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study. Classical discipline is, accordingly, the palaestra in which, throughout Christendom, the rising generation is everywhere prepared, and for ages has been, to wrestle manfully with the difficulties of after-life, in whatever profession or calling. From Latin and Greek fountains, the living waters have been drawn, from which the intellectual thirst of great minds, in all nations, has been slaked. Those ancient languages, so often called dead, have ever had a very living use. But if the mental discipline of the civilized world has been secured thus far, to such a high degree, from the very imperfect study of language, as hitherto pursued, how much more would be obtained by a deeper, broader, truer style of familiarization with its structure and spirit; so deep, and broad, and true as to seem to the mind swimming buoyantly in its depths, to be its very native element. By the study of etymology, in particular, habits of wide research, of patient comparison, of logical deduction, and of critical review are preeminently cultivated; all among the highest elements of mental energy and success. Who can speak too strongly of their necessity and value? or, of that insight into the living beauty of language which makes its words seem, whether standing quietly on the shore of our own thoughts, or coming and going on errands of truth and love, to be so many white-winged messengers, radiant themselves with the light that they bear before them?

And as the student finds, in this path of study, the sweet perpetually mingled with the useful, and, like one searching for gems in regions where they abound, obtains, at every step, a rich reward of his efforts, he feels perpetually freshened to new toil; and each new effort prepares the desire and the way for a greater. So that the spirit of study, instead of being, as at first, a matter of mere conscientious or manly resolve, rises rapidly into enthusiasm, spontaneity, and instinct. For there is all the excitement, in such a style of classical study, of pleasing travel and, more, of earnest scientific exploration and even of rare adventure. This, it may well be assumed, is the only world in which mental effort is a labor and, at times, a weariness; and the nearer

Vol. XV. No. 58. 38

that we approach the point of making real toil at the same time real joy, the nearer do we bring earth to heaven and the mortal to the immortal.

3. Its peculiar value in preparing the mind for the work of communication and communion with other minds. The chief end of knowledge and education is never personal. Their true uses are not to be found in centralization but in distribution; in participating with others, as God finds his infinite joy in doing, all one's full resources. The greatest possible benefaction to all our fellow men,— this is the true end and aim of all mental and moral dulture. Language, therefore, as the divinely-constructed vehicle for communicating thought and feeling between human beings, deserves, in all its forms and details, the most complete mastery. Shut up within one's self, thought stagnates and knowledge decays. The subjective is developed by the objective; and the objective by the subjective. The creation is a great duality. Everything exists in pairs: males and females, vegetables and animals, matter and spirit, fire and water, land and ocean, the sky and sea, light and shade, birth and death, time and space, substance and shadow, the present and future, the world without and the world within, the finite and the infinite. When man most addresses himself, yea, rather, most abandons himself to all that is without him, he becomes most conscious of all that is within him; and when he enters into the pavilion of other minds, to shed the light of his love upon them, or to draw the light of their spirits into his own, he knows, he feels, with what a spark of the Divinity his nature has been lighted from on high. His whole inward being unfolds at once its native splendor, to his own deeply awakened consciousness.

The genius and the power of language are best comprehended, as its words are contemplated, not so much in their separate individual character, or in their syntactical combinations, as in their formative, derivative, and mutually correspondent aspects. The very processes in which they originally crystallized into their present forms, are almost enacted over again, in the laboratory of etymology. Etymology is, indeed, the chemistry of language. But not only is the genius of language, universal language or word-architecture, best comprehended by the study of etymology; skill also in the use of words, so as to be able to employ them, with beautiful aptness in themselves, and with delicacy, harmony, and richness of effect in combination one with the other, is thus acquired. There is as wide a difference in the use of words by different writers, as of paints by poor artists and great; and as wide a difference, in the effect, upon the understanding and the sensibilities of their readers. And so also, in spoken words, there is as great, a variety of utterance, as in the whole array of musical instruments, from the most obscure nonsense or empty bombast or wearisome platitudes, up to the deep, pure eloquence of a heart overflowing with thought and love, on the bosom of which every hearer floats, with joy, as on a sea of light and rapture.

And he who masters etymology, and to whom words take on again their original aspects of life and beauty, will become conscious, even in the use of our language, which is but a grand composite of the best parts of many other languages, of the primeval pleasure that men enjoyed who used words when they were fresh and new. They will be musical to his ears, as are the chimes of sweet bells, though heard far off upon the sea, to those who themselves founded them, and dissolved their hearts in song, with the melting metal, as its fiery streams ran into the strong mould. And since each human spirit throws its own light on all surrounding objects and does but see them as they are reflected in it to its eye, a heart that finds joy in the very utterance of its thoughts and feelings, will be sure, like one who revels in the sweet concords of music, to indulge in his favorite employment and to kindle in other hearts, while doing so, the same light that burns brightly in his own. Celestial pleasures are but labors of delight; efforts so true, so high, so joyous, that they become perpetual pastime; and he who imbues, by set purpose at first, and spontaneously afterwards, his own toils on earth with deep inward gladness, gives wings to his feet in climbing towards the holy and sublime, and charms those who behold him, into an instinctive imitation of his happy, soaring flight on high.

ARTICLE IX.

TOPOGRAPHY OF JERUSALEM.'

BY JOSEPH P. THOMPSON, D. D., NEW YORK.

When Josephus wrote the fifth book of his Jewish War, he intended to give so accurate a description of the site and the structure of Jerusalem, that one familiar with the city should be able to reconstruct it in imagination; and, that the stranger should also be able to construct it upon a map, and to trace the siege of Titus, from wall to wall and tower to tower, as a spectator might have done from the summit of the mount of Olives. But in sketching the battle-ground of the Roman general, the Jewish historian only projected a battle-ground for future topographers; and squadrons of Rabbinists, traditionists, archaeologists, geographers, explorers, engineers, and draughtsmen, sciolists and scholars, English, German, American, have deployed about the city, from Hippicus to Anton ia, assaulting chiefly the second wall of their antagonists, and waging the fiercest conflict over the Tyropceon valley. Within the last twenty years, especially, the topography of Jerusalem has become a subject not only of renewed investigation, but of elaborate and even acrimonious controversy. . Travellers, by no means versed in archaeology, and with no previous thought of historical investigations, are incited by the view of unquestionable remains of the Jewish and the Roman periods of the city, to put forth descriptions and theories of its ancient structure with all the assurance and profundity of antiquarian research; and thus the public mind is perplexed and divided according to the seeming competence and authority of the witnesses. Others have visited the city with partisan theo

1 The City of the Great King; or Jerusalem as it was, as it is, and as it is to be. By J. T. Barclay, M. 1)., Missionary to Jerusalem. Philadelphia: James Cliallcn and Sons, and J. B. Lippineott and Co.

ries as to its principal points of historic interest, only to confirm themselves in preconceived opinions. Geographers have attempted, in the quiet of the study, to reconstruct upon paper the city as described by Josephus, and to harmonize with his detailed account the briefer allusions of other ancient writers, and the conflicting representations of travellers; but in so doing they have only provided new materials for controversy. Indeed, as Isaac Taylor has said — in making what at first view appears to be so simple a thing as a Plan of Ancient Jerusalem, one must "take position upon a battle-field; and he must prepare himself to defend, by all available means, every inch of that position; he must, in fact, make himself a party in an eager controversy, which has enlisted, and which continues to enlist, feelings and prepossessions of no ordinary depth and intensity." 1

This diversity and controversy are owing, in part, to occasional obscurities and discrepancies in Josephus himself; to the impossibility of locating the gates and towers of Josephus in entire conformity with the outline of the city walls and gates as given by Nehemiah; to the modifications of the natural surface of the city, caused by the accumulation of debris and by military engineering; but more than all to certain ecclesiastical questions, which traditionists exalt above all the evidences of natural topography, of archaeology, and of Jewish and Roman history. An illustration of this ecclesiastical spirit occurs in the Article on Jerusalem in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, from the pen of Rev. George Williams, B. D., of Cambridge University. The writer states without qualification, as if it were a point established in the topography of the Holy City, that "the valley of the Tyropoeon meets the valley of Hinnom at the pool of. Siloam, very near its junction with the valley of Jehoshaphat." [thus far all topographers do agree], "and can be distinctly traced through the city along the west side of the temple enclosure to the Damascus gate, where it opens into a small plain." The statement in italics assumes

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