Imagens das páginas


John Milton

gentle meetings and gentle dismissions, that we debate not indeed but colours, and serving to no end except it be to and examine the matter throughly with liberal and fro- exercise a superiority over their neighbours, men who do not quent audience; if not for their sakes, yet for our own ? therefore labour in an honest profession to which learning seeing no man who hath tasted learning, but will confess the is indebted, that they should be made other men's vassals. many ways of profiting by those who not contented with Another end is thought was aimed at by some of them in stale receipts are able to manage, and set forth new positions procuring by petition this Order, that having power in their to the world. And were they but as the dust and cinders of | hands, malignant books might the easier scape abroad, as the our feet, so long as in that notion they may yet serve to polish event shows. But of these sophisms and elenchs of merchan. and brighten the armoury of Truth, even for that respect they dise I skill not : This I know, that errors in a good governwere not utterly to be cast away. But if they be of those whom ment and in a bad are equally almost incident; for what God hath fitted for the special use of these times with eminent Magistrate may not be misinformed, and much the sooner, if and ample gifts, and those perhaps neither among the Priests, liberty of Printing be reduced into the power of a few; nor among the Pharisees, and we in the haste of a precipitant but to redress willingly and speedily what hath been erred, zeal shall make no distinction, but resolve to stop their and in highest authority to esteem a plain advertisement more mouths, because we fear they come with new and dangerous than others have done a sumptuous bribe, is a virtue (honoured opinions, as we commonly forejudge them ere we understand Lords and Commons) answerable to your highest actions, them, no less than woe to us, while thinking thus to defend and whereof none can participate but greatest and wisest the Gospel, we are found the persecutors.

There have been not a few since the beginning of this Parliament, both of the Presbytery and others who by their unlicensed books to the contempt of an Imprimatur first broke that triple ice clung about our hearts, and taught the people to see day: I hope that none of those were the persuaders to renew upon us this bondage which they themselves have wrought so much good by contemning. But if neither the check that Moses gave to young Joshua, nor the countermand Men widely divided in opinion when they lived, which our Saviour gave to young John, who was so ready to join now in aid to the lifting of our hearts above prohibit those whom he thought unlicensed, be not enough all that is low-thoughted in party feud. Jeremy to admonish our Elders how unacceptable to God their testy Taylor, loyal to monarchy, loyal to Lambeth and mood of prohibiting is, if neither their own remembrance « the Palace Metropolitan," was, like Milton, loyal what evil hath abounded in the Church by this let? of also to God, by labouring through life after the licensing, and what good they themselves have begun by highest truth he could attain. If Truth was found transgressing it, be not enough, but that they will persuade,

in diverse shapes, “yet," as we have just heard and execute the most Dominican part of the Inquisition over

Milton saying, “yet it is not impossible that she us, and are already with one foot in the stirrup so active

may have more shapes than one." Jeremy Taylor, at suppressing, it would be no unequal distribution in the

four or five years younger than Milton, was, as to first place to suppress the suppressors themselves : whom the

the truth of the hour, in a camp opposite to his, but change of their condition hath puffed up, more than their

as to the truth that abides, his fellow combatant." late experience of harder times hath made wise.

In 1657 Jeremy Taylor had left his retirement by And as for regulating the Press, let no man think to have the honour of advising ye better than yourselves

| the Towey, where he had lived, aided by the friendhave done in that Order published next before this, “ that

ship of Lord Carbery, at Golden Grove, with Grongar no book be Printed, unless the Printer's and the Author's

wthor's | Hill, afterwards to become a pleasant name in name, or at least the Printer's be registered." Those which

English literature, on the other side of the stream. otherwise come forth, if they be found mischievous and

He was in London in that year, having charge, libellous, the fire and the executioner will be the timeliest per haps, of a small congregation of churchmen, who, and the most effectual remedy, that man's prevention can under the Commonwealth, were firm in fidelity to use. For this authentic Spanish policy of licensing books, if the episcopal forms and ancient usages of the I have said aught, will prove the most unlicensed book itself Church. The Long Parliament required every within a short while; and was the immediate image of a Star parish to maintain a minister; the jurisdiction of Chamber decree to that purpose made in those very times when that Court did the rest of those her pious works, for

There are two excellent reprints of Milton's " Areopagitica." One which she is now fallen from the stars with Lucifer. Whereby

is in the series of “English Reprints," by Mr. Edward Arber, being,

indeed, the book with the publication of which, at the price of six. ye may guess what kind of state prudence, what love of the

pence, that excellent diffuser of good literature began his indefatigable people, what care of Religion or good manners there was at labours. It gives the original text, in the original spelling, preceded the contriving, although with singular hypocrisy it pretended by full reprints of the Orders of Star Chamber and of Parliament to bind books to their good behaviour. And how it got

concerning Printing, which occasioned Milton's defence of free

speech. This edition, like Mr. Arber's other publications, can be the upper hand of your precedent Order so well constituted

obtained only by post from the Editor, Edward Arber, F.8.A., before, if we may believe those men whose profession gives Southgate, London, N. The other edition gives also the original them cause to inquire most, it may be doubted there was in text and spelling, and is amply provided with notes by its Editor, it the fraud of some old patentees and monopolisers in the

J. W. Hales, M.A., Professor of English Literature at King's College

London. This is all that can be desired as an aid to the study of trade of bookselling; who under pretence of the poor in their

Milton's greatest prose work. It is included (price three shillings) Company not to be defrauded, and the just retaining of each

in the Clarendon Press Series of English Classics, published by man his several copy, which God forbid should be gainsaid, Macmillan and Co. brought divers glosing colours to the House, which were

9 Signature of John Milton to a petition dated 1650, among the " Composition Papers" in the Record Office.

• For some account of Jeremy Taylor see, in tbis Library, “Illus| Let, hindrance.

trations of English Religion," pages 285-288.

the official Triers was confined to benefices, and years old. I preserve in this treatise the old thus there arose here and there lectureships in variations of type, spelling, &c. London which, by local influence of friends to monarchy and the episcopal system, could be en

A DISCOURSE OF THE NATURE AND OFFICES OF trusted to men like Jeremy Taylor or John Pearson,

FRIENDSHIP, whose lectures on the Creed given at St. Clement's,

In a Letter to the most Ingenious and Excellent Eastcheap, were published as his “Exposition of the


Mrs. Katherine Phillips. Creed” in 1659. Jeremy Taylor had in London

The wise Bensirach advised that we should not consult John Evelyn for a friend, who gave, in this time of

with a woman concerning her of whom she is jealous, neither adverse fortune, some substantial help, and it was with a Coward in matters of War, nor with a Merchant conto Evelyn that Taylor wrote on the 9th of June,

cerning exchange ;3 and some other instances he gives of 1657, “Your kind letter hath so abundantly re- | interested persons, to whom he would not have us hearken in

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warded and crowned my innocent endeavours in my description of Friendship, that I perceive there is a friendship beyond what I have fancied, and a real material worthiness beyond the heights of the most perfect ideas; and I know now where to make my book perfect, and by an Appendix to outdo the first Essay; for when anything shall be observed to be wanting in my Character, I can tell them where to seek the substance, more beauteous than the picture, and by sending the readers of my book to be spectators of your life and worthiness, they shall see what I would fain have taught them, by what you really are." Jeremy Taylor's “Discourse of Friendship” was addressed to Mrs. Katherine Phillips, a lady who lived with her husband in Wales, wrote innocent verse as Orinda, chiefly with friendship for her theme, and who was in 1657, when the Discourse was written and first published, only twenty-four

any matter of Counsel. For where ever the interest is secular or vicious, there the biass is not on the side of truth or reason, because these are seldom served by profit and low regards. But to consult with a friend in the matters of friendship is like consulting with a spiritual person in Religion ; they who understand the secrets of Religion, or the interior beauties of friendship are the fittest to give answers in all inquiries concerning the respective subjects; because reason and experience are on the side of interest ; and that which in friendship is most pleasing and most useful, is also most reasonable and most true ; and a friends fairest interest is the best measure of the conducting friendships: and therefore you who are so eminent in friendships could also have given the best answer to your own inquiries, and you could have trusted your own reason,

? Some verse of hers is in the volume of this Library containing “Shorter English Poems," page 340.

3 Jesus the Son of Sirach in his book called “Ecclesiasticus," chap. Xxxvii., verse 11. It goes on, "nor with a buyer, of selling ; nor with an envious man, of thankfulness; nor with an unmerciful man, touch. ing kindness ; nor with the slothful, for any work; nor with an hireling for a year, of finishing work; nor with an idle servant, of much business: hearken not unto these in any matter of counsel."

1 The portrait of Taylor as Mercurius Christianus was prefixed to the "Treatise of Friendship " in 1657.

because it is not only greatly instructed by the direct notices and what Nature intended should be every mans, we make of things, but also by great experience in the matter of which proper to two or three. Friendship is like rivers and the strand you now inquire.

of seas, and the air, common to all the World; but Tyrants, But because I will not use any thing that shall look like an and evil customs, wars, and want of love have made them excuse, I will rather give you such an account which you can proper and peculiar. But when Christianity came to renew easily reprove, then by declining your commands, seem more our nature, and to restore our laws, and to increase her safe in my prudence, then open and communicative in my priviledges, and to make her aptness to become religion, then friendship to you.

it was declared that our friendships were to be as universal You first inquire how far a Dear and a perfect friendship as our conversation; that is, actual to all with whom we conis authoriz'd by the principles of Christianity ?

verse, and potentially extended unto those with whom we did To this I answer; That the word [Friendship] in the sense not. For he who was to treat his enemies with forgiveness we commonly mean by it, is not so much as named in the and prayers, and love and beneficence was indeed to have New Testament; and our Religion takes no notice of it. You no enemies, and to have all friends. think it strange ; but read on before you spend so much as So that to your question, how far a Dear and perfect the beginning of a passion or a wonder upon it. There is friendship is authorized by the principles of Christianity ? mention of [Friendship with the world,) and it is said to be The answer is ready and easie. It is warranted to extend enmity with God; but the word is no where else named, or to to all Mankind; and the more we love, the better we are, any other purpose in all the Now Testament. It speaks of and the greater our friendships are, the dearer we are to God; Friends often ; but by Friends are meant our acquaintance, let them be as Dear, and let them be as perfect, and let them or our Kindred, the relatives of our family or our fortune, or be as many as you can ; there is no danger in it; only where our sect; something of society, or something of kindness the restraint begins, there begins our imperfection; it is not there is in it; a tenderness of appellation and civility, a ill that you entertain brave friendships and worthy societies: relation made by gifts, or by duty, by services and sub it were well if you could love, and if you could benefit all jection; and I think, I have reason to be confident, that the Mankind; for I conceive that is the summe of all friendship. word friend (speaking of humane entercourse) is no other I confess this is not to be expected of us in this world; ways used in the Gospels or Epistles, or Acts of the Apostles: but as all our graces here are but imperfect, that is, at the and the reason of it is, the word friend is of a large significa best they are but tendencies to glory, so our friendships are tion; and means all relations and societies, and whatsoever imperfect too, and but beginnings of a celestial friendship, is not enemy; but by friendships, I suppose you mean, the by which we shall love every one as much as they can be greatest love, and the greatest usefulness, and the most open loved. But then so we must here in our proportion; and communication, and the noblest sufferings, and the most exemplar indeed that is it that can make the difference; we must be faithfulness, and the severest truth, and the heartiest counsel, friends to all: That is, apt to do good, loving them really, and the greatest union of minds, of which brave men and and doing to them all the benefits which we can, and which women are capable. But then I must tell you that Chris they are capable of. The Friendship is equal to all the tianity hath new christened it, and calls this Charity. The World, and of it self hath no difference; but is differenced Christian knows no enemy he hath ; that is, though persons only by accidents, and by the capacity or incapacity of them may be injurious to him, and unworthy in themselves, yet he that receive it. Nature and Religion are the bands of friend. knows none whom he is not first bound to forgive, which is ships ; excellency and usefulness are its great indearments : indeed to make them on his part to be no enemies, that is, to society and neighbourhood, that is, the possibilities and the make that the word enemy shall not be perfectly contrary circumstances of converse are the deterininations and actualito friend, it shall not be a relative term and signifie some ties of it. Now when men either are unnatural, or irreligious, thing on each hand, a relative and a correlative ; and then he they will not be friends; when they are neither excellent nor knows none whom he is not bound to love and pray for, to useful, they are not worthy to be friends; when they are treat kindly and justly, liberally and obligingly. Christian strangers or unknown, they cannot be friends actually and Charity is Friendship to all the world; and when Friend practically; but yet, as any man hath any thing of the good, ships were the noblest things in the world, Charity was contrary to those evils, so he can have and must have his little, like the Sun drawn in at a chink, or his beams drawn share of friendship. For thus the Sun is the eye of the into the centre of a Burning-Glass; but Christian charity is World ; and he is indifferent to the Negro, or the cold Friendship, expanded like the face of the Sun when it mounts Russian, to them that dwell under the line, and them that above the Eastern hills : and I was strangely pleas'd when I stand near the Tropicks, the scalded Indian, or the poor boy saw something of this in CICERO ; for I have been so pushed that shakes at the foot of the Riphean hills; but the fluxures at by herds and flocks of People that follow any body that of the heaven and the earth, the conveniency of abode, and whistles to them, or drives them to pasture, that I am grown the approaches to the North or South respectively change the afraid of any Truth that seems chargeable with singu emanations of his beams; not that they do not pass always larity : but therefore I say, glad I was when I saw Lælius from him, but that they are not equally received below, but in Cicero discourse thus : Amicitia ex infinita societate generis by periods and changes, by little inlets and reflections, they humani quam conciliavit ipsa natura, ita contracta res est, et receive what they can; and some have only a dark day and a adducta in angustum ; ut omnis charitas, aut inter duos, aut long night from him, snows and white cattel, a miserable life, inter paucos jungeretur.' Nature hath made friendships, and and a perpetual harvest of Catarrhes and Consumptions, apo. societies, relations and endearments; and by something or | plexies and dead palsies; but some have splendid fires, and other we relate to all the World; there is enough in every aromatick spicos, rich wines, and well digested fruits, great man that is willing, to make him become our friend; but wit and great courage; because they dwell in his eye, and when men contract friendships, they inclose the Commons ; look in his face, and are the Courtiers of the Sun, and wait ships : some are worthy, and some are necessary; some dwell | should; then I must love more, where there is more reason ; hard by and are fitted for converse; Nature joyns some to us, and where there's a special affection and a great readiness to and Religion combines us with others; society and accidents, do good and to delight in certain persons towards each other, parity of fortune, and equal dispositions do actuate our friend there is that special charity and indearment which Philosophy ships: which of themselves and in their prime disposition are calls friendship; but our Religion calls love or charity. Now prepared for all Mankind according as any one can receive if the inquiry be concerning this special friendship. 1. How them. We see this best exemplified by two instances and it can be appropriate, that is, who to be chosen to it; 2. how expressions of friendship and charity: viz., Alms and Prayers; far it may extend ; that is, with what expressions signified ; Every one that needs relief is equally the object of our 3. how conducted ? The answers will depend upon such concharity; but though to all mankind in equal needs we ought siderations which will be neither useless nor unpleasant. to be alike in charity; yet we signifie this severally and by 1. There may be a special friendship contracted for any limits, and distinct measures : the poor man that is near me, special excellency whatsoever; because friendships are nothing he whom I meet, he whom I love, he whom I fancy, he who but love and society mixt together; that is, a conversing with did me benefit, he who relates to my family, he rather then them whom we love ; now for whatsoever we can love any one, another, because my expressions being finite and narrow, and for that we can be his friend; and since every excellency is cannot extend to all in equal significations, must be appro a degree of amability, every such worthiness is a just and priate to those whose circumstances best fit me: and yet even proper motive of friendship, or loving conversation. But yet to all I give my alms; to all the World that needs them; I in these things there is an order and proportion. Therefore pray for all mankind, I am grieved at every sad story I hear; 2. A good man is the best friend, and therefore soonest to I am troubled when I hear of a pretty Bride murdered in her be chosen, longer to be retain'd; and indeed never to be bride-chamber by an ambitious and enrag'd Rival ; I shed a parted with, unless he cease to be that for which he was tear when I am told that a brave King was misunderstood, chosen. then slandered, then imprisoned, and then put to death by evil

upon him in his Chambers of the East; just so is it in friend. i Lælius: De Amicitia. Friendship amidst the infinite society of the human race which Nature has joined in fellowship, is a thing so contracted and drawn within strait bounds, that all love might be * Indifferent, not different. In himself he makes no distinction of fastened up either between two or among a few. .


Τών δ' άλλων αρετή ποιες φίλον όστις άριστος 2 men: and I can never read the story of the Parisian Massacre,

Μήποτε τον κακόν άνδρα φίλον ποιείσθαι εταίρον. 3 or the Sicilian Vespers, but my blood curdles, and I am

Where vertue dwells there friendships make, disorder'd by two or three affections. A good man is a friend

But evil neighbourhoods forsake. to all the World; and he is not truly charitable that does But although vertue alone is the worthiest cause of amability, not wish well, and do good to all mankind in what he can; and can weigh down any one consideration; and therefore to but though we must pray for all men, yet we say special a man that is vertuous every man ought to be a friend; yet Litanies for brave Kings and holy Prelates, and the wise I do not mean the severe, and philosophical excellencies of Guides of souls ; for our Brethren and Relations, our Wives some morose persons who are indeed wise unto themselves, and Children.

and exemplar to others: by vertue here I do not mean justice The effect of this consideration is, that the Universal and temperance, charity and devotion ; for these I am to love friendship of which I speak, must be limited, because we the man, but friendship is something more then that: Friend. are so : in those things where we stand next to immensity ship is the nearest love and the nearest society of which the and infinity, as in good wishes and prayers, and a readiness persons are capable: Now justice is a good entercourse for to benefit all mankind, in these our friendships must not be Merchants, as all men are that buy and sell; and temperance limited; but in other things which pass under our hand and makes a Man good company, and helps to make a wise man; eye, our voices and our material exchanges; our hands can but a perfect friendship requires something else, these must reach no further but to our arms end, and our voices can but be in him that is chosen to be my friend; but for these I do sound till the next air be quiet, and therefore they can have not make him my privado; that is, my special and peculiar entercourse but within the sphere of their own activity ; our | friend: but if he be a good man, then he is properly fitted to needs and our conversations are served by a few, and they be my correlative in the noblest combination. cannot reach to all ; where they can, they must; but where And for this we have the best warrant in the world : For it is impossible, it cannot be necessary. It must therefore follow, a just man scarcely will a man die ; the Syriac interpreter that our friendships to mankind may admit variety as does reads it, 'nèp ddíkov for an unjust man scarcely will a man die; our conversation; and as by nature we are made sociable to that is, a wicked man is at no hand fit to receive the expres. all, so we are friendly ; but as all cannot actually be of our sion of the greatest friendship; but all the Greek copies that society, so neither can all be admitted to a special, actual ever I saw, or read of, read it as we do ; for a righteous man friendship; Of some entercourses all men are capable, but not or a just man, that is, justice and righteousness is not the of all; Men can pray for one another, and abstain from doing nearest indearment of friendship; but for a good man some injuries to all the world, and be desirous to do all mankind will even dare to die : that is for a man that is sweetly good, and love all men ; Now this friendship we must pay to disposed, ready to do acts of goodness and to oblige others, all because we can, but if we can do no more to all, we must to do things useful and profitable, for a loving man, a beneshew our readiness to do more good to all by actually doing ficent, bountiful man, one who delights in doing good to his more good to all them to whom we can.

friend, such a man may have the highest friendship; he may To some we can, and therefore there are nearer friendships have a friend that will die for him. And this is the meaning to some then' to others, according as there are natural or civil of Lælius : Vertue may be despised, so may Learning and nearnesses, relations and societies; and as I cannot express Nobility: at una est amicitia in rebus humanis de cujus utilitate my friendships to all in equal measures and significations, omnes consentiunt : only friendship is that thing, which that is, as I cannot do benefits to all alike : so neither am I because all know to be useful and profitable, no man can tied to love all alike : for although there is much reason to despise; that is xpnotórns, or dyadons, goodness or beneficence love every man; yet there are more reasons to love some makes friendships. For if he be a good man he will love than others; and if I must love because there is reason I where he is beloved, and that's the first tie of friendship.

'AMýlovs èpiano avion cuge 1 Then, than. In the “ Areopagitica " Milton invariably wrote then for than. The words have the same origin,

* Pythagoras, "Carmen Auruam,” 5. Theognis, 1. 113.

That was the commendation of the bravest friendship in when we consider that one man is not better than another, Theocritus,

neither towards God nor towards Man, but by doing better They lov'd each other with a love

and braver things, we shall also see, that that which is most That did in all things equal prove.

beneficent is also most excellent; and therefore those friend. 'H pa Tot' roar

ships must needs be most perfect, where the friends can be χρυσείου πάλαι άνδρες οκ' αντιφίλησ' ο φιληθείς.

most useful. For men cannot be useful but by worthinesses The World was under Saturn's reign When he that lov'd was lov'd again.

in the several instances : a fool cannot be relyed upon for For it is impossible this nearness of friendship can be where

counsel, nor a vitious person for the advantages of vertue, nor there is not mutual love; but this is secured if I choose a

a begger for relief, nor a stranger for conduct, nor a tatler to good man; for he that is apt enough to begin alone, will

keep a secret, nor a pittiless person trusted with my comnever be behind in the relation and correspondency; and

plaint, nor a covetous man with my childs fortune, nor a false therefore I like the Gentiles Litany well,

person without a witness, nor a suspicious person with a Ζεύς μοι των τε φίλων δοίη τισιν οί με φιλεύσι.2

private design; nor him that I fear with the treasures of my "Ολβιοι οι φιλέοντες, επήν ίσον άντεραώνται.3

love: But he that is wise and vertuous, rich and at hand, Let God give friends to me for my reward,

close and merciful, free of his money and tenacious of a Who shall my love with equal love regard;

secret, open and ingenuous, true and honest, is of himself an Happy are they, who when they give their heart

excellent man; and therefore fit to be loved ; and be can do Find such as in exchange their own impart.

good to me in all capacities where I can need him, and thereBut there is more in it than this felicity amounts to. For

fore is fit to be a friend. I confess we are forced in our xpnotos dvnp the good man is a profitable, useful person, and

friendships to abate some of these ingredients ; but full that's the band of an effective friendship. For I do not think

measures of friendship, would have full measures of worthi. that friendships are Metaphysical nothings, created for con

ness; and according as any defect is in the foundation ; in templation, or that Men or Women should stare upon each

the relation also there may be imperfection : and indeed I others faces, and make dialogues of news and prettinesses,

shall not blame the friendship so it be worthy, though it be and look babies in one anothers eyes. Friendship is the allay

not perfect; not only because friendship is charity, which of our sorrows, the ease of our passions, the discharge of our

cannot be perfect here, but because there is not in the World oppressions, the sanctuary to our calamities, the counsellor of

a perfect cause of perfect friendship. our doubts, the clarity of our minds, the emission of our

If you can suspect that this discourse can suppose friend. thoughts, the exercise and improvement of what we meditate.

ship to be mercenary, and to be defective in the greatest And although I love my friend because he is worthy, yet he

worthiness of it, which is to love our friend for our friends is not worthy if he can do no good. I do not speak of acci. sake, I shall easily be able to defend my self; because I speak dental hindrances and misfortunes by which the bravest man

of the election and reasons of choosing friends : after he is may become unable to help his Child; but of the natural and

chosen do as nobly as you talk, and love as purely as you artificial capacities of the man. He only is fit to be chosen

dream, and let your conversation * be as metaphysical as your for a friend, who can do those offices for which friendship is discourse, and proceed in this method, till you be confuted by excellent. For (mistake not) no man can be loved for himself;

experience; yet till then, the case is otherwise when we our perfections in this World cannot reach so high; it is well

speak of choosing one to be my friend: He is not my friend if we would love God at that rate, and I very much fear, that

till I have chosen him, or loved him; and if any man enquires if God did us no good, we might admire his Beauties, but we

whom he shall choose or whom he should love, I suppose it should have but a small proportion of love towards him ;

ought not to be answered, that we should love him who hath and therefore it is, that God to endear the obedience, that is,

least amability; that we should choose him who hath least the love of his servants, signifies what benefits he gives us,

reason to be chosen : But if it be answered, he is to be chosen what great good things he does for us. I am the Lord God

to be my friend who is most worthy in himself, not be that that brought thee out of the land of Egypt : and does Job serve

can do most good to me; I say, here is a distinction but no God for nought ? and he that comes to God, must believe that he

difference ; for he is most worthy in himself who can do is, and that he is a rewarder : all his other greatnesses are

most good; and if he can love me too, that is, if he will do objects of fear and wonder, it is his goodness that makes him

me all the good he can, that I need, then he is my friend and lovely: and so it is in friendships. He only is fit to be chosen he deserves it. And it is impossible from a friend to separate for a friend who can give counsel, or defend my cause, or

| a will to do me good : and therefore I do not choose well, if guide me right, or relieve my need, or can and will, when I

I choose one that hath not power; for if it may consist with need it, do me good: only this I add: into the heaps of doing !

the nobleness of friendship to desire that my friend be ready good, I will reckon (loving me for it is a pleasure to be be

to do me benefit or support, it is not sense to say, it is ignoble loved, but when his love signifies nothing but kissing my |

to desire he should really do it when I need; and if it were cheek, or talking kindly, and can go no further, it is a

not for pleasure or profit, we might as well be without a prostitution of the bravery of friendship to spend it upon |

friend as have him. impertinent people who are (it may be) loads to their

Among all the pleasures and profits, the sensual pleasure and families, but can never case my loads : but my friend is a

the matter of money are the lowest and the least; and therefore worthy person when he can become to me instead of God, a

although they may sometimes be used in friendship, and so guide or a support, an eye, or a hand ; a staff, or a rule :

not wholly excluded from the consideration of him that is to There must be in friendship something to distinguish it from

choose, yet of all things they are to be the least regarded. a Companion, and a Country man, from a School-fellow or a

'Εν τοις δε δεινοίς, χρημάτων κρείττων φίλος. Gossip, from a Sweet-heart or a Fellow-traveller : Friendship

When fortune frowns upon a Man, may look in at any one of these doors, but it stays not any

A friend does more than money can. where till it come to be the best thing in the world : and

* Conversation. The familiar intercourse of life; behaviour among 1 Idyll xii. 15. 2 Theognis, 1. 337.

others. 3 Bion, in Stobæus, a Greek of the fifth or sixth century who col. 5 Uncertain author, in Grotius, “ Excerpt. ex Trag. et Com.,” 4to, lected extracts.

Paris, 1626, p. 915.

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