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According to others, it denotes, not the effect or that which is acted upon, but that in reference to which the subject acts or possesses any quality. See Beck's Lat. Syntax, p. 17, Madvig, in his Latin Sprachlehre (Braunsch, 1844), § 241, Zumpt (New York, 1854), p. 290. Zumpt, in his explanations, approximates to the preceding definition.
According to Kiihner, it denotes that which shares or participates in an action of the subject, or is interested in it, and is usually a person. See his Lat. Gram., II., 63.
The localists find in the dative the place where, see Christ. Sped., IX., 113, also the place tchither, see Madvig in Neu. Jahrb. fiir Fhilol. Ap., 1845, pp. 339, 340.
According to Weissenborn, the dative represents an 'object which receives an action, and reflects it back without being subjected to the same. See his Lat. Schulgramm. (1838), p. 319.
According to Michelsen, the dative contains both subjectivity and objectivity. The object receives a subjective modification. See Mich., pp. 43, 195, 202. He attaches great importance to the subjective character of the dative, which he first exhibited in his Histor. Ueberskht der Lat. Gram. (1837), p. 12. Weissenborn regards Michelsen as having stated his (Weissenborn's) views more definitely than he had done himself. See Neu. Jahrb., 1845, pp. 204 , 205.
Dr. K. F. Becker at first distinguished the accusative and the dative, as the real and the personal object. See his Ausfiihrl. Gramm. (1839), IL, 181. This distinction was an ancient one, and had been found insufficient.
Dr. Becker has since fully admitted the subjectivity of the dative. See his Schulgr. (1839), p. 296.
The dative object now stands in connection with the accusative, genitive, and factitive, as one of the four complementary objects.
2.—The Writings Of Rev. James B. Walker, D. D.1
■ r RRV. I.IUCEL HARRIS, O. D., FROFKIIOR OF THEOLOGY IN BANGOR THEOLOGICAL BSMtNART.
TnE first of these volumes has already attained an acknowledged position and a commanding influence in the theological literature of Christen
1 Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation. With an Introdnctory Essay by Calvin E. Stowe, D. D. A new edition with a Supplementary Chapter by the Author. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 1857.
God Revealed in the Process of Creation and by the Manifestation of Jesus Christ; including an Examination of the Development-theory contained in the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. By James B. Walker, Author of Philosophy of Plan of Salvation. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 1857.
Philosophy of Scepticism and Uliraism, wherein the opinions of Rev. Theodore Tarkcr and other writers arc shown to be inconsistent with sound reason and the Christian religion. By James B. Walker. New York. Derby and Jackson. 1857.
dom. Both in this country and in Great Britain it has had a circulation such as few books of profound theological discussion attain; it has been translated into all the principal languages of Europe, and is used as a text book in many British and American Seminaries of learning. It may be presumed that our readers are generally acquainted with it. Its aim is, by a series of independent proofs, to show that the Christian Revelation, both in its substance and its methods, commends itself to the human reason. In its substance it reveals a religious system which alone can meet man's spiritual wants, and insure his highest development Its methods were the only ones by which the recipients of its rudiments could be educated for the reception of it complete in Christ; the only ones by which, when completed, man could be educated to holiness. Even the Levitical economy, said by Coleridge to be an enigma yet to be solved, is, by a beautiful train of reasoning, shown to have been the best form of Revelation to meet the necessities of its recipients, and as necessary in its place as the miracles. We only express the general consent of thoughtful minds in saying, that this work is an original and exceedingly valuable contribution to the argument in defence of a supernatural Revelation. A cause of the freshness and vigor of the work is the fact that the author presents the processes by which he worked his own way out from scepticism. Those are always living books which successfully delineate the processes and results of the author's own spiritual life. The supplementary chapter in the new edition before us is entitled, " An objective revelation necessary as a means of the moral culture of mankind."
The " God Revealed, etc.," is a more recent work, and was first published in Great Britain, where it has already passed through several editions. It is less known in this country than there, and less than it merits. While it contributes less that is new than the Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation, as a product of fresh and vigorous thought it is a worthy companion of that work. Its design is to show the unity both of Cause and Development in the physical world, and the Christian Revelation; that both are parts of one plan. The work is divided into two books. In the first the author, while having special regard to the refutation of the theory of Development by Law, aims to present some lines of argument for the divine existence and character, which have not yet been adequately unfolded by writers on Natural Theology. The marks of order and of adaptation of means to end in individual objects and species, have been abundantly exhibited by Paley and others. But science now discloses some distinct history of the world's formation through unmeasured geological ages. This history not only multiplies the individual objects and species in which marks of order and of adaptation appear, but discloses a plan embracing the whole, which has an order of its own, and of which the several parts, though separated by ages, have an adaptation to each other. In this immense series of events the discovered unity of properties and laws proves a unity of cause; the discovered progress to higher orders of beings proves the unity of a plan ever advancing to the realization of an Ideal. If now the sceptic urges his vaunted objection, that the universe is demonstrably imperfect; that we ourselves can conceive of improvements in it; that therefore it is not the work of infinite wisdom;—we admit his premises; not only can we conceive of a better world, but the Bible distinctly declares that a better world is hereafter to be realized; back in the geological eras we see the world more incomplete than it is now; and so we reach the conclusion that, while no one period in the work completely reveals the author, yet the whole, considered as a plan ever advancing towards perfection, discloses the infinite God; and every period — that of the Saurians as really as that of man — demonstratively indicates, though it does not adequately reveal, him.1 Also, coal, ores, and other minerals, prepared in previous eras for the uses of the present, prove the adaptation of one part of the plan to another. Here we not only have an answer to a specious objection against the validity of the argument from Final Causes, that at a particular era an immense vegetation existed with scarcely any animals to be benefited by it, but we also are furnished with a new argument from final causes, in the discovery of the fact that that vegetation itself was designed to meet the necessities of the system developed in a subsequent era. It is also argued that at last in the creation of man, the intelligent and the moral appear in the plan. And as the plan is seen to have a unity in all stages of its development, the supremacy of the intelligent and the moral, which is now at last actual, must have been designed from the beginning. This is a sphere of thought which has not yet been adequately explored. We are indebted to Dr. Walker for the excellent service which he has rendered in this direction; although his labors and those of others have but indicated the field, and marked some of its points of view. As it shall be more fully unfolded, it must yield additional confirmation of the truths of Natural Theology, and of the unity of the physical and the spiritual in one comprehensive divine plan.
In the second book of this volume the author, starting from the position attained in the first, considers separately some of the prominent doctrines of redemption, in order to show their foundation in the nature of things. For example, in treating of " the means, measures and methods of restoration to obedience to the Divine Lawgiver," he makes the following points: the physical creation in its present state cannot reveal God's moral attributes; his moral character can be revealed only through moral beings; a perfect humanity is necessary to the perfect manifestation of God, inasmuch as God cannot manifest himself through a sinful being, nor yet by mere precepts or words; therefore for the manifestation of God there
1 In this direction is found the answer to a celebrated philologist, who, in arguing against the geologists, used triumphantly to nsk whether the supposition conld be admitted for a moment, that the time ever was, when God Almighty reigned over nothing but bull-frogs — a question which, if, after all, geology is established on incontrovertible facts, only gives concrete solidity and the keen edge of wit to one of the most formidable objections of scepticism.
must be a special and perfect humanity; in that humanity must be revealed also the indwelling Deity; hence, a necessity of a mysterious union of the infinite and finite — divinity and humanity conjoined in one person.
We have no disposition to mention the faults of a sterling work. Occasionally the speculation is more refined than valuable. There is an adventurous use of analogy in positive proof, and not merely in rebutting objections; and this is the reason why sometimes the conclusion eludes us, and we find not the solid conviction which the formal and stately march of the logic had led us to expect. Occasionally the argument lacks something of conclusiveness. For example, Book L, Chapter IX., the position is not adequately proved, that "the progress in each species is not towards another higher than itself, but to higher perfection in its own form and attributes." This is an essential point: for if progress is only by the destruction of inferior species to give place to higher, the analogy tends frightfully to the Pantheistic conclusion. "The individual perishes, the all endures," and the touching lament which Buckert ascribes to a withering flower, becomes the universal dirge:
"Ewig ist das Ganze griin,
We apprehend that a sceptical mind would be driven to this inference from the analogy as the author has left it, rather than to the inference intended to be reached. The argument might, perhaps, be more successful, if it were based, not on species, but on types or typical forms, ever advancing as in the case of the vertebrate skeleton, towards perfection, each in its own kind.
Not satisfactory is the author's statement of his argument on "the legal aspect and practical value of the sacrifice of Christ." He seems to teach that the sacrifice of atonement is necessary only to remove the evil which the sin of a sinner does to himself and to other created minds, failing to recognize any ground of necessity for it in the character and government of God. He distinguishes between love and that which the law requires; as if love were not itself the fulfilling of the law; and thus seems to teach that Christ's sacrifice was super-legal, because it flowed from love. Certainly the law required no suffering of Christ as a penalty; and in the sense that he endured a suffering which the law did not impose on him as a penalty for his sin, his suffering was super-legal; but not in the sense that it flowed from love. If Christ is to be spoken of as subject to law in any sense, the law requires of him perfect love; and if perfect love would lead him to the sacrifice of the cross, the law required of him that sacrifice. If not, then the Unitarian objection is valid, that Christ's sufferings for sinners cannot be reconciled with rectitude or the requirements of a just government. A further consequence is, that every self-sacrifice for others, which love prompts, is super-legal, and of the nature of atonement. We do not find recognized the essential idea that the Son of God, in the exercise of that love, which is his own eternal character, and therefore the supreme law of the universe, did endure suffering as a substitute for the sinner, in order that thereby God's own eternal character might have its full expression and satisfaction in the redemption of sinners, and also that his character, law and government might be vindicated in the sight of all his creatures. Other statements strongly suggest the inference that the atonement must result in universal salvation, or otherwise drive us to the alternative that Christ died only for the elect What other inference can we draw from the language that the condition of pardon to a transgressor must be " restoration of the transgressor, and compensation which will counterwork, and eventually remove the derangement from the system ;' (p. 182); "the evil consequences of human sin must be counteracted or worked out of the system, by the merit of transcendent holiness, because rectification of the evil is necessary to justification in law." We suppose the author, intent on his philosophical argument, which has great force, was not sufficiently careful of his statements, and failed adequately to express his own theological views.
The " Philosophy of Scepticism and Reform," is not what its title indicates. It is not, in any proper sense, a philosophy of either scepticism or reform, but simply a series of letters on various topics in respect to which the Christian views are defended against sceptics and radicals. The letters were written to a literary friend of sound learning, who had been inclined, probably without much examination, to embrace the doctrines of Theodore Parker. They were designedly written for popular reading, and are of varied merit, though bearing the stamp of the author's mind.
We find in the two last of these works occasional instances of negligence in the structure of sentences, and many inelegant and unauthorized words and phrases; e. g., the professing world, the veracity of a fact, love-death, love-sacrifice, love-action, love-throes, love-life, revealment, foundational, law-soulist.
This is a time when the old fixtures of the popular belief are loosened, and the evidence of a supernatural revelation and of the inspiration of the record of it, is passing a searching scrutiny. Religious belief is unsettled to an extent not generally appreciated. No more timely and needed work can be done than to explore modern scepticism, to re-state in their strongest forms the evidences of truth, and to confirm them by all the contributions of science and the discoveries of profound thinking. Dr. Walker has "served his generation," and deserves the gratitude of all who love the truth and seek to know it.