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(peaKopoi Tmv XeftcurT&v or ^ea? 'Pa>/ir)<;), an honor that was twice repeated, under Hadrian and Septimius Severus.1 Indeed Hadrian was so popular with the Smyrnaeans that he was called, like Augustus, Savior and Founder of the city,2 and an effort was made to call the city Hadriana, after his name.
With all its advantages, natural and others, among which the Christian Church and Polycarp will not be forgotten, Smyrna was subject to the two great scourges of the East, pestilences8 and earthquakes; in the reign of M. Antonine it was almost overthrown by the great earthquake of the year 177.4 By the liberality of the emperor, however, it was rebuilt on so extensive a scale that on the whole the earthquake was regarded as a beneficial thing.5
The new city of M. Antonine lasted till the division of the Roman Empire, when it was attached to the Eastern Empire. But as all traces of the original Greek city are lost, to pursue the history further would be a fruitless task, and we leave it with this, contented if we have shown that the historical facts are not quite so familiar or so well established as they are thought to be.
1 Krause, Civitt. Ncocorae, p. 50.
« C. I. n. 3174; Eckhel. I. 2, p. 544; Mionn. III. 1109; Suppl. VI. 1548. » C. I. 3165.
* Aristidcs composed on this occasion his Mov. in. 2>i.
• Philostr. Vitt. Soph. 2, 9, 2; Aristid. no\. M 2p. I. p. 465; Syncell. p. 353, D. The passage in Aristides, 'Up. A6y. y. I. p. 497, will perhaps explain the obscure allusion in the Oracula Sibyllina 5, p. 334. Other prophecies on S. are found 3, p. 243; p. 244; 5, p. 311.
1. — Philological Studies — By Professor Gibbs.1
This volume contains eighty-three Articles on various topics belonging to Grammar and Rhetoric, ranging from the minutiae of English usage to principles of language in general, and to the logical and necessary relations of thought. We have been particularly interested in Art IV.— Language of the Intellectual World, or Faded Metaphors; Art. V. — Cardinal Ideas in Language; Art. VI. — Development of Language; Art. VII. — Natural Development and Classification of Propositions; Art VIIL — Natural Development and Nomenclature of Propositions; Art IX. — Development of the Parts of Speech from the Proposition; and in the fourteen Articles on the Figures of Speech, pp. 190 — 218. The Fragment, LXXIX., on Synonyms is one of singular worth. From the midst of discussions, which might seem to have a merely verbal interest, Prof. Gibbs often draws his reader to some of th« profoundest thoughts in theology; see pp. 16,198, et al. The volume contains many suggestions of great value in regard to Biblical interpretation; see pp. 204, 210, et al. The style of the Articles is concise and pithy. Sometimes, however, it becomes obscure through excessive condensation. On page 212, for instance, in explaining the passage " For he hath made him to be sin for us," 2 Cor., A: 21, Professor Gibbs merely affirms: "Here sin means a sini»er." This passage might imply, although we are aware that Professor Gibbs does not intend to intimate, what some divines have taught, that Christ was really a sinner, in consequence of our sins being imputed to him. In such instances does not perspicuity demand some amplification or explanation V Does not the word afiaprlav in the disputed passage mean a representative of sin, rather than a sinner f The rare brevity of Article LXXXI. also involves the subject of it in some obscurity. The author condemns the remark of Kirkham: "What is false in fact may be correct in grammar." "This proposition," says Professor Gibbs, "seems to imply that in certain approved forms of language we affirm what is false." But in the same Article our author teaches that, in certain approved cases, language " is concerned with actualities rather than with realities" that certain terms denote " what is actual though not real." In using such terms we do not intend to make men believe that to be real which is not real; but we intend to make them
1 Philological Studies with English Illustrations. By Josiah W. Gibh», Prof. Sac. Liter., Yale College. New Haven: Published by Durrie and Pe^lt. 1857, pp. 244. 12mo.
Vol. XV. No -5. 21
to believe that to be actual which is actual; we do not mislead nor intend to mislead them; our phrases are at once explained to mean what is true; but if interpreted as primarily and literally denoting what is real, they are false. Esop tells us that "the ass spake " articulate language. This assertion is false in reality, as a literal assertion, but is true in its actual and designed meaning. Moses tells us that the ass spake articulate language. This assertion is true in reality, and true in the sense which Moses intended. Substitute Professor Gibbs's word "reality" for Mr. Kirkham's word "fact," and the two grammarians are harmonized so far as the cited sentence of Mr. Rirkham is concerned. Both authors admit that certain phrases are true in their intended meaning; and false if they be interpreted as teaching that the facts literally denoted by the words, really exist.
But we are not purposing to criticise this excellent and erudite volume. We hope that it will be carefully studied by our clergymen, and that its author will give to the world still more extended results of his active and cautious investigations. We are happy to present to our readers in this connection two brief and hitherto unpublished Articles of Professor Gibbs, which are written with the same acumen and accuracy as are seen on every page of his Philological Studies. The Articles were written for the Bibliotheca Sacra, and we trust that we may receive many similar communications from the same cautious hand.
The Ethical Dative.
The dativus ethicus or ethical dative, is a dative of the personal pronoun, employed to denote the moral interest or sympathy of the person thus expressed in the action or event which is affirmed.
This use of the dative is found in Greek, Latin, German, and English. An equivalent for the same exists in Hebrew.
This dative, having been formerly regarded as a dativus commodi sive incommodi, was thought as such to be nearly or quite pleonastic. For this there seemed to be the countenance of the Hebrew. See Andrews and Stoddard's Lai. Gram., p. 202. Beck's Latin Syntax, p. 18. Sophocles's Greek Gram. (1849), p. 224. Conant's Gesenius (1855), p. 269.
It is now regarded as expressing the moral interest or sympathy of the person in the action denoted by the verb. As such sympathy may always be supposed to exist in moral and intelligent beings, it is naturally expressed in language, only when deeply felt. Hence this dative is thought to have a peculiar force.
C. Michelsen awards to Buttmann the praise of having first drawn attention to the distinctive character of the dativus ethicus. See Michelsen's Kasuslehre, p. 212.
Michelsen would extend the application of the term ethical, so as to cover all the uses of the dative, except the final. See Mich., p. 213, 214. But in this he is not to be followed.
The ethical dative is found particularly in the familiar style of popular intercourse; as in Canticles, Homer, Xenophon, Plautus, and Shakspeare.
Examples in Greek. 'n HTjrfp, Sis Ko\6s p o i 6 ire£nroj," O mother, how beautiful is grandfather to me."
Olua', a o t Ixtlvovi Tovs iya&ovs Ta irffiKtt paStus vuct)<rtiv, " I think, for your gratification, I shall easily surpass those skilled in foot exercises."
ToD filr (ivov T) p i v i)S4ais tw lruydaroln-iiy, " I would gladly inquire, for our gratification, of the stranger."
Examples in Latin. Quid mihi Celsus agit ?" What is my Celsus doing?" Orator sit mihi tinctus Uteris, "My orator should be acquainted Trith letters."
Ecce tibi exortus est Procrates, "Lo, Procrates has arisen for thee."
Examples in German.
Example in English.
Examples in Hebrew. The examples in Hebrew differ from those in the classics, as they express the participation or sympathy of a person in his own acts. The Hebrew usage extends to animals, as in Examples 12 and 13, and to things without life, as in examples 14 and 15.
1. Gen. 12: 1, "Get thee," liter. " go for thyself." So Gen. 22: 2.
2. Gen. 27: 43, "Flee thou," liter, "flee for thyself"
3. Ex. 34: 1, "Hew thee," liter. " hew for thyself"
4. Josh. 7: 10, " Get thee up," liter, "arise for thyself."
5. 1 Sam. 20: 20, "As though I shot at a mark," liter. "as though I shot for myself (i. e., for my amusement) at a mark."
6. Ps. 120: 6, "My soul hath long dwelt with him that hateth peace," liter. "my soul hath long dwelt for itself with him that hateth peace."
7. Prov. 1: 22, "The scorners delight in their scorning," liter. "the scorners delight for themselves in scorning."
8. Prov. 20: 14, "When he is gone his way," liter. "when he is gone for himself."
9. Cant. 2: 17, "Be thou like," liter. « be thou like for thyself."
10. Is. 31: 8, " He shall flee from the sword," liter, "he shall flee for himself from the sword."
11. Ezek. 87: 11, "We are cut off for our parts," liter." we are cut off
12. Job 39: 4, "They (the young animals) go forth, and return not unto them," liter. "and return not for themselves."
13. Hos. 8: 9, " A wild ass alone by himself," liter. "a wild ass alone for himself."
14. Cant. 2: 11, " The rain is over and gone," liter, "the rain is over and gone for itself."
15. Am. 2: 13, " As a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves," liter, "as a cart is pressed that is full for itself of sheaves."
Although in these passages the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, and the common English Version have for the most part omitted the personal pronoun, yet there are some cases in which they seem to have felt its force; as the Septuagint in rendering Cant 2: 11, the Vulgate in rendering 1 Sam. 20: 20, Hos. 8: 9, and the English version in rendering Gen. 12: 1, 22: 2, Josh. 7: 10, Prov. 1: 22, 20: 14, Ezek. 37 : 11. The English translation, it is evident, has not freed itself from the influence of the ancient versions.
According to Winer there is no clear case of the ethical dative in the New Testament
In making a new translation of the Bible, the English translator would find not a little embarrassment in rendering the ethical dative.
The Latin Dative.
Mast attempts have been made to define the peculiar nature of the Latin dative case, and especially to develop its relation to the accusative.
In the general views of the dative there has been a great agreement from the first among grammarians, while in the minuter explanations there has existed a great variety of opinions. Particular applications of the dative, as, for example, in "mihi est," "aimilis alicui," have received very different explanations. Dr. Conrad Michelsen, in his Kasuslehre der Lateinischen Sprachlehre, Berlin, 1843, p. 202, ascribes this to the overlooking of the subjective side of the dative, while the objective was generally acknowledged.
According to Sanctius, a learned grammarian of the sixteenth century, the dative denotes the ultimate end or final cause. See his Minerva, Tom. I., p. 210. This idea of Sanctius, carried out, would have led him to just views of the dative. Michelsen so far accords with Sanctius as to make the dative a terminative. See Michelsen, pp. 42, 202.
According to the usual explanation, the dative denotes that to or for which an action is exerted. See Krebs, pp. 10, 129. Andrews and Stoddard, p. 14. The latter sometimes approximate in their language to that of Sanctius, see pp. 195, 197, 201.
According to some, the dative denotes the remoter, mediate, or indirect object, in distinction from the accusative, which denotes the nearer, immediate or direct object. Kiihner's Lat Gram. Hann, 1842, II., 64. This definition is regarded by Michelsen as imperfect, because it does not define sufficiently what is intended by object. See Mich., p. 208.