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germinant accomplishment throughout many ages, though the height or fulness of it may refer to some one age. For example, the judgment on Jerusalem in the 24th of Matthew is itself but a symbol of the great final judgment, and so also is the judgment on Idumea in the 34th of Isaiah; see especially the 2d, 5th and 6th verses.
The work of Graeber is neither very original, nor very erudite, nor very profound; but it is a pleasant and profitable study. It is a well meant, and on the whole, a successful attempt to mediate between the extreme historic view of Bengel on the one hand, and the extreme symbolic view of Hengstenberg on the other, on the basis of the more moderate historical interpretation of Ebrard. In all that is well done, every little helps; and it is not extravagant to expect, that true scholars will be substantially agreed in their interpretation of the Apocalypse, some time before the millennium dawns upon Uj.
8. — Two Sermons Of Dr. Thompson."
Dr. J. P. Thompson, pastor of the church recently worshipping in the Broadway Tabernacle, has given us, in one of the pamphlets now on our table, an instructive history of the religious uses of that edifice. Professor Finney of Oberlin, Dr. Duffield of Detroit, Dr. Joel Parker of New York, Rev. E. W. Andrews, and Rev. Dr. Thompson have successively officiated in the Tabernacle, as pastors or stated ministers. Many impressive instances of the good results of their ministrations are noticed in this Discourse. The Tabernacle is consecrated in the memory of thousands by the sacred eloquence which has been called forth under its roof for a series of years, at the anniversaries of various national associations. The house has thus gained a national importance, and the sermon preached on the Sabbath before its demolition is interesting, not merely to the citizens of New York, but also to " the strangers scattered throughout" the land, who have worshipped on the spot " whither the tribes went up" to their yearly festival.
Dr. Thompson has also laid the religious community under obligations to him by another Discourse, containing a fine portraiture of the ministerial character and services of the late Dr. Lansing. This eminent divine was born in 1785. He was of Dutch descent, and did not learn the English language until he was somewhat advanced in his boyhood. As his grandfather was Patroon or Patentee of a large manor in the neighborhood of Troy, N. Y., young Lansing's early associations must have been with the rich and
1 I. The Last Sabbath in the Broadway Tabernacle. A Historical Discourse, by the Pastor, Joseph P. Thompson. D. D. With an Account of the Services on that Day, April 26, 1857. New York: Calkins and Stiles. 1857.
II. The Faithful Preacher. A Discourse commemorative of the late Dirck C. Lansing, D. D., by Joseph P. Thompson, Pastor of the Broadway Tabernacle Church, New York. Calkins and Stiles, 348 Broadway. 1857.
the gay; and on a youth of a different native temperament, such a mode of life would have been extremely disastrous. 1 lis naturally serious disposition seems to have protected him against these influences. In the year 1800, at the age of fifteen, he became a member of Yale College, of which Dr. Dwight had then been President for about five years. The readers of Dr. Dwight's Life will remember the picture there given of the religious state of the College at that period, and his wise, and eventually successful efforts to check the rapidly advancing tide of infidel opinions. His influence was felt by the youthful Lansing, who seems to have been radically changed in character during the year 1802. This change was speedily followed by a determination to become a minister of the (iospel. lie studied theology, principally under the care of Rev. Dr. Blatchford of Lansingburg, N. Y., and was licensed to preach in 1806. In the autumn of that same year he joined a church at Onondaga, N. Y., a spot then almost a wilderness. Of this church he became pastor.
From this date his ministerial career — though impeded often by ill health, may fitly be termed a series of brilliant victories over the powers of evil. A pastor successively in Onondaga, in Auburn, where, during a ministry of twelve years, he was instrumental in the conversion of more than a thousand persons—in Utiea, in New York City, over two different churches; an Evangelist for several years, subsequently pastor of a Congregational Church in Brooklyn, N. Y., he was in all these positions a powerful and successful preacher. He is said to have been instrumental in the promotion of more than sixty revivals of religion in forty different towns. His ministry in most of the places above mentioned was during the memorable era of religious interest in western New York and New England. Dr. L. entered into these exciting scenes with all his characteristic zeal.
He was always a strenuous advocate of doctrinal discussion in the pulpit, as a means both of producing and perpetuating pure revivals of religion. His success as a preacher is strikingly illustrative of the soundness of this view, and of the preeminent effectiveness of the general theological system which he advocated. During a religious excitement at Auburn, N. Y., he considered himself as doing precisely what was most needed in order to the permanence of that revival, by publishing a volume of doctrinal sermons, lie was a student and admirer of the works of the New England divines, Edwards, Hopkins. Bellamy. His conviction of the great worth of doctrinal preaching, and consequently of the need of thorough training for the ministry, led him, while a pastor at Auburn, to project the establishment of the Theological Seminary in that place. By his personal exertions he secured to this Seminary an endowment of Si00,000. and for some, time, besides the duties of a pastor in the town, he performed those of Professor of Sacred Rhetoric in the Seminary He was also one of the original Trustees of Hamilton College.
His private religious character was in keeping with the character of his ministry. He was distinguished for the ardor of his spirit, his intense love of truth, and the general purity of his life. He died at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, March 19, 1857, at the age of 72.
This commemorative sermon of Dr. Thompson breathes a spirit of affectionate sympathy with the faith and the zeal of the departed teacher. It deserves to be read by all clergymen, especially those who complain of doctrinal discussion as chilling the fervor of sacred eloquence.
9. — Tattler's Life And Sermons.1
TnE principal sources from which the present Life of Tauler and his coadjutors is derived, are the writings of Professor Schmidt of Strasburg, on Johannes Tauler von Strasburg; on Eckart, in the Theologische Studien und Kritiken for 1839 ; and on Die Gottesfreunde in Vierzchnten Jahrhundert; also Wackernagel's Essay on the Gottesfreunde, Neander's and Base's Church History, and Milman's Latin Christianity, etc. From such sources it were easy, one would think, to compile a better record than is here presented us of Dr. Tauler and of his co-laborers; a record more symmetrical, more philosophical, more distinct and impressive.
The selection from Tauler's sermons, in this volume, is made for the people, not for the schools. Literary men would be more interested in those discourses of this remarkable man, which develop more fully his theological opinions, even his metaphysical and mystical notions. His more profound theories shaped his sermons, and the sermons cannot be exactly understood unless his philosophical speculations are definitely stated. His philosophy of human nature, for instance, lies concealed under the following remarks on page 337 of this volume: "What the Lord of nature ordains for a creature, that it is natural for the creature to observe, and if it departs therefrom, it acts contrary to nature." "Inasmuch as the disciples surrendered themselves utterly to the Divine Will, they were in the highest sense in harmony with nature, and their nature did not perish, but was exalted and brought into rightful order." His philosophy of inspiration lies hidden under his remark on page 310: "Did the disciples in this highest school of the Spirit obtain an insight into all those sciences which are learnt in the school of nature? I answer, yes; it was given them to understand all science, whether touching the courses of the heavenly bodies, or what not, in so far as it might conduce to God's glory, or concerned the salvation of man; but those points of science which bear no fruit for the soul they were not given to know."
In various passages of these sermons glimpses may be caught of Dr.
1 The History and Life of the Reverend Dr. John Tauler of Strasbourg, with twenty-five of his sermons (Tern]). 1340). Translated from the German, with Additional Notices of Tauler's Life and Times, by Susanna Winkworth, Translator of Theologia Germanica— and a Preface, by the Rev. Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley and Canon of Meddleham. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 65 Cornhill, MDCCOLVII, pp. 415, small quarto.
Tauler's theory of the will, and of grace, but a more full exposition of his theory would make these passages far more luminous. "It is true," he says, on page 331, " that we can do no good thing without God's ordinary influence, ex<;ept we make progress by means of a special influence from the Holy Spirit; yet, at the same time, man may do his part, inasmuch as his will has power to withstand the oilers of the Holy Spirit, and to cleave to his own way. God does not justify a man without his own free will," etc.
In his Preface Mr. Kingsley asserts "that Tauler's Sermons need no comment whatever;" pp 21 and 11. But, in our opinion, few sermons have more need of comment, and no edition of his popular discourses can be scholarly and complete, which does not illuminate many of his fragmentary statements, with references to his guiding philosophy. Students may detect the fallacy of his assertions, or comprehend their truthfulness, while the uneducated will be bewildered or misled by them, unless they be refuted or elucidated by a commentator. For instance, on pages 388, S39 Tauler remarks: 'The 1 Ieavenly Father gave himself as truly unto his disciples 'as they had given themselves unto Him.' 'God's will, with them, went no further than their own wills.' 'Though all the disciples were set free of self, yet one turned to God with warmer love and stronger desire than another.' 1 Wherefore God gave himself more to one than to another, though all with like sincerity turned to I Iim!' 'It is true, nevertheless, that on this matter much must be ascribed to the sovereign will of God, who giveth to every man as lie will.' Ought not such indefinite assertions of this mystical author to be explained, and compared with the definite question of the Apostle: "Who maketh thee to differ from another?"
On page 288 Tauler asserts: "The highest angels do indeed, in many respects, resemble the temple of a noble soul; yet not wholly, for there is some measure, a certain bound, set to their similarity to it in knowledge and love, beyond which they cannot pass; but the soul is ever able to advance so long as it is in time. For if the soul of a man, yet living in this present state, were on a level with the highest angel, the man could yet, by virtue of his free self-determination, outstrip the angel at every successive moment, without count, that is to say, without mode, and above the mode of the angels, and all created reason." But how does the "full self-determination of man " differ from that of an angel? Who knows? And how does man's superiority to angels depend on man's freedom? Such remarks as the above may suggest, unless they be explained, some injurious fancies to untrained students.
On pages 2S5, 286 Tauler remarks: "The man who is united with God performs his good works 'without any wherefore — that is without any regard to himself— to the glory of God only." "So long as a man, in any of his works, is seeking or desiring anything that God has to give, or will give hereafter, he is like 'the traffickers in the temple.'" Many such expressions are made by Tauler, and seem at first view, to disparage the piety of Moses, who " had respect unto the recompense of reward," and also the piety of the Redeemer himself, who endured the cross "for the joy that was set before him." Tauler's remarks are indiscriminate, undistinguishlng; his editors ought to point out the distinction between "a supreme " regard to one's personal interests, and "any" regard to them; between a well balanced, well proportioned desire of reward, and an ill balanced, disproportioned, excessive desire of it. The whole style of modern theology suiters from loose methods of speech on this topic. Indefiniteness is the chief bane of theological literature at the present time.
Up and down, throughout this volume, are found remarkable passages, for the popular influence of which some critical annotations would be important; see pages 141, 144, 150. Still the hearty thanks of the community are due to the accomplished Translator of the volume, and we hope that all who speak the English language will derive benefit from a lengthened series of translations from her skilful pen.
The preceding notice of Tauler's Life and Sermons was in type for the October number of this Qurterly, but was-crowded out by the pressure of other matter. We have since had the pleasure of receiving an American edition of the same work, from the excellent House of Wiley and llalsted, Xew York. The American is merely a reprint of the English copy, with the addition of six introductory pages from Professor Koswell 1). Hitchcock. The price of the New York reprint is about two-thirds less than that of the London original.
10. — Scuweglek's History Of Philosophy.1
This manual is characterized by the excellencies and defects of the Hegelian school, to which the author belongs. Hegel's intellect was thoroughly Aristotelian, and his intellectual method is in its own nature clear and discriminating. But adopting a pantheistic postulate for his first principle in philosophy, he was compelled to set his clear brain at a task beyond finite powers to perform. From the point of view which he had adopted, philosophy became tantamount to omniscience, and unless the philosopher could comprehend the infinite, and remove all mystery, he nude a total failure. Having thus infinitely enlarged the boundaries of the department, by denying that it had any limits, a species of speculation was immediately introduced, which must of necessity, be of the most vague and mystical character. However clear and discriminating the thinker's mind might be in its natural working, it became confused and baffled by the infinitude and insolubility of the problems which it vainly attacked. The obscurity of the later pantheistic schools of Germany should be attributed to the nature of the questions that were raised, and not to any
1 A History of Philosophy, in epitome. By Dr. Alliort Schwegler. Trans lated from the original German by Julius H. Scclyc. New York: D. Appleton and Company.