critics of antiquity Aeolic usages still lingering in his poems, and yet decide with Aristarchus that these poems are the work of an Ionic hand. We do not overlook what Eusebius himself says (on p. 171) that all Greek chronography before the Olympiads is necessarily uncertain. The precise date, 986, B. C, is by no means certain ; but still the great probability remains that Smyrna passed over to the Ionians some three hundred years before the era commonly assumed.

We hear nothing more of the city till the dynasty of the Mermnadae begins to extend the domain of Lydia, and to press hard on the Greek colonies in the west. The first king of the Mermnad line, Gyges, in his war with the Ionians took Colophon. His attack on the allied Smyrna was less successful. He had taken the town, and was already within the walls, when the Smyrnaeans chased him out in a way that became proverbial; "the Smyrnaean fashion"'1 was used to indicate a fierce, invincible onset, a

l 1, 16. 2 Chron. Can. p. 153.

* Scaliger, Aniniad. ad Ens. p. 59, is inclined to interpret this augmentation of the city as meaning the Amazonian settlement, which supplanted the Tantnlean Nnulochon. But in another place (p. 61) he admits that Eusebius, or hii translator, has the Ionians in mind: "nostcr vero vclle videtur ab [onibus ampliatam."

4 Arist. noA. I. p. 373: Sore Kox Toiv iroiTiT&v flS7| Tiit! iptvpvatov Tp6irov rh Toioutov ttfnja&m. The Toitjtijv, I think, refers to Mimncrmus, who probably u?cd the u Xftupvcuov rp6woy" in his 4\cyita.

charge of the Six Hundred. On the subject of this charge the poet Mimnermus is said to have written i\eyela, and a noble fragment preserved by Stobaeus,1 undoubtedly refers to the valor of the Smyrnaean chief; "not such," he says, "was the valor'of that man, as I learned from my elders, who saw him dashing at the thick phalanxes of the horse. fighting Lydians in the plains of Hermus, the ash-bearing hero. Pallas Athene never chid the fierce impulse of his heart when he charged round among the van." The time of this attack is pretty well fixed by a story told by Pausanias; in the second Messenian war, when the Messenians looked on their cause as foregone, Aristomenes and Theoclus held the Smyrnaeans up to them as an instance of what heroic desperation could do. From the context it is evident that Aristomenes is speaking of a recent event ;9 and as he lied from Messenia to Rhodes shortly after, Ol. 28, 668, B. C, Gyges's attack must have been a few years previous.8

We know that the allied Colophonians made peace with Gyges after these events. That the Smyrnaeans did is nowhere recorded. But we may infer it from the intimate relations between king Gyges and his favorite Magnes of Smyrna. The subsequent effeminacy of the Smyrnaeans> which Mimnermus hints at, may undoubtedly be traced in great part to the corrupting effect of the Lydian civilization.

At the death of Gyges followed his son Ardys.4 His long reign was somewhat troublesome to the Greek colonies, but he was himself too much disturbed by his wars with the Cimmerians to annoy the Smyrnaeans. Alyattes, however, after warring with the Medes, and expelling the Cimmerians from Asia, at last succeeded in taking the town.

1 Fr. 12, Schneidcwin. a Cf. Palmerii Excrcc. p. 388.

1 Dositheus, in the Lydiaca, fr. 6 Miiller, relates an incident of the wars with Lydia. The Sardians who were besieging the town refused to go unless the Smyrnacan women were delivered up to them. A female slave proposed to Philarchus to send slaves in the guise of free women. This led to the establishment of the 'Z\evA4pta at Smyrna, a commemorative festival in which the slaves were drcst as free women. Possibly this may have occurred in Gyges's time.

4 Her. 1, 15 and 16.

Vol. XV. No. 57. 20

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