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" THE PASSIONATE SKEPIEARD TO HIS LOVE.

Come live with me, and be my love,
And we will all the pleasures prove,
That vallies, groves, hills, and fields,
Woods, or steepie mountaines yeelds.
And we will sit upon the rockes,
Seeing the Shepheards feede their flockes,
By shallow riuers, to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigalls.
And I will make thee beds of roses,
And a thousand fragrant poesies,
A cap of flowers and a kirtle
Imbroydered all with leaues of mirtle :
A gowne made of the finest wooll
Which from our pretty lambs we pull:
Faire lined slippers for the cold,
With buckles of the purest gold:
A belt of straw, and ivie buds,
With corall clasps and amber studs,
And if these pleasures may thee move,
Come live with me and be my love.
The Shepheard swaines shall dance and sing
For thy delights each May-morning;
If these delights thy mind may move,
Then live with me, and be my love."

Both were, no doubt, of “Venetian admittance," or fashion, as the coiffures of that nation were all the mode at the end of the sixteenth, and beginning of the seventeenth century :-“Let her have the Spanish gait, the Venetian tire, Italian complements and endowments."BURTON's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1624.

(3) SCENE III.–Fortune thy foe. It is not, perhaps,
quite certain that the ballad, of which the first and second
stanzas are subjoined, is the original Fortune my Foe that
Falstaff had in mind, though there is strong reason, from
the fact of the opening verse being quoted in Lilly's
“Maydes Metamorphosis," 1600, for believing it to be
the authentic version. Of the tune, which will be found,
with much interesting matter connected with it, in Mr.
Chappell's “Popular Music of the Olden Time," vol. i.
p. 162, there can be no doubt. It had the good or evil
fortune to be selected as an appropriate chaunt for the
dismal effusions attributed to condemned criminals, and
for the relation of murders, fires, judgments, and cals
mities of all kinds ; and hence, for more than two hun-
dred years, it maintained a popularity almost unexampled.
Fortune my Foe is alluded to again by Shakespeare, in
“Henry V." Act III. So. 6, and is mentioned by Lodge,
Chettle, Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, Shirley, and
a host of other writers.
“ A sweet Sonnet, wherein the Lover exclaimeth against For
tune for the loss of his Ladies Favour, almost past hops
to get it again, &c. &c. The Tune is Fortune, my Foe.
THE LOVER'S COMPLAINT FOR THE Loss OF HIS LOVE.

Fortune my Foe why dost thou froun on me?
And will thy favours never better be !
Wilt thou I say for ever breed my pain.
And wilt thou not restore my joys again?
Fortune hath wrought my grief and great annoy,
Fortune hath falsly stoln my Love away,
My love my joy, whose sight did make me glad,
Sucb great misfortunes Dever young man had"

(2) SCENE III.-The ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or any tire of Venetian admittance. By the ship-tire was, perhaps, understood some fanciful head-dress, with ornaments of glass or jewellery fashioned to resemble a ship :“The attyre of her head was in forme of two little ships, made of emeraulds, with all the shrouds and tackling of cleere sapphyres." "Diana," of George of Montemeyor, 1598. Or it may have been an open kind of head-dress with ribbons streaming from it like the pennons of a ship. The tire-valiant was another of the innumerable “newfangled tires," as Burton calls them, which an overweening love of dress had imported from abroad, and of which the form is lost, and not worth seeking.

ACT IV.

(1) SCENE I.-I pray you, ask him some questions in his | Night,” Act II, Sc. 3, Sir Toby Belch refers familiarly, as accidence. The particular work here referred to is the having learned it in his own youth, to the example given old English introduction to Latin Grammar called “Lily's in the First Concord, of the infinitive mood being the Accidence." One of the efforts of Henry VIII, and nominative case to a verb,_" Diluculo surgere — thou Edward VI. for the advancement of learning, was an en know'st,” The clown in the same comedy, Act V. Sc. 1, deavour to establish an uniformity of books for teaching misquotes, or perverts, the nouns of number requiring a Latin. In 1541, in the proheme to “The Castel of genitive case,Primo, secundo, tertio, is a good play :** Helthe," Sir Thomas Elyot says that the king had and Benedick, in “Much Ado about Nothing," Act IV. “not himselfe disdained to be the chiefe authour and Sc. 1, takes an illustration from another part of the Acasetter forthe of an Introduction into Grammar, for the dence, when he says, “How now! interjections? why, childerne of his loving subjectes." This was the famous then, some be of laughing, as, ha ! ha! he!" In the “Introduction of tho Eyght Partos of Speche, and the examination of William Page, Sir Hugh inquires, “What Construction of the same," usually known as “Lily's is he, William, that does lend Articles ?" And to this Accidence,” but really composed by Dean Colet for his the child replies in the very words of the Accidence, school at St. Paul's, in the years 1510 and 1513. The “Articles are borrowed of the pronoun; and be thus de whole collection of tracts forming this Grammar,-written clined.” Even in the difference between the teacher and by Colet, Erasmus, Lily, Robertson, and Ritwise,--had the pupil, the rules of the Introduction are to be traced ; appeared either in London or abroad, before they received for when young Page says, “0, vocativo 0," he repeats the Royal sanction ; but in 1542 they were printed entire the sense of the definition, “the vocative case is known as having been “compiled and set forth by the commande by calling or speaking to, as O magister;" whilst Sir ment of our most gracious soverayne lorde the King.” Hugh follows the declension of the article, and rightly After the death of Henry VIII. his son continued the says, “vocati vo caret." royal patronage to “Lily's Grammar,” which then became known as “King Edward's Grammar;" Edvardus" being (2) SCENE II.-A muffler.] The muffler, a contrirance inserted as the example of proper names in the English, adopted by women to conceal a portion of their face, conas those of Henricus” and “Anglia" were in the Latin sisted usually of a linen bandage which covered the moutb Institution. This was the book taught by authority at and chin. Douce states that “it was enacted by a Scottish the public schools down even to the first half of the statute in 1547, that 'na woman cum to kirk, nor mercat, seventeenth century, the Accidence mentioned in the with her face mussaled or covered that scho may not be text, and the identical source whence Shakespeare him

kend."" self acquired the elements of Latin. In “Twelfth |

(3) SCENE II.-The witch of Brentford.) The “wisethe Queen, the Princo (Henry), the Duke of York (after. woman of Brentford ” was an actual personage, the fame wards Charles I.), the Princess (Madame Arabella Stuart), of whose vaticinations must have been traditionally and the young Prince of Brunswick, at that time also on well known to an audience of the time, although a visit to James. Several days were afterwards spent in the records we possess of her are scant enough. The receiving and paying visits, and on the 23rd the Feast of chief of them is a black letter tract, printed by Wil. St. George was kept with the usual ceremonies. On the liam Copland in the middle of the sixteenth century, 30th we have an entry of some interest to Shakspearean enti

titled.* “Jyl of Braintford's Testament." from which it readers—'S. E. alla au Globe, lieu ordinaire ou l'on joue appears she was hostess of a tavern at Brentford. She is les Commedies; y fut representé l'histoire du More de mentioned also in “Westward Hoe!"_“I doubt that old Venise.' hag, Gillian of Brentford, has bewitched me."

We know from the evidence produced by Mr. Collier

that Othello' appeared as early as 1602; and this entry (4) SCENE V.-There is three couzin Germans, that has proves that it retained its popularity in 1610. On the cozened all the hosts of Readings, of Maidenhead, of Cole following day, 1st May, is another entry, of scientific inprook, of horses and money.] In the preliminary notice of terest:this play we mentioned an ingenious hypothesis of Mr. 'S. E. alla au parc d'Elthon (Eltham) pour veoir la per. Knight in his “Pictorial Shakspere," that the deception petuum mobile. L'inventeur s'appelle Cornelius Trebel, practised upon mine Host de Jarterre pointed to some inci natif d'Alkmar, homme fort blond et beau, et d'une très dents connected with a visit made to Windsor, in 1592, by the douco facon, tout au contraire des espricts de la sorte. Nous Duke of Würtemberg. The Duke, it appears, was known y vismes aussy des Espinettes, qui jouent d'elle mesmes.' here as “Count Mombeliard,” (query, "Mumpelgard") of I have not met with any mention of this philosopher in which title both Mr. Knight and Mr. Halliwell conceive other papers of the period; but it is certain that in 1621 the expression “cosen garmombles" in the quarto, to be he published a work in Latin, entitled 'De quintessentia, a jocular corruption. This nobleman visited Windsor. et Epistola ad Jacobum Regem do perpetui mobili invenwas shown the splendidly beautiful and royal Castle,' he tione.'

hunted a stag for a long time over a broad and pleasant The King had previously left London (on the 24th) to go plain, with a pack of remarkably good hounds; and, to his hunting-box in Northamptonshire; and on the 4th after staying some days, departed for Hampton Court."" of May the Duke followed him and slept at Ware, at the From these and other circumstances, not omitting that he inn called the Stag, where, says the author of the Diary, was provided with a passport from Lord Howard, contain: Je fus couché dans ung lict de plume de cigne, qui avoit ing instructions to the authorities of towns through which huiet pieds de largeur.' This is, perhaps, the earliest he passed to furnish him with post horses, &c.; and at the precise notice yet found of this famous bed, and it serves sea-side with shipping, for which he was to pay nothing. to illustrate the passage in Shakspeare's Twelfth Night,' Mr. Knight infers this to have been “one of those local Act III. Sc. 2, in which he alludes to the "Bed of Ware.' and temporary allusions which Shakespeare seized upon to This bed still exists, and is engraved in Shaw's 'Ancient arrest the attention of his audience."

Furniture,' where it is stated to be 10 ft. 9 in. in length, Our objections to this theory, inasmuch as the visit in by 10 ft. 9 in, in width, and to have been made in the 1592 is concerned, have already been mentioned in the reign of Elizabeth Introduction; but it is far from improbable that an On leaving Ware the Duke proceeded to Royston, allusion was covertly intended to some other visit of the Cambridge, Newmarket, and Thetford, where he rejoined same nobleman. From the following interesting article ! the King on the 7th; and the next morning the Duke by Sir Frederic Madden, we learn that the Duke of went to church with his Majesty, as it was the day 'que Würtemberg-Mümplegard was in England in 1610; and sa Majesté observe infalliblement pour estre celuy de sa it is not unreasonable to suppose he might have visited dellivrance de l'assasinat des Contes de Gaury (Gowry).' us more than twice in the long interval of eighteen years. This is a remarkable passage, since other authorities give

the 5th of August as the anniversary of this conspiracy. Among the Additional Manuscripts in the British On the same day James took his guests with him to hunt Museum is a small thin quarto, containing the autograph the hare (his favourite amusement), and they saw a hawk diary, written in French, of Hans Jacob Wurmsser von seize some dotorels, 'oiseau qui se laisse prendre par une Vendenheym, who accompanied Louis Frederic, Duke of estrange manière;' and also the trained cormorants, which, Wurtemberg-Mumpelgard, in his diplomatic mission to at the word of command, plunged into the water and England in 1610, on the part of the united Protestant brought up eels and other fish, which they, on a sign given, German Princes. This diary extends from 16th March vomited up alive- chose bien merveilleuse à voir ! On to 24th July of that year, and affords brief but interesting the same day, also, arrived the news of the assassination notices of the places visited by the Duke, both in coming of Henry IV. of France, which took place on the 4th and returning. He embarked from Flushing (where an May. The news, however, did not prevent the King from English garrison was stationed) on Tuesday, 12th April, hunting the hare the next day; and after dinner the whole and arrived at Gravesend on the following day, where he party returned towards London, which they reached on was waited on by Sir Lewis Lewkenor, Master of the the 10th. On the 25th the Duke of Wurtenberg left Ceremonies, and the next day conveyed in the Royal London and travelled by Rochester and Canterbury to barges to London,

n, 'au logis de l'Aigle noir. On the 16th Dover ; whence, on the 29th, he embarked with his suite, the Duke had his audience of the King, who received him and arrived safely at the port of Veer, in Zealand, on the sitting under a 'des' of cloth of gold, accompanied by following day.”

ACT V.

(1) SCENE I.-IIerne's oak.) One of the many pleasing | brewage. The first of these is taken from a work pubfeatures in this sprightly comedy is the amount of local lished near the end of the seventeenth century, entitled colouring with which it is imbued. Within the last few “ A True Gentlewoman's Delight:" the other is from the years the researches of various writers have shown, to use pen of Sir Fleetwood Shepherd. the words of Mr. Halliwell, “that “The Merry Wives of

"TO MAKE A SACK-Posset.-Take Two Quarts of pure good Windsor' is to be regarded, in all essential particulars, as

Cream, and a Quarter of a Pound of the best Almonds. Stamp a purely English local drama, in which the actors and

them in the Cream and boyl, with Amber and Musk therein. incidents, though spiritually belonging to all time, are | Then take a pint of Sack in a basin. and set it on a Chafing dish really founded and engrafted upon living characters, till it be blood-warm; then take the Yolks of Twelve Eggs, with amidst scenes existing, in a provincial town of England Four of their Whites, and beat them well together; and so put and its neighbourhood, in the lifetime of the poet." With

the Eggs into the Sack. Then stir all together over the coals,

till it is all as thick as you would have it. If you now take some regard to Herne's oak, the fact is now established, that a

Amber and Musk, and grind the same quite small, with sugar, family of the name of Horne was living at Windsor in the

and strew this on the top of your Possit, I promise you that it sixteenth century, one Gylles Herne being married there shall have a most delicate and pleasant taste." in 1569. The old tradition was that Herne, one of the keepers in the park, having committed an offence for He must be the veriest Pythagorean who could doubt which he feared to be disgraced, hung himself upon an it; and the marvel is how such a “ night-cap" ever went oak, which was ever after haunted by his ghost..

out of fashion. The Knight's preparation seems hardly The earliest notice of this oak, since immortalized by 80 ambrosial, but that too must have been a palatable Shakespeare, is in a “Plan of the Town and Castle of Wind “ comforter :"sor and little Park,” published at Eton, in 1742. In tho

"From fam'd Barbadoes in the Western Main, map, a tree, marked “Sir John Falstaff's oak,” is repre

Fetch Sugar, ounces four; fetch Sack from Spain sented as being on the edge of a pit, (Shakespeare's fairy

A Pint; and from the Eastern Indian coast, pit!) just on the outside of an avenue which was formed in

Nutmeg, the glory of our Northern toast : the seventeenth century, and known as Queen Elizabeth's

O'er flaming coals let them together heat, Walk. The oak, a pollard, was described in 1780 as being

Till the all-conquering Sack dissolve the Sweet. twenty-seven feet in circumference, hollow, and the only

O'er such another fire, put Eggs just Ten,

New-born from tread of cock and rump of hen; tree in the neighbourhood into which boys could get.

Stir them, with steady hand, and conscience pricking, Although in a rapid state of decay, acorns were obtained

To see the untimely end of ten fine ehicken. from it as late as 1783, and it would in all probability

From shining shelf take down the brazen skillet, have stood the scath of time and shocks of weather, but

A quart of Milk from gentle cow will fill it. that unfortunately it was marked down inadvertently in a

When boil'd and cold, put Milk and Sack to Egg, list of decayed and unsightly trees which had been ordered

Unite them firmly, like the Triple League;

And on the fire let them together dwell, to be destroyed by George III., and fell a victim to the

Till Miss sing twice - You must not kiss and tell.' woodman's axe in 1796.

Then lad and lass take up a Silver Spoon :

And fall on 't fiercely, like a starved Dragoon." (2) SCENE V.-Yet be cheerful, knight : thou shalt eat a posset to-night at my house.) To posset, whatever its

(3) SCENE V.-I am glad, though you have ta'en a special derivation, meant to coagulate, or curd :

stand to strike at me, that your arrow hath glanced.] Deer

shooting was a favourite sport of both sexes in the time of " And with a sudden vigour it doth posset,

Shakospeare, and to enable ladies to enjoy it in safety and And curd, like aigre droppings into milk,

without fatigue, stands, or standings, with flat roofs, orna. The thin and wholesome blood" :

Hamlet, Act I, Sc. 8.

mented and concealed by boughs and bushes, were erected

in many parks. Here, armed with the cross-bow or bow and the posset originally was, perhaps, no more than

and arrow, the fair huntresses were wont to take aim at curdled milk, taken to promote perspiration. Hence, the

the animal which the keepers compelled to pass before hour of projection, the appropriate time for the admini

them. To this practice the poet alludes again in “Love's stration of the posset proper, such as we are now con

Labour's Lost," Act IV. Sc. 1:sidering, was at night, shortly before retiring to rest ; Mrs. Quickly, in the present play, promises John Rugby

"PRIN. - where is the bush

That we must stand and play the murderer in! A posset soon at night,-at the end of a sea-coal fire :"

For. Hereby, upon the edge of yonder coppice ; Lady Macbeth, at night, speaks of having “ drugged the

A stand where you may make the fairest shoot." possets" of Duncan's " grooms." Martha, in Beaumont and Fletcher's “Scornful Lady,” Act II. Sc. 1, remarks

And in “Cymbeline," Act III. Sc. 4:to Welford, “Sir, 'tis so late, and our entertainment

-“When thou hast ta'en thy stand, (meaning our posset) by this time is grown so cold, that

The elected deer before thee!" 'twere an unmanperly part longer to hold you from your rest." And in Sir John Suckling's ballad on the wedding of Lord Broghill, the last ceremony described in the bridal

(4) SCENE V. - Well, what remedy?] In the quarto, chamber is :

after Falstaff's speech, the dialogue proceeds as follows :“ In come the bride's-maids with the posset,

“Mrs. Ford. Come, mistris Page, lle be bold with you, The bridegrom ate in spite :

'Tis pity to part love that is so true. For, had he left the women to't,

MRS. PAGE. Altho' that I have missed in my intent,
It would have cost an hour to do't,-

Yet I am glad my husband's match was crossed ;
Which were too much that pight."

Here, M. Fenton, take her, and God give thee joy.

Sir Hu. Come, Master Page, you must needs agree. On the nature and qualities of Sack, “ Simple of

FORD. I yfaith, sir, come, you see your wife is wel pleased. itself," the commentators are profuse in information.

PAGE. I cannot tel, and yet my hart's well eased.

And yet it doth me good the Doctor missed. On this, its crowning luxury,--the famous and universally

Come hither, Fenton, and come hither, daughter; popular sack-posset,- they afford us none at all. Luckily,

Go too. you might have stai'd for my good will, we are enabled to supply this grave omission, having at But since your choise is inade of one you love, hand two recipes, infallibly authentic, for the precious Here take her, Fenton, and both happie prove."

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