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confession" of it, as (according to our author, p. 224) human "infants" do.

In the sixth place, Miss Beecher proposes a theory of her own, which is liable to the same kind of objections as those which she specifies against certain other theories. She admits that the human mind is often guilty of "disordered action," and assigns for this wrong procedure the following reason: the mind commences action in perfect ignorance, and in want of "all those causes which experience shows to be indispensable to its right action in a greater or less degree" (p. 261). These indispensable prerequisites to right action are " infallible teachers and perfect faith or belief in such teachers" (p. 216), and "the existence of a ruling generic purpose to obey all the laws of rectitude (p. 217). Here we have something like the confused statement, that perfect holiness in ourselves and entire infalli bility in our teachers, are indispensable to our own holiness! But, we are told, these conditions " are wanting;" hence we sin. But who brought us into a state in which we are destitute of the indispensable prerequisites to holiness? Miss Beecher admits that we are brought into this condition by the Deity. Then he introduces us into a state in which we must inevitably do wrong. Then he is, at least, as really the author of sin, as he can be supposed to be, on the theory that he has given us a vitiated constitution. The moral disadvantages of our present state are, by some, referred to our disordered nature; by Miss Beecher they are referred to our circumstances, to our want of the indispensable prerequisites for holiness. This nature is no more the work of the Creator, than are these circumstances. The difficulties which Miss Beecher enumerates on pp. 286, 287 and elsewhere are, mutatis mutandis, more applicable to her own theory than to some of the theories which she condemns.

In the seventh place, a radical fault of this volume is, its loose and inaccurate terminology. Its theological phrases are vague. This will appear probable to any one who notices the looseness of its philosophical terms. On page 60 we read: "Perception is a sensation attended by the belief of a cause; and it is this additional circumstance alone which distinguishes perception from sensation." Again, we read that memory is "either a conception or a perception [?] which is attended with a feeling [?] of its resemblance [?] to A past state [?] of mind" (p. 61). This definition would lead Miss Beecher, if consistent with herself, to agree with Hobbes in confining memory to objects of sense (see Human Nature, ch. 8. sect. 6). Such examples of the indefiniteness of this volume might be multiplied to any extent; but we have cited enough to show that the reasonings of an author must be loose, where the nomenclature is so inaccurate.

We might specify many other objections to this volume. It contains some pages of pure and vigorous English; it is often lucid in its defence of important doctrines; but it utterly fails in its aim to undermine the theory, that we have a disordered moral nature; and it assails this and other truths with an uncandid and sometimes an irreverent spirit.

ARTICLE X.
THEOLOGICAL AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
Germany.

Buttmann, Alex., Grammar of the language of the New Testament First Part. pp. 68.

Drechslcr, Dr. Mor., The prophet Isaiah translated and explained. Third Part. 2d vol. After Drechsler's death, continued and finished by Ft. Delitzsch and Aug. Hahn. pp. 209.

Delilzsch, F., Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, pp. 770.

Hitzig, Prof. Dr. Ferd., The Proverbs of Solomon, translated and explained, pp. 347.

Knobcl, Dr. Aug., Commentary on Exodus and Leviticus, pp. 591. This work is a part of the Exegetical Handbook on the Old Testament.

Weifsbach, The Song of Solomon explained, translated, and shown in its artistic poetical composition, pp. 347.

Bohnier, W., The doctrinal differences of the Roman Catholic and the Evangelical churches. 1st vol. pp. 299.

Hollenberg, W. A., The free Christian activity and the ecclesiastical office. A prize essay, pp. 80.

Philippi, Prof. Dr. Fr. Ad., The ecclesiastical dogmatic system. Second Part: The original communion with God. pp. 391. The First Part: Prolegomena, was published in 1854.

Bibliotheca patrum ecclesiasticorum selectissima ed. Guil. Bruno Lindner, fasc. 1. Epp. ad Diognetum, Polycarpi, Smyrnensium de Polycarpi martyrio. pp. 82.

Bdhringer, F., The Church of Christ and its Witnesses. 2d vol. 4th part. 2d half. : Conrad Waldhausen, Milic of Kremsier, Matthias Janow, John Huss, Hieronymus of Prague, Hieronymus Savonarola, pp. 1062.

Gelpke, History of the Swiss church. In three volumes. 1st vol. : History of the Swiss church during the dominion of the Romans, Burgundians, Alemannians. pp. 416.

Heppe, History of the Lutheran Formula Concordia? and the Concordia, pp. 738. This is the third Part of the author's History of the German Protestantism from 1555 to 1581, and contains the history of the years 1574—1577.

Kurtz, Prof. Dr. F. H., Compendium of Church History for Students. 3d edition, pp. 724.

Lechler, Dr. Gothard Victor, The Apostolic and post-Apostolic Age 2d edition, thoroughly revised, pp. 586.

Lives and selected writings of the Fathers and Founders of the Reformed church. With an Introduction by Hagenbach. 1st vol.: H. Zwingli's life and selected writings. By R ChristofFel. pp. 766. 8th vol. : C. Olevianus and Zach. Ursinus. By Lii. K. Sudhoff. pp. 643.

Luther on Matrimony. Collected from his writings by Strampfi'. pp. 434.

Luther's doctrine on Confession, exposed systematically with Luther's own words. By Pfisterer. pp. 179.

Mejer, Prof. Dr. Otto, on Roman Catholic Missions. A Lecture, pp. 31.

Monumenta Conciliorum generalium saeculi XV. eod. Csesarea academic scientiarum socii delegali. Concilium Basileense. Scriptorum torn. 1. Fol. Vimlobona. pp. xlix. and 889.

Noack, Lud., The origin of Christendom. Its preparations and its entrance into the world. 2 vols. pp. 753.

Otto, Dr. Joh. Charles Theod., Corpus Apologetarum christianorum sa> culi II. vol. .7, containing the works of Athenagoras. pp. 828.

Sehweizer, Dr. Alex., The theological and moral state of the Church of Zurich in the second half of the seventeenth century, pp. 41.

Sixt, Chr. H., Paul Eber: a piece of Wittenberg life in the years 1532 —1569. pp. 95. Sixt is a most able biographer, and has distinguished himself already by his interesting work on P. P. Vergerius.

Tholuck, The merits of Christianity in improving the state of the Female sex. A Lecture, pp. 24.

Wilkers, Peter the Venerable, Abbott of Clugny. A monk's life. pp. 277.

Zimmermann, Dr. Will., History of the life of the Christian Church. In 4 vols. Two volumes are published. This will be a popular Church history, written by an author who is distinguished by a lively and easy style.

To these works on Church history, we may add two documents on the ecclesiastical movements in 1857: —

Transactions of the meeting of Evangelical Christians from Germany and other countries at Berlin, 9—17 Sept 1857. Authentic edition. By K. E. Reineck. pp. 565.

Transactions of the 9th German Evangelical kirchentag, at Stuttgart, 1857. Edited by Biernatzky.

Bender, Descriptions of characters of the Old Testament. In sermons, pp. 860.

Burger, Sermons preached in the Protestant Parish Church at Munich, pp. 315.

Gerok. K., Sermons on every Sunday and feast-day in the year.

Hasrenbach, K. R., The nature of Evangelical Freedom and our relation to it. A Sermon.

Kapff, Dr. (of Stuttgart), Eighty-three Sermons on the Pericopes. pp. 834.

Krummacher, F. W. and Krummacher, E. W., several Speeches and Lectures on occasion of the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance at Berlin. Mukensicfen's (of Berlin) Sermons. 2d Collection. 2d ed. pp. 216. Petri (of Hanover), The Light of Life. A year's sermons, pp. 634.

Rothe, "Richard (Professor at Heidelberg), The Struggle between Faith in Jesus Christ and Infidelity in the hearts of the children of our time.

Tholuck, a Sermon preached at Hamburg, on the Anniversary of the Reformation, pp. 15.

Thomasius, Sermons. 4th Collection, pp. 240.

Drossbach, Max., The Harmony of the results of Natural Science with the claims of the human heart, or personal immortality a consequence of the atomistic constitution of nature, pp. 379.

Fischer, Dr. Herrmann Adolph, Jacob Bbhme, his life and writings, pp. 246.

Fischer, F. C, on free will. pp. 226.

Frauenstadt, Dr. Julius, Letters on Natural Religion, pp. 272.

Gildemeister, Life of Joh. Gcorg Hainann, the Magus of the North. In three volumes. 1st Vol. pp.442. A very interesting biography of a man distinguished by a rare combination of intellectual and moral faculties, full of deep thoughts, and rich in striking aphorisms, the friend of the philosophet Jacobi.

Haym, Dr. Rud., Hegel and his time, pp.512. A book that deservedly excites much attention, endeavoring to explain the composition of Hegel's philosophical system by the different influences that worked upon his mind during the decisive period of his life.

Lazarus, The Life of the Soul, in special treatises on its phenomena and its laws. pp. 377.

Passavant, The Conscience, pp. 52.

Schwarz, Dr. H., God, Nature, and Man. A system of substantial theism.

Susemihl, The development of the philosophy of Plato. 2d Part. 1st half. pp. 312. The first Part of this excellent book on Plato was published in 1855.

God and his Creation, pp. 156. By the author of the " Critique of the idea of God in the present systems." The book is well written, and contains a clear exposition of the fundamental notions of philosophy.

Among the recent publications in other departments of science, we must first notice the fourth Part of Humboldt's Kosmos. This was published in the last days of 1857. The famous work of the great natural philosopher is now completed. This fourth volume contains the description of the earth. Among the new historical works, the most important are: —

Duncker, Max., History of Antiquity. 4th Vol. It is, in the same time, the 2d volume of the History of the Greeks.

Leo, H, Lectures on the History of the German nation and the German empire. 2d Vol. pp. 761. This volume extends from the 10th century to the Hohenstaufen.

Strauss, D. Fr., Ulrich von Hutten. 2 vols. pp. 752. An excellent biography of the chivalrous contemporary of Luther and Zwingli.

England.

Letters from High Latitudes. By Lord Dufferin. 8vo.

An Introduction to the Study of Dogmatic Theology. By Rev. Robert Owen, B. D. Demy 8vo.

The Ground beneath us: its Geological Phases and Changes. Three Lectures on the Geology of Clapham and the Neighborhood of London generally. By Joseph Prestwich, F. R. S. 8vo.

Fifty Years' Recollections, Literary and Personal; with Observations on men and things. By Cyrus Redding. 3 vols. 12mo.

The Mutiny of the Russian Army which occurred at the Accession of Nicholas I. By Baron M. Korft", secretary of state. 8vo.

St. Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians; a new and revised edition, with Critical Notes and Dissertations. By Rev. A. P. Stanley, M. A. 8vo.

Galleries and Cabinets of Art. By Dr. Waagen. 8vo.

Historic Essays on the early period of the French Revolution. By the late Right Hon. John Wilson Croller. 8vo.

Lifu and opinions of Gen. Sir Charles Napier. By Sir Wm. Napier, K. C. B. 4 vols, post 8vo. Second edition.

History of the Sepoy Revolt, its causes and its consequences. By Henry Mead. 8vo.

The Historic Peerage of England. By the late Sir Harris Nicolas. Corrected to the Present Time by Wm. Courthope. 8vo.

The Romany Rye; a Sequel to Lavengro. By George Borrow. 2 vols, post 8vo.

English Roots and Ramifications, or explanations of the derivation or meaning of divers Words in the English language. By John Arthur Knapp, foolscap 8vo.

Remarks on Secular and Domestic Architecture, present and future. By George G. Scott, Architect, A. R. A. 8vo.

Lives of Lords Kenyon, Ellenborough, and Tenterden; being 3d and concluding volume of the Lives of the Chief Justices of England. By Lord Campbell, LL. D., Chief Justice of England. 8vo.

History of the Poor-Laws, in connection with the Condition of the People. By Sir George Nichols, K. C. B. 4 vols. 8vo.

Descriptive Essays. By Sir Francis B. Head, Bart. 2 vols, post 8vo.

The Early Flemish Painters: notices of their Lives and Works. By J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle. post 8vo.

Memoirs of the late Sir Robert Peel, Bart Edited by the Trustees of his Papers. 2 vols, post 8vo.

Sir Win. Blackstone's Commentaries. A new edition, adapted to the Present State of the Law. By Robert Malcolm Kerr, LL. D. 4 vols. 8vo.

Lives of the Lords Chancellors of England, from the Earliest Times till the reign of George the Fourth. By Lord Campbell, LL. D. Fourth edition, revised. 10 vols, crown 8vo.

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