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one of the most disputed points in the topography of Jerusalem ; but it favors the traditional site of the holy sepulchre.1
Dr. Barclay's remark as to the definite course of the wall of circumvallation built by Titus, applies with equal force to the second wall and the true course of the Tyrorxron: "To mark out on paper a line of intrenchment thirty-nine stadia in length, is indeed such a very easy matter that it may be effected in the study, to the entire satisfaction of the designer and the general reader; but to adapt it to the actual state of the localities and all the requirements and conditions of the case, is quite a different thing, and can only be accomplished by oft-repeated personal examination of the ground."a It is mainly as the most recent and thorough explorer of Jerusalem, that Dr. Barclay himself is entitled to be heard above the conflicting assertions of travellers and the controversies of scholars who have read more than they have seen of the Holy City. In the month of February, 1851, Dr. Barclay took up his residence at Jerusalem, as a missionary to the Jews of Palestine. He went in the twofold capacity of a missionary-physician and a superintendent of such moral and educational appliances as should seem adapted to " ameliorate the condition of the Jews." Though representing a denomination of Christians who are sometimes thought to lay more stress upon the mode of baptism than upon certain cardinal doctrines of grace,8 Dr. B. ex
1 Mr. Williams advocates this in " The Holy City." a Page 142.
8 The Campbcllite Baptists. The points upon which this sect differ from other Christians are chiefly these: They admit the proper personality of the Holy Spirit, but hold that in conversion the Spirit operates through the trvth only. They make regeneration in a sense identical with immersion, "born of wnter." But they hold that this is the last of a series of acts and properly includes or implies all that precede it. First in order is conversion by the Spirit through the truth; this consists in, and is revealed by, a belief in Christ; after this faith the subject is immersed and so regenerated. He is then " begotten of the Spirit," i. e he believes the truth of Christ, and is " born of water," i. c. immersed. A declarative faith in Christ is made of more account than any inward " experience" as evidence of conversion.
The Campbellitcs arc often called Arians; but their departure from the received Orthodox view of the Trinity is more in the line of Sabellius than of presses his own belief in the main points of the evangelical system, and his regard for faith above ordinances. He distinctly recognizes " the great expiatory sacrifice of the Son of God," — the "adorable Redeemer;" he speaks of Luke as a " Heaven-guided historiographer;" he declares that his object as a missionary is " not merely to establish a congregation of immersed professors of the Protestant religion;" and, while he is at variance with the whole scheme of the Anglo-Prussian bishopric at Jerusalem, he seems to be much in earnest to win souls to a "saving knowledge and reception of the truth as it is in Jesus."
Dr. Barclay remained at his post, almost without interruption, for three and a half years. In that time, besides gaining a familiar knowledge of people and languages, he acquired much personal influence even in high quarters, by his skilful treatment of disease, and his kind offices to the poor and the sick. This gave him facilities for examining the topography of ancient Jerusalem, which no occasional visitor could ever enjoy. The Haram esh-Sherif, the substructions of El-Aksa, Ain Hammam es-Shefa, the subterranean quarries, and other points hitherto guarded with Mohammedan superstition or jealousy, or visited stealthily by adventurous explorers, were opened to his repeated and careful inspection, either by the connivance of high officials, or through his own energy, perseverance, and skill. Though deficient in the niceties of archaeology, and in those mirmtim of scholarship which accredit the labors of Tobler, Krafft, and Robinson, Dr. Barclay was an enthusiastic explorer, and
Arias. Strictly speaking, it is the old Monarchian view; that the Logos was divine and uncreated but became the "Son of God" only by entering into the flesh.
A statement of the Campbellite theory by M. E. Land, approved by Alexander Campbell, gives the following points:
1. "Christ in the state in which He existed as the Word, was as uncreated as the God with whom he existed."
2. "In his uncreated nature he is as perfectly divine, in the most essential sense of the term, as the Father who sent him."
3. "But he had no existence as the Son of God until born of Mary."
The Campbcllites believe that the death of Christ made an expiation for sin. an acute, and in the main accurate, observer. Dr. Robinson alludes to his researches in terms of respect.
The position of the Mission House, on the very brink of the steep eastern brow of Zion, is in itself favorable to the study of the antiquities of the city. The roof of the building commands a view of the Haram upon the opposite side of the Tyropoeon, and directly beneath is the fragment of the ancient bridge over the valley, identified by Dr. Robinson. The causeway across the valley is also in view from the same point. The advantage of such a position for taking the bearings of objects, and the facilities which the possession of such a site affords for the inspection of surrounding localities, can be appreciated only by those who have enjoyed the view from the house-top or from the lofty windows of the dispensary. Recalling the beauties of the prospect and the tender associations of the worship of Him who is King in Zion, upon his holy hill, we can readily concede to Dr. Barclay much that he claims for the mission premises in this glowing description.
The Jews' Quarter.— Perched upon a bold, rocky promontory of Mount Zion, at an elevation of ninety-one feet above the present level of the Tyropoeon, is a cluster of rudely constructed houses, now occupied as the premises of the American Christian Mission. This spot is undoubtedly one of the most notable localities about the Holy City, though heretofore it has failed to attract the attention not only of tourists and pilgrims, but of professed antiquarians and topographers. It is the north-eastern-most projection of "the Holy Hill Zion," and is distant only one hundred and eighteen yards from the western wall of the Haram-es-Sheriff, which being identical in position with that of the western cloister of the Temple, defines the width of the Tyropoeon Valley at that spot, between Mount Moriah and Mount Zion — the Mugrabin Quarter of the city. ••••••
This commanding situation must ever have been a very important one, whether in the possession of heathen, Jew, or Christian; and accordingly we learn from Josephus that it was, successively, the site of the royal palaces of the Davidian, Asmonean, and Herodian dynasties of Israel. Herod the Great, however, required a larger area for the display of his magnificent designs; and hence he erected another, and perhaps still more sumptuous, palace near the Tower of Hippicus (which he seems mainly to have occupied), on the site of the present splendid Anglican Church and Consulate,-quite on the opposite side of the city. But not only did Herod Agrippa (called king) have his magnificent palace on this identical spot, but also built by its side another for his beautiful but meretricious sister Berenice. Here also was the famous hall " for feasting and compotations," to which the great Jewish historian and priest thus alludes: "King Agrippa built himself a very large dining-room in the royal palace in Jerusalem, near to the portico. Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asmoncus, and was situated upon an elevation and afTorded a delightful prospect to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king, and there he could lie down and sit, and thence observe what was done in the temple, etc." (Ant. book 20, chap. ix. sec. 10.) And truly it was a most delightful prospect. The beautiful, purplish, chatoyant mountains of Moab and Amnion, bounding a part of the horizon, at the distance of twenty-five or thirty miles; the hallowed ridge of Olivet forming the remainder at the distance of a mile. Then, only one hundred and fifty yards distant was the gorgeous Temple, "exceeding magnifical, and of fame and glory throughout all conntries," crowning Mount Moriah. The deep gorge of the Tyropoeon, at that time perhaps about two hundred feet below the palace, adorned by the magnificent Xystus Porticos which lay below — the towering Castle of Antonia loomed aloft on the north, and on the right were Ophel, Kedron, Siloam, En-rogel, etc. Immediately adjacent on the north was unquestionably situated the "Armory of Solomon," or "the House of the Forest of Lebanon," and just in its rear, in the direction of the Tower of Hippicus, was the " House of the High Priest." The east end of the palace was connected with the Temple by that Cyclopean bridge so often mentioned by Josephus, spanning the Tyropoeon, and forming a noble highway between Moriah, the colossal remains of which are still to be seen at its abutment against the Temple wall — the highway or "ascent" of Solomon, so much admired by the queen of Sheba.
This spot was subsequently occupied by the Crusaders, who (if we may form a judgment from present indications) crowned it with a magnificent church, in one sense at least resembling a city set on a hill that cannot be hid. The tent, pitched on the top of one of the houses, now jumbled on its ruins, covers one of the circular skylights of the ancient church; and the little court beneath this tented skylight is the humble tabernacular chapel of the Mission.
Immediately at the base of this perpendicular cliff, more than a hundred feet below the ancient palace, was situated the Xystus, so often mentioned by Josephus. By this term, we are not only to understand the long gallery beneath the palace, running parallel to the western cloister of the Temple, at a distance of about three hundred feet to the west, but also the intervening Tyropoeon, or Cheese-monger's Valley of Josephus, called here, both by Josephus and the sacred writers, the suburbs (and the situation is literally sub urbe) — Mount Zion overhanging it on one side, to the height of one or two hundred feet, and Mount Moriah nearly as much on the other. It seems originally to have been mainly appropriated to gymnastic purposes, but in process of time evidently became the theatre of the grand Jewish convocations, for the discussion of great national concerns. Hence it was probably the place where Herod the Great convened the Jews to consider his proposition for the ree'dification of the Temple. And here it certainly was that king Agrippa assembled the hosts of Israel, to address them on the occasion of their rebellion against their oppressive Roman masters, the circumstances of which Josephus details, as well as the king's speech, in the 16th chapter of the Second Book of the Wars of the Jews.
It was across this portion of the Tyropccon occupied by the Xystus that Titus caused Josephus to remonstrate with the infatuated Jews, after he had dispossessed them of the Temple; and across it also that Marc Antony held his celebrated parley with that stubborn people after he had capturt d Mount Zion — the bridge, in each instance, having been broken down. Many other circumstances concur to invest this place with peculiar interest in the eyes of the Jews."
Dr. Barclay also resided at one time in the Mohammedan quarter on Bezetha, and he has had a summer health-retreat on the mount of Olives, whence the city as a whole is distinctly in view. He has therefore gained that knowledge of localities which a neighborhood residence affords to one whose powers of observation are always upon the alert.
The intelligent family of Dr. Barclay, who sympathized with him in his spirit of antiquarian research, as well as in his missionary zeal, brought to him additional facilities for exploration, and largely assisted in his measurements and observations. Some of the most interesting passages in his work, as well as many of its most beautiful illustrations, were furnished by these invaluable assistants. Besides being a good draughtsman, Dr. Barclay is skilled in the art of photography, and hence his sketches of buildings and remains are more authentic and reliable than many hitherto given to the public. These have been reproduced by the engravers in the best style, and they are worked into the letter press with care. The mechanical execution of the volume deserves the highest praise. In the quality of the paper, the clearness of the text, and the neatness and beauty of the illustrations, it is one of the finest specimens of the typographic art ever issued in the United States.
The work is divided into three principal parts, which treat severally of "Jerusalem as it was," "Jerusalem as it is," and "Jerusalem as it is to be." The first of these divisions