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Have I been patron to Antipholus,
During which time he ne'er saw Syracusa.
I see, thy age and dangers make thee dote.

Enter the Abbess, with ANTIPHOLUS of Syracuse,

and DROMIO of Syracuse.

ceive me.

Dro. E. Ay, sir, but I am sure I do not; and whatsoever a man denies, you are now bound a to believe him. ÆGE. Not know

my

voice ? Oh, Time's extremity! Hast thou so crack'd and splitted my poor tongue, In seven short years, that here my only son Knows not my feeble key of untund cares ? Though now this grained face of mine be hid In sap-consuming winter's drizzled snow, And all the conduits of my blood frozo up; Yet hath my night of life some memoryMy wasting lamps some fading glimmer leftMy dull deaf ears a little use to hear : All these old witnesses (I cannot err) Tell me, thou art my son, Antipholus.

LNT. E. I never saw my father in my life. ÆGE. But seven years since, in Syracusa, boy, Thou know'st we parted; but, perhaps, my son, Thou sham’st to acknowledge me in misery. Ant. E. The duke, and all that know me in

the city, Can witness with me that it is not so ; I ne'er saw Syracusa in my life.

DUKE. I tell thee, Syracusian, twenty years

ABB. Most mighty duke, behold a man much

wrong'd. [All gather to see them. Adr. I see two husbands, or mine eyes de

DUKE. One of these men is Genius to the other; And so of these, which is the natural man, And which the spirit ? Who deciphers them ? Dro. S. I, sir, am Dromio ; command him

away. Dro. E. I, sir, am Dromio, pray let me stay, Ant. S. Ægeon, art thou not? or else bis

ghost ! Dro. S. Oh, my old master! who hath bound

him here? ABB. Whoever bound him, I will loose his bonds, And gain a husband by his liberty ! Speak, old Ægeon, if thou be'st the man That hadst a wife once call’d Æmilia, That bore thee at a burden two fair sons ! Oh, if thou be’st the same Ægeon, speak !

* You are now bound, &c.] Of course, a quibble on poor Ægeon's bonds.

b

And speak unto the same Æmilia !

ADR. I sent you money, sir, to be your bail, Æge. If I dream not, thou art Æmilia ! By Dromio; but I think he brought it not. If thou art she, tell me, where is that son

DRO. E. No; none by me. That floated with thee on the fatal raft?

Ant. S. This purse of ducats I receiv'd from ABB. By men of Epidamnum he and I,

you, And the twin Dromio, all were taken up.

And Dromio, my man, did bring them me: But, by and by, rude fishermen of Corinth, I see, we still did meet each other's man, By force, took Dromio and my son from them, And I was ta'en for him and he for me, And me they left with those of Epidamnum. And thereupon these Errors a rare arose. What then became of them I cannot tell;

ANT. E. These ducats pawn I for my father I, to this fortune that you see me in.

here. DUKE. Why, here begins his morning story DUKE. It shall not need,—thy father bath his right;

life. These two Antipholus',—these two so like,

Cour. Sir, I must have that diamond from And these two Dromios, one in semblance;

you. Besides her urging of her wreck at sea :

Ant. E. There, take it, and much thanks for These are the parents to these children,

my good cheer. Which accidentally are met together.

ABB. Renowned duke, vouchsafe to take the Antipholus, thou cam'st from Corinth first.

pains Ant. S. No, sir, not I; I came from Syracuse. To

go with us into the abbey here, DUKE. Stay, stand apart; I know not which is And hear at large discoursed all our fortunes ; which.

And all that are assembled in this place, Ant. E. I came from Corinth, my most gracious That, by this sympathized one day's error, lord.

Have suffer'd wrong, go, keep us company, Dro. E. And I with him.

And we shall make full satisfaction. Ant. E. Brought to this town by that most Twenty-five years have I but gone in travail famous warrior,

Of you, my sons; and, till this present hour,o
Duke Menaphon, your most renowned uncle. My heavy burden ne'er delivered.
ADR. Which of you two did dine with me The duke, my husband, and my children both,
to-day?

And
you

the calendars of their nativity, Ant. S. I, gentle mistress.

Go to a gossip’s feast, and go with me;' ADR.

And are not you my husband ? After so long grief, such festivity! Ant. E. No; I say nay to that.

DUKE. With all my heart, I'll gossip at this Ant. S. And so do I; yet did she call me so:

feast. And this fair gentlewoman, her sister here,

[Exeunt DUKE, Abbess, ÆGEON, Courtezan, Did call me brother. What I told you then,

Merchant, ANGELO, and Attendants. I hope I shall have leisure to make good;

Dro. S. Master, shall I fetch your stuff from If this be not a dream I see and hear.

ship-board ? Ang. That is the chain, sir, which you

had Ant. E. Dromio, what stuff of mine hast thou of me.

embark’d? ANT. S. I think it be, sir ; I deny it not.

Dro. S. Your goods, that lay at host, sir, in Ant. E. And you, sir, for this chain arrested

the Centaur.

Ant. S. He speaks to me; I am your master, Ang. I think I did, sir; I deny it not.

Dromio:

me,

Il I dream not,-) In the folio, 1623, this speech of Ægeon, and the subsequent one of the Abbess, are misplaced, and come after the Duke's speech, commencing, "Why, here begins," &c. Malone made the necessary transposition.

To these children,-) Children must be pronounced as a trisyllable.

What I told you then, &c.] This, and the two lines following, are addressed to Luciana, and should perhaps be spoken aside to her.

& These Errors rare arose.) The ancient copy has errors are, and this incontestable misprint is faithfully followed by modern editors. Mr. Collier's old corrector endeavours, not very successfully, to rectify it by reading all for are. I venture to substitute rare, which, besides being closer to the original, appears to give a better meaning.

Twenty-five years have I but gone in travail
of you, my sons; and, till this present hour,
My heavy burden ne'er delivered.)

The original copy has "thirtie three yeares." The rectification of
time was made by Theobald, who pointed out that as Ægeon had
related how at eighteen years his youngest boy “became inquisi-
tive after his brother;" and, in the present Scene, says it is but
seven years since they parted, the date of their birth is settled
indisputably. For the emendation, ne'er for are, we are indebted
to Mr. Dyce.

Go to a gossip's feast, and go with me;

After so long grief, such festivity!)
The old copy gives us :

After so long grief, such nativity,"
which can hardly be right, "such nativity,” that is, equal, or
proportionate nativity, being without sense here. Johnson pro-
posed festivity, which is most likely what the poet wrote. The
compositor seems to have caught nativity from the line just above.
I believe, however, this word is not the only corruption in the
passage.

Come, go with us; we'll look to that anon; Will you walk in to see their gossiping?
Embrace thy brother there; rejoice with him. DRO. S. Not I, sir; you are my elder.

[Exeunt ANTIPHOLUS S. and E., ADR. Dro. E. That's a question : how shall we try it?
and Luc.

Dro. S. We'll draw cuts for the senior; till Dro. S. There is a fat friend at your master's

then, lead thou first. house,

Dro. E. Nay, then, thus ; That kitchend me for you to-day at dinner; We came into the world like brother and broShe now shall be my sister,—not my wife. Dro. E. Methinks you are my glass, and not And now let's go hand in hand, not one before

another.

[Exeunt. I sen by you, I am a sweet-fac'd youth,

ther;

my brother:

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ILLUSTRATIVE COMMENTS.

ACT I.

(1) SCENE II.—They say this town is full of cozenage, dec.] This was the character attributed to Ephesus in remote ages. Steevens suggests that Shakespeare might have got the hint for this description from Warner's translation of the “ Menæchmi," 1595. “For this assure yourselfe, this Towne Epidamnum is a place of outragious expences, exceeding in all ryot and lasciviousnesse : and (I heare) as full of Ribaulds, Parasites, Drunkards, Catchpoles, Cony-catchers, and Sycophants, as it can hold,” &c. But it is observable that Shakespeare, with great propriety, makes Antipholus attach to the Ephesians higher and more poetical qualities of cozenage than those enumerated by the old translator. It is not merely as “catchpoles," "cony-catchers," and the like, but as

“ darkworking sorcerers,” and “ soul-killing witches," that he speaks of them. And hence we are prepared to find him

attribute the cross-purposes of the scene to supernatural agency, and see no inconsistency in his wooing Luciana as an enchantress :

“ Teach me, dear creature! how to think and speak;

Lay open to my earthy gross conceit,
Smother'd in errors-feeble-shallow-weak-

The folded meaning of your words' deceit.
Against my soul's pure truth, why labour you

To make it wander in an unknown field ?" Or in his imagining that, to win the sibyl, he must lose himself :

“ Sing, syren, for thyself, and I will dote:

Spread o'er the silver waves thy golden hairs,
And as a bride I'll take thee, and there lie;

And, in that glorious supposition, think
He gains by death, that hath such means to die !”

ACT III.

(1) SCENE I.-Once this.] The following note in Gifford's “Ben Jonson" (vol. iii. p. 218) helps to confirm our opinion that once in this place, and in many other instances, is only another form of noncé, and means for the occasion, for the time being, &c. “For the nonce, is simply for the ORCE, for the one thing in question, whatever it may be. This is invariably its meaning. The aptitude of many of our monosyllables beginning

with a vowel to assume the n is well known; but the progress of this expression iş distinctly marked in our early writers, 'a ones,' 'an anes,' ‘for the anes,' 'for the nanes,' 'for the nones,' 'for the

Borne on a foamy-crested wave,
She reach'd amain the bounding prow,
Then clasping fast the Chieftain brave,

She, plunging, sought the deep below." The reader desirous of particular information concerning the supposed existence and habits of these seductive beings, may consult Maillet's "Telliamed,” Pontopiddan’s “Natural History of Norway," and Waldron's “ Account of the Isle of Man."

nonce.""

(2) SCENE II.--He gains by death, that hath such means to die.] The allusion is obviously to the long current opinion that the syren, or mermaid, decoyed mortals to destruction by the witchery of her songs. This superstition has been charmingly illustrated by Leyden, in his poem, “ The Mermaid," (vide Scott's “Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border,” vol. iv. p. 294.)

(3) SCENE II.

ANT. S. Where France ?

Dro. S. In her forehead; arm’d and reverted, making war against her heir.] As Theobald first observed, an equivoque was, no doubt, intended between the words hair and heir ; and by the latter, was meant Henry IV. the heir of France, con cerning whose succession to the throne there was a civil war in the country from 1589 for several years. Henry, after struggling long against the League, extricated himself from all his difficulties by embracing the Roman Catholic religion at St. Denis, on Sunday, the 25th of July, 1593, and was crowned King of France in February, 1594. In '1591, Lord Essex was dispatched with 4,000 troops to the French king's assistance, and his brother Walter was killed before Rouen, in Normandy. From that time till Henry was peaceably settled on the throne, many bodies of troops were sent by Queen Elizabeth to his aid : so that his situation must at that period have been a matter of notoriety, and a subject of conversation in England. From the reference to this circumstance, Malone imagines the “Comedy of Errors" to have been written before 1594.

"Thus, all to soothe the Chieftain's woe,

Far from the maid he loved so dear,
The song arose, so soft and slow,
He seem'd her parting sigh to hear.

That sea-maid's form, of pearly light, Was whiter than the downy spray, And round her bosom, heaving bright, Her glossy, yellow ringlets play.

ACT IV.

SI-4 2-2 - se meristis garut kete on the word rest, arrest, and a metaphor, very common in

12:ete ees stel dersace; our old writers, setting up his rest, which is taken from PT3 spear. 3 decreas of turlasting qualities, gaming, and means staking his all upon an event. Hence mi ces se soepatica ce she wearer, it was frequently applied to express fixed determination, has

steadfast purpose. Thus, in “ All's Well that Ends Well," Lene's - Qefes testart Courtier," sig. D, 31 Act II. Sc. 1:is siera sapeze escription of a sergeant, or * What I can do, can do no hurt to try, as ésser. Use of them bai on a bete-leather

Since you set up your rest 'gainst remedy." te qese belore the droppings of beere, that

The Morris-pike is often mentioned by old writers. Sal fris berri si by his side, skeine like a Seras bezici ad be in a close, sur'd It was the Moorish pike, and was constantly used both

us the bese si beese ssbamed to shove in land and sea warfare, during the sixteenth century. Te perzsvegabis un referred to by our author in

(5) SCENE III.-A ring he hath of mine worth forty passage of " Henry N. Part I. Act I Se 3,

ducats.] The number forty was very anciently adopted to sni is as fjertin a most sweet robe of durencer express a great many, in the same way that we now use

In the Scriptures it is recorded that the the peas of shie seems not to have been fally under ifty, or a score.

food was forty days on the earth; the Israelites were sued by the commentators A robe i duran was a cant e a imprisonment; and the Prince, after forty years and our Saviour forty days in the wilder.

ness; and Job mourned forty days. In Hindustani, the En e punestesiaz, bumorously calls attention to

word chalis, forty, has the same indefinite acceptation; mes peoda de aceea, by his query about the buf

chalis-sutan, denoting literally forty columns, being apSee MPOLŠros's * Biurs, Master Constable," Act

plied to a palace with a number of pillars. So also in

Persia, chihal signifies furty, and Persepolis, because it is *Tell my biy, that I go dee suit of durence."

a city of many towers, is called chihal-minar, “the forty

towers." In like manner, too, the insect which we name SEXS 11. In that was counter, and yet

centipede, is there known as chihal-pd, forty feet.” The himans dry | To run counter is to follow on a

wond in this sense is not at all uncommon among old Si seni: draw dry six means to track by the mere

English writers ;vat of the 4. A beani that does one is not likely to

" Quoth Niceness to Newfangle, thou art such a Jacke, * the other; bat the ambiguity is explained by the

That thou devisest fortie fashions for my ladie's backe." mening attached to the wonis counter and dry foot.

The Cooler's Prophecy, 1594. The druer implying both false, and a prison, and the dest, privation of spat and lack of means. The sheriff's

And it is so used repeatedly by Shakespeare ; for der, ss he tracks for a prison, may be said to run

example,e ani, & he follors those who have expended their Kadans he draws dry five

“I have learned these forty years."

Richard II. Act I. Se, S. 31 Si II. -- that, defining the judgment, carries

"I will have forty moys." ****** hall.] By Aprons tes judgment, in its secondary

Henry V. Act IV. Sc. 4. * D is supposed to allude to arrest on mesne

“ I myself fight not once in forty years." und Wetwas a cant term for the worst dungeon in the

Henry VI. Part I. Act I. Se. 3. wapdal prisons of the time. There was the Master's Side,

"Some forty truncheoneers draw." Axes and the Hols, and last and most deplorable,

Henry VIII. Act V. Se. 3, de derwerement sallei Heil, which was the receptacle for

" I could beat forty of them." A who had no means to pay the ertortionate fines

Coriolanus, Act III. Sc. I. ex dir butter accommodation

" I saw her once hop forty paces."

Antony and Cleopatra, Act II. Sc. 2. 14 Sex111.--He that sets up his rest to do more ex

“I had rather than forty pound." Jawi wa Aair max than a morris-pike.] Dromio plays

Twelfth Night, Act V. Sc. I.

ACT V.

Il er en portant letters, e.]

“In the passage before us, Shakspeare was thinking SA who gives to all nations the oustoms of particularly on the interest which the king had in England *** **** ***** thu chis page to allude to a court of in the marriage of his wards, who were the heirs of his

in Athens The event of cards was always oon- tenants holding by knight's service, or in capite, and were Sko **** Aror oppression. It is glanood at as early under age ; an interest which Queen Elizabeth in Shak**** dhe luftodier of Mreke Soorner:

speare's time exerted on all occasions, as did her suchare po hemen ben unkinde:

cessors, till the abolition of the Court of Wards and Neww He earse lonies and gentyllmen,

Liveries; the poet attributes to the duke the same right

to choose a wife or a husband for his wards at Ephesus." I whater they wyll or no."-STREVENS.

| MALONE.

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