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comest into thy kingdom." This was a request betokening true faith, the condition of entering into Christ's kingdom. "And Jesus said unto him, verily I say unto thee, to-day thou shalt be with me in Paradise." 'Afirjv \eyco <roi, this language always prefaces something of great moment. Hrfpepav, "to-day," is emphatic. It is granting more than the man asked, who wished a future remembering of him in mercy. In the comment of Grotius on this passage, it is said: "Pessime- fecerunt qui hanc vocem aut cum Xe7&> [dico] conjunxerunt, [quod apertd improbat Gyrus] aut interpretati sunt ayp^pov [hodie] post resurrectionem. Christus plus promittit qufim erat rogatus. Rogas, inqitit, ut olim tui sim memor cum regni possessionem aecepero; ego tarn diu non differam tua vota; sed partem et primitias speratrc felicitatis tibi intra hunc ipsum diem reprsesentabo; morere securus, a morte statim te divina solatia exspectant." 1 Met' ifiov eery, "shalt thou be with me;" this in itself is the summit of the believer's reward and felicity after death, than which Paul himself desired nothing higher. Phil. i. 23: "I have a desire to depart and to be with Christ." It was carrying out the great purpose of the Saviour himself concerning his true believers. John xvii. 24: "Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me, be v)ith me where I am." 'Ev rat irapaSelo-a), "in paradise;" not simply, as some have said, 'in the world of spirits,' which would not have been any new or great announcement to the anguished penitent, but 'in that kingdom itself,' in conscious blessedness and glory with the Lord. Christ spoke to the man as he, a Jew, would comprehend him. "Paradise" expressed to the Jewish mind the highest conception of heaven. It, was that part of the world of spirits which was directly set over against 'Gehenna' or 'hell.' It was, in the language of Josephus, X<opov ovpavovT ayuoTarov,1 " the place in the heavens where the souls of the blest were gathered together," where were Abraham and Moses and all the faithful. It corresponds with the expression " Abraham's bosom" in the Lord's parable. Says Grotius, on this phrase: "Putant veteres plerique
1 Grotii op. theol. Basil. Vol. II. p. 460. 2 Quoted by Grotius, Vol. II. p. 425. 'sinnrn Abrahae' dici 'regionem piis animis adscriptam' quam Hebreei"pS id est, TrapaBeiaov." 1 Lightfoot also considers them synonymous phrases in the estimation of the old Jews. In the Talmud, quoted by him, it is related that "holy Rabbi Judah" went, at his death, "to Abraham's bosom, to the exquisite delights and perfect felicities of Paradise.7'2 Now where Abraham was, was the very highest heaven of the just to the ancient Jew. Paradise, according to Lightfoot, was in the Rabbinical books, "the highest heavens."3 He quotes one passage from them in these words: "Those that dwell in-Paradise, they shine like the stars of the firmament, like the sun, like the moon, like the lightning, like lilies, like burning lamps."4 It was God's abode, the garden where his infinite love blossomed, and where the human spirit in his sunlight flowered, as in Rev. ii. 7. The heavenly Paradise took its imagery from the earthly Paradise, the garden of Eden, with its tree, its fruits, its river. In brief, if there were any w7ord that could express to the Jewish mind and to the mind of the dying robber, the perfect state of the blest, the highest abode of the righteous, of Abraham the father and type of all believers, it was "Paradise." Lightfoot scouts the idea of the Jews entertaining any lower or divided conception of Paradise, as if it were a mere state of waiting for felicity, a prison, a limbo, a detention.
Matt. xvii. 3, 4. The appearance of Moses and Elias on the mount of transfiguration was either the appearance of real, conscious, glorified saints, or else it was their illusory presence. But can we imagine this? Would it satisfy the faith or reason of the Church of Christ? Would this scenic effect have been worthy of our Lord? Did not these heavenly spirits really talk with Jesus, of those things happening on earth, in which they had been all along intensely conscious and interested? Were they at that moment awakened out of sleep to know and hear for the first time, of Christ and of his great work? The difficulty of overcoming
such passages as these is greater than the difficulty of accounting for a forestalled judgment. And what an idea in itself, that all who have died are now in one vast sleeping chamber! that since death they have never thought, nor stirred, nor dreamed! that the ceaselessly active spirits, who founoV this world too small, who explored its secrets, who swept over it like storms, who rose above it in their spiritual ambition, and took hold of the very mystery and nature of God, should now be held bound in some demi-earthly cavern of silence, to slumber till the universe grows old, and all things be ready to perish! How this lessens the victory of death, and sinks the rushing river of life into a stagnant marsh! Can we conceive of pure spirit under any circumstances becoming unconscious? Spirit may be numbed and deadened by the body, though even in the body it bursts the bars of weary sleep and of oppressive disease, and claims its freedom in wild dreams and in delirious thoughts ; but when disembodied, how can it be inanimate or suspended? As well conceive of a pure flame ceasing to burn. As well think of life ceasing to be living. Consciousness is the soul's essence. Has the learned author therefore really benefited his readers by reviving a theory that wars with the obvious and universal interpretation of Scripture, that conflicts with our intuitions, and that subserves no high moral end? If the dead thus sleep, we would pray, let many of them sleep on. Let them never wake to their own evil consciousness and everlasting pain. We would be inclined to adopt the Romish doctrine of praying for the souls of the dead. The belief in purgatorial fires were more in accordance with Scripture.
The next lecture, upon " the Resurrection," is in the author's clearest style, dispelling at once a philosophic incredulousness and a superstitious confusion. Contending for the essentialness of this great doctrine, and scattering that thin and ghostly spiritualism which really unclothes the soul, instead of clothing it upon with a perfect body for its highest manifestation, he at the same time routs those crude and fleshly ideas, which are thick with the clods of the valley of
Vol. XV. No. 58. 34
death. "Flesh and blood cannot inherit eternal life." The continuity of individual life in a renewed bodily organism evolved from the seminal principle of the old body, yet entirely different, as different as a magnificent plant that shoots from the little rotted seed in the ground,— a new, God-given and incorruptible body, is a thoroughly Pauline truth? The individuality of the man is in his whole nature, as soul and body. Here the bodily nature predominates and moulds the soul; hereafter, the soul predominates and moulds the body. The new body is a "spiritual body;" and, in the instance of the believer, the body which is developed from the sound renewed soul, takes on the form of all that is beautiful and glorious, even of Christ's own glorious body.
Another judicious and powerful chapter follows, upon " the Judgment." The writer justly makes much, in this solemn theme, of the idea, that not only will God then be perfectly manifested, but that man will be perfectly manifested, as 2 Cor. 4: 10, literally rendered, would indicate. The real love and faith which there are in a soul, will be revealed, as well as the real unbelief and hostility which there are in another soul. Conscience flashing with perfect faithfulness and simultaneousness 'upon all actions, like a veil drawn from a mirror, will be the revealing instrumentality. The Judgment has a bright as well as an awful side to it. There will be surprisals of joy as well as of woe. There is a simple explanation given by Whately, of the terms of the Judgment, which is characteristic of his clear mind. That class of texts which declares that the judgment will be according to the deeds, words, and thoughts of the man while in the body, must be harmonized with those1 numerous and definite passages which pronoun:e repentance and faith to be the only terms of salvation. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned." These deeds done in the body, these benevolences to the poor, these good words and thoughts, will therefore be judged of in the quality of the frnits of that faith which is really in the soul. If these deeds, words, and thoughts do not spring from this faith, from this subjective principle of righteousness, but from some earthly root or motive, they are spurious, they are imperfect, they have no divine life in them, and they cannot stand the judgment of God. A man will, on that day (and how blessed that it is so) be justified by faith alone. How can he, indeed, be justified by anything else? How can he have any good deeds to bring to that bar, that have not come from this faith? *' Without him [Christ] we can do nothing."
In the succeeding chapter on " the expected Restoration of the Jews, and the Millennium," tne author refutes the opinion that the saints are literally to judge the world hereafter; but he considers the passage to mean, that true Christians, by their just life in this world, are really judging and condemning the evil world around them. He also discards the idea of two resurrections, giving the passage a simpler interpretation. He is opposed to the ideas of a literal restoration of the Jews, and of a bodily millennial reign of Christ on earth. He considers such ideas to be at variance with the general scope of the New Testament, and with the spirituality of the Christian faith. He thinks that the true way to interpret the unfulfilled prophecies of the New Testament, and especially of the book of Revelation, is to use the key of the actual fulfilment of the prophecies of the Old Testament. These have been thus far fulfilled spiritually, as in the case of the coming of Elias, and of the establishment of the moral kingdom and power of the Messiah. And he is of the opinion that a far greater and more splendid exhibition of the power of the religion of Jesus, a fuller breaking forth of the energy of His spirit and life, for a considerable period before the end of the world, will answer, and gloriously answer, all the requirements of these prophecies. The bringing in of the Jews, is simply the universal triumph of the Christian church, in which there is neither Jew nor Gentile, but all are one in Christ.
In the chapter on " Rewards and Punishments," the scriptural truth is brought out, that the elevation of one will not imply the depression of another; that there will be no envy in heaven, because each one's spiritual capacity will be filled. Yet there is, in this chapter, the most objectionable feature