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Fri. Go with me to the vault.
BAL.
I dare not, sir :

Enter Watch, with the Page of Paris.
My master knows not but I am gone hence;
And fearfully did menace me with death,

Page. This is the place; there, where the torch If I did stay to look on his intents.

doth burn. Fri. Stay then, I'll go alone :-fear comes 1 Watch. The ground is bloody; search about upon me;

the churchyard : 0, much I fear some ill unlucky thing.

Go, some of you, who e'er you find, attach. Bal. As I did sleep under this yew-tree* here,"

[Exeunt some. I dreamt my master and another fought,

Pitiful sight! here lies the county slain ; And that my master slew him.

And Juliet bleeding; warm, and newly dead, FRI.

Romeo !-[Advances Who here hath lain this two days buried. Alack, alack ! what blood is this, which stains Go, tell the prince,-run to the Capulets,The stony entrance of this sepulchre ?

Raise up the Montagues,—some others search ;What mean these masterless and gory swords

[Exeunt other Watchmen. To lie discolour'd by this place of peace ?

We see the ground whereon these woes do lie; [Enters the monument. But the true ground of all these piteous woes, Romeo ! O, pale !—who else? what, Paris too ? We cannot without circumstance descry. And steep'd in blood ?-Ah, what an unkind hour Is guilty of this lamentable chance ! The lady stirs.

[JULIET wakes. Re-enter some of the Watch, with BALTHASAR. Jul. O, comfortable friar! where is my lord ? I do remember well where I should be,

2 Watch. Here's Romeo's man, we found him And there I am :- _Where is my

Romeo ?

in the churchyard. Noise within.

1 Watch. Hold him in safety, till the prince Fri. I hear some noise.—Lady, come from that

come hither. nest Of death, contagion, and unnatural sleep;

Re-enter another Watchman, with Friar A greater Power than we can contradict

LAURENCE.
Hath thwarted our intents ; come, come away:
Thy husband in thy bosom there lies dead;

3 Watch. Here is a friar, that trembles, sighs, And Paris too; come, I'll dispose of thee Among a sisterhood of holy nuns :

We took this mattock and this spade from him, Stay not to question, for the watch is coming; As he was coming from this churchyard side. Come, go, good Juliet,-[Noise again.] I dare no 1 Watch. A great suspicion; stay the friar too. longer stay.

[Exit. Jul. Go, get thee hence, for I will not away.What's here? a cup, clos'd in my true love's Enter the PRINCE and Attendants. hand?

PRINCF. What misadventure is so early up, Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end :Ah churl! drink all ; and leave no friendly drop,

That calls our person from our morning's rest ? To help me after ?—I will kiss thy lips ; Haply, some poison yet doth hang on them,

Enter CAPULET, LADY CAPULET, and others. To make me die with a restorative. [Kisses him. Thy lips are warm !

CAP. What should it be, that they so shriek i Watch. [within.] Lead, boy; which way?

abroad? Jul. Yea, noise ?—then I'll be brief.— happy La. Cap. The people* in the street cry-Romeo,

dagger! [Snatching Romeo's dagger. Some—Juliet, and some-Paris; and all run, This is thy sheath ;[stabs herself.) there rust, and With open outcry, toward our monument. let me die.

PRINCE. What fear is this, which startles in [Falls on ROMEO's body, and dies.

our ears?

and weeps:

(*) First folio, young tree. (+) First folio, 'Tis in. a As I did sleep under this yew-tree here,-) "This is one of those touches of nature that would have escaped the hand of any painter less attentive to it than Shakespeare. What happens to a person while he is under the manifest influence of fear will seem to him, when he is recovered from it, like a dream."STEEVENS.

(*) First folio, O the people. b Ah churl! drink all; and leave no friendly drop,-) Thus the earliest quarto, 1597. The folio, 1623, has :

"O chur)! drink all and left no friendly drop." e In our ears?] The old copies have your ears," which John. son corrected.

211

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LA. CAP. O me! this sight of death is as a

bell, That warns my old age to a sepulchre.

Enter MONTAGUE and others.

1 Watch. Sovereign, here lies the county Paris

slain; And Romeo dead; and Juliet, dead before, Warm and new kill'd. PRINCE. Search, seek, and know how this foul

murder comes. 1 Watch. Here is a friar, and slaughter'd

Romeo's man;
With instruments upon them, fit to open
These dead men's tombs.
CAP. O, heaven !—0, wife! look how our

daughter bleeds!
This dagger hath mista'en,--for, lo! his house
Is empty on the back of Montague,–*
And is mis-sheathed in my daughter's bosom.

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for, lo! his house

Is empty on the back of Montague,-) The dagger was anciently worn at the back. Thus, in "The Longer Thou Lives More Fool Thou Art," 1570:

(*) First folio, nou. “Thou must wear thy sword by thy side, And thy dagger handson at thy back."

man.

death;

To press before thy father to a grave ?

All this I know; and to the marriage PRINCE. Seal up the mouth of outrage for a Her nurse is privy: and, if aught in this while,

Miscarried by my fault, let my old life Till we can clear these ambiguities,

Be sacrific'd, some hour before his * time, And know their spring, their head, their true Unto the rigour of severest law. descent;

PRINCE. We still have known thee for a holy And then will I be general of your woes, And lead you even to death : mean time forbear, Where's Romeo's man? what can he say to this ? And let mischance be slave to patience.

Bal. I brought my master news of Juliet's Bring forth the parties of suspicion.

Fri. I am the greatest, able to do least, And then in post he came from Mantua, Yet most suspected, as the time and place To this same place, to this same monument. Doth make against me, of this direful murder ; This letter he early bid me give his father ; And here I stand, both to impeach and purge And threaten’d me with death, going in the vault, Myself condemned and myself excus’d.

If I departed not, and left him there. PRINCE. Then say at once what thou dost know PRINCE. Give me the letter, I will look on it.in this.

Where is the county's page, that raised the Fri. I will be brief, for my short date of breath

watch?Is not so long as is a tedious tale.

Sirrah, what made your master in this place ? Romeo, there dead, was husband to that Juliet ; Page. He came with flowers to strew his lady's And she, there dead, that Romeo's faithful wife:

grave; I married them; and their stolen marriage-day And bid me stand aloof, and so I did : Was Tybalt's dooms-day, whose untimely death Anon, comes one with light to ope the tomb; Banish'd the new-made bridegroom from this city; And, by and by, my master drew on him; For whom, and not for Tybalt, Juliet pin'd. And then I ran away to call the watch. You—to remove that siege of grief from her, - PRINCE. This letter doth make good the friar's Betroth’d, and would have married her perforce,

words, To county Paris :—then comes she to me; Their course of love, the tidings of her death : And, with wild looks, bid me devise some means And here he writes—that he did buy a poison To rid her from this second marriage,

Of a poor 'pothecary, and therewithal Or, in my cell there would she kill herself. Came to this vault to die, and lie with Juliet.Then gave I her, so tutor’d by my art,

Where be these enemies? Capulet! Montague ! A sleeping potion ; which so took effect

See, what a scourge is laid upon your hate, As I intended, for it wrought on her

That heaven finds means to kill your joys with love ! The form of death : meantime I writ to Romeo, And I, for winking at your discords too, That he should hither come as this dire night, Have lost a brace of kinsmen : all are punish’d. To help to take her from her borrow'd grave, CAP. O, brother Montague! give me thy hand: Being the time the potion's force should cease. This is my daughter's jointure, for no more But he which bore my letter, friar John,

Can I demand. Was staid by accident; and yesternight

Mon. But I can give thee more : Return'd my letter back : then all alone,

For I will raise her statue in pure gold; At the prefixed hour of her waking,

That, whiles Verona by that name is known, Came I to take her from her kindred's vault; There shall no figure at such rate be set, Meaning to keep her closely at my cell,

As that of true and faithful Juliet. Till I conveniently could send to Romeo :

CAP. As rich shall Romeo by his lady lie; But, when I came, (some minute ere the time Poor sacrifices of our enmity! Of her awaking,) here untimely lay

PRINCE. A glooming peace this morning withı The noble Paris, and true Romeo, dead.

it brings; She wakes ; and I entreated her come forth,

The
sun,

for sorrow, will not show his head :
And bear this work of heaven with patience: Go hence, to have more talk of these sad things ;
But then a noise did scare me from the tomb; Some shall be pardon’d, and some punished ; (3)
And she, too desperate, would not go with me, For never was a story of more woe,
But (as it seems) did violence on herself.

Than this of Juliet and her Romeo. [Exeunt.

The mouth of outrage-) Mr. Collier's MS. annotator substitutes outcry, but no change is needed. In “Henry VI." Pt. I. Act IV. Sc. 1, we find the word with precisely the same signification as in the present passage:

(*) First folio, the.

Are you not asham'd,
With this immodest clamorous oulrage
To trouble and disturb the king and us?"

ILLUSTRATIVE COMMENTS.

ACT I

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(1) SCENE 1.Here oons of the house of the V-1

SOXSET 4. tagua.) Shakespeare was evidently soquainted with the tradition of the Montagues adytisg e ognisance is the si

Then bow, when natare calls thee to be gone

22 accepta le audit canst thou leave! hats, that they might be distinguished froan the Car clets,

Tasu'd beauty must be tomb'd risk ther, since in the play be bas made them known at a distance

..ch, used, üres thy erecutor to be." The circumstance, as Malone pointed oct, is mentioned in a Devise of a Masque, written for the Right Hooocratie

See, aiso, Soadets 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Viscount Mountacute, 1575:

(5) SCESE I.-Epamine other beauties.) So “the trustiest ** And for a further proofe. he sbewed in bys hat

of his fecres * cosinsels Romeus in the old poem :Thys token which the Voxnfacute did beare al sales, for that They covet to be known from Capels, where they pass,

* Choose out some worthy dame, ler honor thou and serve, For ancient grutch whych long ago, 'tweene these 170 houses | Who wi.. gere eare to thy complaint, and pitty ere thou sterve was."

But sow no more thy pardes in such a barrayne soyle:

As redes in harvest time no crop, in recompence of toyle. (2) SCENE I.--Thou shalt not stir one foot to seek a Ere long the tovuisbe dames together will resort: foe.] The earliest copy of Romeo and Juliet, the quarto of

Some one of bewty. favour, shape, and of so lovely porte, '1597,- which is peculiarly interesting from its presenting

With so fast fired eye, perhaps thou mayst beholde : us with the poet's first projection of a play he subsequently

That thou shait quite forget thy love, and passions past of olde. ** expanded and elaborated with much care and skill, and is valuable too, in helping us to correct many typographical

(6) SCENE II.—This night I hold an old accustom'd errors, and to supply some lines omitted, perbaps by negli

feast.) From the old poem :gence, in the later editions,-makes short work of this * The wery winter nightes restore the Christmas games, scene. In place of the dialogue, from the entrance of And now the season doth invite to banquet townish dames. Benvolio to the arrival of the Prince, it has merely the And fyrst in Capels house, the chiefe of all the kyn following stage diraction ;-" They draw, to them enters

Sparth for no cost, the wonted use of banquets to begyn.

No Lady fayre or fowle was in Verona towne, Tybalt, they fight, to them the Prince, old Mountague,

No knight or gentleman of high or lowe renowne; and his wife, old Capulet and his wife, and other citizens, But Capilet himselfe hath byd unto his feast, and part them."

Or by his name in paper sent, appoynted as a geast. (3) SCENE I.-Out of her favour, where I am in lore.) (7) SCENE III.—'T is since the earthquake nou eleven In the old poem of Romeus and Juliet," which Shake- years.] We have already, in the Preliminary Observations, sponro adopted as the ground-work of his tragedy, the alluded to Tyrwhitt's conjecture that the earthquake spoken horo is first introduced to us as in the play, the victim to of by the Nurse was the one chronicled by Holinsbed, as an unrequited passion.

being felt in London and other parts of the kingdom in Romous, we are told,

1580. The Rev. Joseph Hunter ("New Illustrations, " Hath founde a mayde so fayre (he found so foule his happe).

&c. &c., of Shakespeare," Vol. II. p. 120) contends, Whose beauty, shape, and comely grace. did so his heart entrappe, however, that it is much more probable the earthquake That from his owne affayres, his thought she did remove; the Poet had in his mind was that which occurred ten Onely he sought to honor her, to serve her and to love.

years before, in the neighbourhood of Verona, and was so To her he writeth oft, oft messengers are sent, At length (in hope of better spede) himselfe the lover went;

severe that it destroyed Ferrara. " When the church of Present to pleade for grace, which absent was not founde:

St. Stephen at Ferrara was rebuilt," Mr. Hunter informas And to discover to her eye his new receaved wounde.

us, “an inscription was placed against it, from which we But she that from her youth was fostred evermore

may collect the terrible nature of the visitation :With vertues foode, and taught in schole of wisdomes skilfull

-Cum anno M.D. LXX die XVII Novembris tertia noctis hora, lore:

quam maximus terræ motus hanc præclarissimam urbem ita conBy aunswere did outte of thaffections of his love, That ho no more occasion had so vayne a sute to move.

quassasset, ut ejus fortissima menia, munitissimas arces, alta No nterne she was of chere, (for all the payne he tooke)

palatia, religiosa templa, sacratas turres, omnesque fere ædes That, in reward of toyle, she would not geve a frendly looke." omnino evertisset et prostrasset, una cum maximo civium damno,

atque acerbâ clade." (1) SOENE I.-That, when she dies, erith beauty dies her

There is a small tract, still extant, entitled “A coppie atore | Tho monning of this somewhat complex passage

of the letter sent from Ferrara the xxii of November, 1570. rooms to bo ;---sho is rich in the possession of unequalled

Imprinted at London in Paules Churchyarde, at the signe Donuty, but poor, bocanso, having devoted herself to

of the Lucrece, by Thomas Purfoote;" in which the writer chastity, when who dios, her wealth, that is, beauty, dies

describes “the great and horrible earthquakes, the exwith her. Tho samo conooit occurs repeatedly in Shake

cessiue and vnrecouerable losses, with the greate mortalitie speare'a pooms :

and death of people, the ruine and ouerthrowe of an inSonner 1.

finite number of monasteries, pallaces and other howses, " From fairent creatures we desire increase,

and the destruction of his graces excellencies castle.' That thereby deanty's rose might nerer die,

The first earthquake was on Thursday, the llth, at Hlut as the riper should by time decease, llin tender heir might bear his memory :"

ten at night, "whiche endured the space of an Aue

Marie;" on the 17th, “the earth quaked all the whole the later editions, and observe the case and mastery of day.” In all, “the earthquakes are numbered to haue touch by which the alterations are effected. been a hundred and foure in xl houres."

In the quarto, 1597, after the lino

" Ah, then I see Queen Mab hath been with you, (8) SCENE III. I was your mother much upon these years

Benvolio exclaims :-
That you are now a maid.]

"Queene Mab! whats she?
In the old poem Juliet's age is set down at sixteen ; in
Paynter's novel it is said to be eighteen. As Shakespeare The description then proceeds :-
makes his heroine only fourteen, if the words your

" She is the Fairies Midwife and doth come mother,” which is the reading of the old editions, be

In shape no bigger than an Aggat stone correct, Lady Capulet would be eight and twenty, while

On the forefinger of a Burgomaster, her husband, having done masking_some thirty years, Drawne with a teeme of little Atomi, must be at least three-score. Mr. Knight veils the dis- A thwart mens noses when they lie a sleepe. parity, and perhaps improves the passage, by printing,

Her waggon spokes are made of spinners webs, I was a mother;" but we believe without authority.

The couer, of the winges of Grashoppers,
The traces are the Moone-shine watrie beames,

The collers crickets bones, the lash of filmes, (9) SCENE IV.-Mercutio.] The Mercutio of the play is

Her waggoner is a small gray coated flie

Not halfe so big as is a little worme, Shakespeare's own, the only hint for all the wit, the gaiety,

Pickt from the lasie finger of a maide, and the chivalry, with which he has indued this favourite

And in this sort she gallops vp and downe character, being the following brief description of his pro- Through Louers braines, and then they dream of loue. totype in the poem :

O're Courtiers knees: who strait on cursies dreame,

O're Ladies lips, who dreame on kisses strait : “ A courtier that eche where was highly had in pryce,

Which oft the angrie Mab with blisters plagues,
For he was coorteous of his speche, and pleasant of devise. Because their breathes with sweet meats tainted are,
Even as a lyon would cmong the lambes be bolde,

Sometimes she gallops ore a Lawers lap,
Such was emong the bashfull maydes, Mercutio to beholde." And then dreames he of smelling out a sute,

And sometime comes she with a tithe pigs taile,

Tickling a Parson's nose that lies asleepe, (10) SCENE IV.-Give me a torch.) “The character

And then dreames he of another benefice: which Romeo declares his resolution to assume, will be Sometime she gallops ore a souldiers nose, best explained by a passage in Westward Hoe,' by Decker And then dreames he of cutting forraine throats, and Webster, 1607*; 'He is just like a torch-bearer to or breaches ambuscados, countermines, maskers ; he wears good cloaths and is ranked in good

Of healthes fiue fadome deepe, and then anon

Drums in his eare: at which he startes and wakes, company, but he doth nothing.' A torch-bearer seems to

And sweares a Praier or two and sleepes againe. have been a constant appendage on every troop of masks. This is that Mab that makes maids lie on their backes, To hold a torch was anciently no degrading office. Queen And proues them women of good cariage. Elizabeth's Gentlemen Pensioners attended her to Cam- This is the verie Mab that plats the manes of Horses in the night, bridge, and held torches while a play was acted before her And plats the Elfelocks in foule sluttish haire, in the Chapel of King's College, on a Sunday evening."

Which once vntangled much misfortune breedes, STEEVENS.

Rom. Peace, peace, -" &c.

(11) SCENE IV.

Tut I dun's the mouse, the constable's own word :

If thou art dun, we'll draw thee from the mire.] Dun's the mouse was a proverbial saying, the precise meaning of which has not come down to us. In the comedy of “Patient Grissil," 1603, Babulo says, “The sun hath play'd bo-peep in the element any time these two hours, as I do some mornings when you call. What, Babulo!' say you.

Here, master,' say I; and then this eye opens, yet don is the mouse-lie still. What, Babulo!' says Grissil. 'Anon,' say I; and then this eye looks up, yet down I snug again. What, Babulo !' say you again ; and then I start up, and see the sun," &c. The expression is found also in Decker and Webster's “Westward Hoe,"1607,and among Ray's proverbial similes. The allusion in the following line is to an ancient country sport, called Dun is in the mire, which Gifford thus describes :-"A log of wood is brought into the midst of the room ; this is Dun, (the cart-horse,) and a cry is raised, that he is stuck in the mire. Two of the company advance, either with or without ropes, to draw him out. After repeated attempts, they find themselves unable to do it, and call for moro assistance.—The game continues till all the company take part in it, when Dun is extricated of course ; and the merriment arises from the awkward and affected efforts of the rustics to lift the log, and from sundry arch contrivances to let the ends of it fall on one another's toes."— Works of Ben Jonson, Vol. VII. p. 282.

(13) SCENE V.

What lady's that, which doth enrich the hand

Of yonder knight ?]
Romeo's first sight of Juliet at the feast is thus quaintly
described in the old poem :-
" At length he saw a mayd, right fayre of perfect shape,

Which Theseus or Paris would have chosen to their rape.
Whom erst he never sawe, of all she pleasde him most;
Within himselfe he sayd to her, thou justly mayst thee boste
Of perfit shapes renoune, and beauties sounding prayse,
Whose like ne hath, ne shalbe seene, ne liveth in our dayes.
And whilst he fixd on her his partiall perced eye,
His former love, for which of late he ready was to die,
Is nowe as quite forgotte, as it had never been."

(14) SCENE V.-Come hither, nurse: what is yon gentle-
man l] Compare the poem.-
" What twayne are those (quoth she) which prease unto the door,

Whose pages in their hand doe beare, two torches light before ?
And then as eche of them had of his houshold name,
So she him named yet once agayne the yong and wily dame.
And tell me who is he with vysor in his hand,
That yender doth in masking weede besyde the window stand.
His name is Romeus (said shee) a Montagewe,
Whose Fathers pryde first styrd the strife which both your

housholdes rewe.
The woord of Montagew her joyes did overthrow
And straight in steade of happy hope, des payre began to grow.
What hap have I quoth she, to love my father's foe?
What, am I wery of my wele? what, do I wishe my woe?
But though her grievouse paynes distraind her tender bart,
Yet with an outward shewe of joye she cloked inward smart;
And of the courtlyke dames her leave so courtly tooke,
That none dyd gesse the sodain change by changing of her looke."

(12) SCENE IV.- This is she-] It is instructive to compare the original draft of this famous speech as it appears in the quarto of 1597 with the finished version of

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