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a certain space, but to no man would he discover it. But at found and bitter a sigh, received with tears, that it seemed the last, the pain became so intolerable, that would he or no, I that all his body should be dissolved and relented into salt he was enforced to keep his bed, being for lack of sleep and drops. other natural sustenance, brought in such feebleness, that his But Gisippus, as he were therewith nothing astonished or legs might not sustain his body. Gisippus missing his dear discontented, with an assured countenance, and merry regard, friend Titus, was much abashed, and hearing that he lay sick embracing Titus, and kissing him, answered in this wise: in his bed, had forthwith his heart pierced with heaviness, " Why, Titus, is this your only sickness and grief that ye so and with all speed came to him, where he lay. And behold uncourteously have so long concealed, and with much more ing the rosial colour, which was wont to be in his visage, unkindness kept from me, than ye have conceived it? I acturned into sallow, the residue pale, his ruddy lips wan, and knowledge my folly wherewith ye have with good right his eyen leaden and hollow, might unneth' keep himself from upbraided me, that in showing to you her whom I loved, I weeping : but to the intent he would not discomfort his remembered not the common estate of our nature, neither the friend Titus, dissimulated his heaviness, and with a comfort agreeableness, or (as I might say) the unity of our two able countenance demanded of Titus, what was the cause of appetites. Surely that default can be by no reason excused, his disease, blaming him of unkindness, that he so long had wherefore it is only I that have offended. For who may by sustained it, without giving him knowledge, that he might right prove that ye have trespassed, that by the inevitable for him have provided some remedy, if any might have been stroke of Cupid's dart are thus bitterly wounded? Think got, though it were with the dispensing of all his substance. ye me such a fool or ignorant person, that I know not the With which words the mortal sighs renewed in Titus, and power of Venus, where she liketh to show her importable the salt tears burst out of his eyen in such abundance, as it violence ? Have not ye well resisted against such a goddess, had been a land flood running down of a mountain after a that for my sake have striven with her almost to the death? storm. That beholding Gisippus, and being also resolved What more loyalty or truth can I require of you? Am I of into tears, most heartily desired him, and (as I might say) that virtue, that I may resist against celestial influence, preconjured him, for the fervent and entire love that had been, ordinate by providence divine ? If I so thought, what were and yet was between them, that he would no longer hide from my wits? where were my study so long time spent in noble him his grief, and that there was nothing to him so dear and philosophy? I confess to you, Titus, I love that maiden as precious (although it were his own life) that might restore much as any wise man might possible: and took in her comTitus to health, but that he would gladly, and without pany more delight and pleasure than of all the treasure and grudging employ it, with which words, obtestations, and lands that my father left me, which ye know was right tears of Gisippus, Titus constrained, all blushing and abundant. But now I perceive that the affection of love ashamed, holding down his head, brought forth with great toward her surmounteth in you above measure, what, shall I difficulty his words in this wise.
think it of a wanton lust, or sudden appetite in you, whom I “My dear and most loving friend, withdraw your friendly have ever known of grave and sad disposition, inclined alway offers, cease of? your courtesy, refrain your tears and regret to honest doctrine, flying all vain dalliance and dishonest tings, take rather your knife, and slay me here where I lie, pastime? Shall I imagine to be in you any malice or fraud, or otherwise take vengeance on me, most miserable and false since from the tender time of our childhood, I have alway traitor unto you, and of all other most worthy to suffer found in you, my sweet friend Titus, such a conformity with shameful death. For where as God of nature, like as He all my manners, appetites, and desires, that never was seen hath given to us similitude in all the parts of our body, so between us any manner of contention ? May God forbid, hath He conjoined our wills, studies, and appetites together that in the friendship of Gisippus and Titus should happen in one, so that between men was never like concord and love, any suspicion: or that any fantasy should pierce my head as I suppose. And now notwithstanding, only with the look whereby that honourable love between us should be the of a woman, those bonds of love be dissolved, reason op- mountenance of a crumb* perished. Nay, nay, Titus, it is as pressed, friendship is excluded, there availeth no wisdom, no I said, the only providence of God : she was by Him from the doctrine, no fidelity or trust : yea, your trust is the cause beginning prepared to be your lady and wife. For such that I have conspired against you this treason. Alas! Gisip fervent love entereth not into the heart of a wise man and pus, what envious spirit moved you to bring me to her, virtuous, but by a divine disposition: whereat if I should be whom you have chosen to be your wife, where I received this discontented or grudge, I should not only be unjust to you, poison? I say, Gisippus, where was then your wisdom, that withholding that from you which is undoubtedly yours, but ye remembered not the fragility of our common nature ? also obstinate and repugnant against the determination of what need ye to call me for a witness of your private de God, which shall never be found in Gisippus. lights? why would ye have me see that, which you yourself “Therefore, gentle friend Titus, dismay you not at the could not behold without ravishing of mind and carnal appe chance of love, but receive it joyously with me, that am with tite ? Alas, why forgot ye, that our minds and appetites were you nothing discontented, but marvellous glad, since it is my ever one ? and that also what so ye liked was ever to me in hap to find for you such a lady, with whom ye shall live in like degree pleasant. What will ye more? Gisippus, I say felicity, and receive fruit to the honour and comfort of all your trust is the cause that I am entrapped. The rays or your lineage. Here I renounce to you clearly all my title beams issuing from the eyen of her whom ye have chosen, and interest, that I now have or might have in the fair with the remembrance of her incomparable virtues, hath maiden. Call to your pristinate courage, wash clean your thrilled throughout the midst of my heart, and in such wise visage and eyes thus bewept, and abandon all heaviness. The burneth it, that above all things I desire to be out of this day appointed for our marriage approacheth: let us consult wretched and most unkind life, which is not worthy the how, without difficulty, ye may wholly attain your desires. company of so noble and loving a friend as ye be.” And Take heed this mine advice : ye know well that we two be so therewith Titus concluded his confession, with so pro like, that being apart, and in one apparel, few men do know
1 Unneth, First English, “uneath," not easily.
3 Importable, unbearable.
us. Also ye do remember that the custom is that, notwith- among you an example, almost incredible, of the divine power standing any ceremony done at the time of the espousals, the of honourable love, to the perpetual renown and commenda. marriage, notwithstanding, is not confirmed until at night tion of this noble city of Athens, whereof he ought to take that the husband putteth a ring on the finger of his wife, and excellent comfort, and therefore give due thanks to God, if unlooseth her girdle. Therefore, I myself will be present with there remain among you any token of the ancient wisdom of my friends, and perform all the parts of a bridegroom. And your most noble progenitors. For what more praise may be ye shall abide in a place secret, where I shall appoint you, given to people than benevolence, faithfulness, and constancy? until it be night. And then shall ye quickly convey yourself without whom all countries and cities be brought unto desolainto the maiden's chamber, and for the similitude of our tion and ruin, like as by them they become prosperous and in personages, and of our apparel, ye shall not be espied of the most high felicity. What, shall I long tarry you in conjecwomen, which have none of us any acquaintance, and shortly turing mine intent and meaning? Ye all know from whence get you to bed, and put your own ring on the maiden's I came unto this city, that of adventure I found in the house finger, and undo the girdle of virginity, and do all other thing of Chremes his son Gisippus, of mine own age, and in everythat shall be to your pleasure. Be now of good cheer, Titus, thing so like to me that neither his father, nor any other man and comfort yourself with good reflections and solace, that could discern of us the one from the other, but by our own this wan and pale colour, and your cheeks meagre and lean, insignment or showing: in so much as there were put about be not the cause of your discovering. I know well that, ye | our necks laces of sundry colours to declare our personages. having your purpose, I shall be in obloquy and derision of all What mutual agreement and love have been alway between men, and so hated of all my kindred, that they shall seek us during the eight years that we have been together, ye all occasion to expulse me out of this city, thinking me to be a be witnesses, that have been beholders and wonderers of our notable reproach to all my family. But let God therein work, most sweet conversation and consent of appetites, wherein I force not? what pain that I abide, so that ye, my friend was never any discord or variance. And, as for my part, Titus, may be safe, and pleasantly enjoy your desires, to the after the decease of my father, notwithstanding that there was increasing of your felicity."
descended and happened unto me great possessions, fair With these words Titus began to move, as it were, out of a houses, with abundance of riches; also I being called home dream, and doubting whether he heard Gisippus speak, or by the desirous and importunate letters of mine allies and else saw but a vision, lay still as a man abashed. But when friends, which be of the most noble of all the senators, offered he beheld the tears trickling down by the face of Gisippus, the advancement to the highest dignities in the public weal, he then recomforted him, and thanking him for his incom I will not remember the lamentations of my most natural parable kindness, refused the benefit that he offered, saying mother, expressed in her tender letters, all besprent and that it were better that a hundred such unkind wretches as he blotted with abundance of tears, wherein she accuseth me of was should perish, than so noble a man as was Gisippus should unkindness, for my long tarrying, and especially now in her sustain reproach or damage. But Gisippus eftesoones com most discomfort. But all this could not remove me the forted Titus, and therewith sware and protested, that with breadth of my nail from my dear friend, Gisippus. And but free and glad will he would that this thing should be in forma by force could not I, nor yet may be drawn from his sweet aforesaid accomplished, and therewith embraced and sweetly | company, but if he thereto will consent. I choosing rather kissed Titus. Who perceiving the matter sure, and not to live with him as his companion and fellow, yea, and as his feigned, as a man not sick, but only awaked out of his sleep, servant rather than to be Consul of Rome. Thus my kindness set himself up in his bed; the quick blood somewhat resorted hath been well acquitted (or as I might say), redoubled, unto his visage, and after a little good meats and drinks delivering me from the death, yea from the most cruel and taken, he was shortly, and in a few days, restored into his puinful death of all other. I perceive ye wonder hereat, old fashion and figure. To make the tale short: the day of noble Athenians, and no marvel. For what person should be marriage was come. Gisippus, accompanied with his allies so hardy to attempt any such thing against me, being a and friends, came to the house of the damosell, where they Roman, and of the noble blood of the Romans? Or who were honourably and joyously feasted. And between him should be thought so malicious to slay me, who (as all ye be and the maiden was a sweet entertainment, which to behold, my judges) never trespassed against any person within this all that were present, took much pleasure and comfort, prais city. Nay, nay, my friends, I have none of you all therein ing the beauty, goodliness, virtue, and courtesy, which in suspected. I perceive you desire and hearken to know, what this couple were excellent above all other that they had ever he was, that presumed to do so cruel and great an enterprise. seen. What shall I say more? The covenants were read It was love, noble Athenians, the same love, which as your and sealed, the dower appointed, and all other bargains con poets do remember, did wound the more part of all the gods, cluded, and the friends of either part took their leave and that ye do honour, that constrained Jupiter to transform departed: the bride with a few women (as was the custom) himself in a swan, a bull, and divers other likenesses: the brought into her chamber; then, as it was before agreed, same love that caused Hercules, the vanquisher and destroyer Titus conveyed himself, after Gisippus returned to his house, of monsters and giants, to spin on a rock, sitting among or perchance to the chamber appointed for Titus, nothing maidens in a woman's apparel : the same love that caused to sorrowful, although that he heartily loved the maiden, but assemble all the noble princes of Asia and Greece in the fields with a glad heart and countenance that he had so recovered of Troy: the same love, I say, against whose assaults may be his friend from death, and so well brought him to the effect found no defence or resistance, hath suddenly and unaware of his desire..... The morrow is come. Gisippus, stricken me unto the heart with such vehemence and might, thinking it expedient that the truth should be discovered, that I had in short space died with most fervent torments assembled all the nobility of the city at his own house, where had not the incomparable friendship of Gisippus holpen me. also by appointment was Titus, who among them had these I see you would fain know who she is that I loved. I will words that do follow :
no longer delay you, noble Athenians. It is Sophronia, the “My friends, Athenians, there is at this time showed lady whom Gisippus had chosen to have to his wife, and
whom he most entirely loved. But when his most gentle i force not, I do not care. So “no force"=no matter.
heart perceived that my love was in a much higher degree
than his toward that lady, and that it proceeded neither of wantonness, neither of long conversation, nor of any other corrupt desire or fantasy, but in an instant, by the only look, and with such fervence, that immediately I was so cruciate, that I desired, and in all that I mought provoked death to take me. He by his wisdom soon perceived (as I doubt not but that ye do) that it was the very provision of God, that she should be my wife and not his: whereto he giving place, and more esteeming true friendship than the love of a woman, whereunto he was induced by his friends and not by violence of Cupid constrained, as I am, hath willingly granted to me the interest that he had in the damosel. And it is I, Titus, that have verily wedded her, I have put the ring on her finger, I have undone the girdle of her shamefacedness : what will ye more? I have lain with her, and confirmed the matrimony, and made her a wife.”
At these words all they that were present began to murmur, and to cast a disdainous and grievous look upon Gisippus. Then spake again Titus :
“Leave your grudgings and menacing countenance towards Gisippus; he hath done to you all honour, and no need of reproach. I tell you he hath accomplished all the parts of a friend: that love, which was most certain, hath he continued. He knew he might find in Greece another maiden, and fair and as rich as this that he had chosen, and one, perchance, that he mought love better. But such a friend as I was, having respect to our similitude, the long approved concord, also mine estate and condition, he was sure to find never none. Also the damosel suffereth no disparagement in her blood, or hindrance in her marriage, but is much rather advanced (no dispraise to my dear friend Gisippus). Also consider, noble Athenians, that I took her not my father living, when ye. mought have suspected that as well her riches as her beauty should have thereto allured me : but soon after my father's decease, when I far exceeded her in possessions and substance, when the most notable men of Rome and of Italy desired mine alliance; ye have therefore all cause to rejoice and thank Gisippus, and not to be angry, and also to extol his wonderful kindness toward me, whereby he hath won me and all my blood, such friends to you and your city, that ye may be assured, to be by us defended against all the world : which being considered, Gisippus hath well deserved a statue or image of gold, to be set on a pillar, in the midst of your city, for an honourable monument, in the remembrance of our incomparable friendship, and of the good that thereby may come to your city. But if this persuasion cannot satisfy you, but that ye will imagine anything to the damage of my dear friend Gisippus after my departing, I make my vow unto God, creator of all thing, that as I shall have knowledge thereof, I shall forth with resort hither, with the invincible power of the Romans, and revenge him in such wise against his enemies that all Greece shall speak of it to their perpetual dishonour, shame, and reproach.”
And therewith Titus and Gisippus rose, but the other for fear of Titus dissembleth their malice, making semblant as they had been with all thing contented.
Soon after, Titus, being sent for by the authority of the Senate and people of Rome, prepared to depart out of Athens, and would fain have had Gisippus to have gone with him, offering to divide with him all his substance and fortune. But Gisippus, considering how necessary his counsel should be to the city of Athens, would not depart out of his country. Notwithstanding that above all earthly things, he most desired the company of Titus: which abode also, for the said consideration, Titus approved. .
Titus with his lady is departed towards the city of Rome, where, at their coming, they were of the mother of Titus, his
kinsmen, and of all the Senate and people joyously received. And there lived Titus with his lady in joy inexplicable, and had by her many fair children: and for his wisdom and learning was so highly esteemed, that there was no dignity or honourable office within the city, that he had not with much favour and praise achieved and occupied.
But now let us resort to Gisippus, who immediately upon the departing of Titus, was so maligned at, as well by his own kinsmen, as by the friends of the lady that he, to their seeming, shamefully abandoned, leaving her to Titus, that they spared not daily to vex him with all kinds of reproach, that they could devise or imagine: and first they excluded him out of their council, and prohibited him from all honest company.
And yet not being therewith satisfied, finally they adjudged him unworthy to enjoy any possessions or goods, left to him by his parents, whom he (as they supposed) by his indiscreet friendship had so distained. Wherefore they despoiled him of all things, and almost naked, expelled him out of the city. Thus is Gisippus, late wealthy, and one of the most noble men of Athens, for his kind heart, banished his country for ever, and as a man dismayed, wandering hither and thither, finding no man that would succour him. At the last remembering in what pleasure his friend Titus lived with his lady, for whom he suffered these damages, concluded to go to Rome, and declare his infortune to his said friend Titus. What shall need a long tale? In conclusion, with much pain, cold, hunger, and thirst, he is come to the city of Rome, and diligently enquiring for the house of Titus, at the last he came to it: but beholding it so beautiful, large, and princely, he was ashamed to approach nigh to it, being in so simple estate and unclad, but standeth by, that in case Titus came forth out of his house, he might present himself to him. He being in this thought, Titus, holding his lady by the hand, issued out from his door, and taking their horses to solace themselves, beheld Gisippus, and beholding his vile apparel, regarded him not, but passed forth on their way, wherewith Gisippus was so wounded to the heart, thinking Titus had contemned his fortune, that oppressed with mortal heaviness, fell in a sownde, but being recovered by some that stood by, thinking him to be sick, forth with departed, intending not to abide any longer, but as a wild beast to wander abroad in the world. But for weariness he was constrained to enter into an old barn, without the city, where he, casting himself on the bare ground with weeping and dolorous crying, bewaileth his fortune ; but most of all accusing the ingratitude of Titus, for whom he suffered all that misery, the remembrance whereof was so intolerable, that he determined no longer to live in that anguish and dolour. And therewith drew his knife, purposing to have slain himself. But ever wisdom (which he by the study of philosophy had attained) withdrew him from that desperate act. And in this contention between wisdom and will, fatigued with long journeys in watch, or as God would have it, he fell into a deep sleep. His knife (wherewith he would have slain himself) falling down by him.
In the meantime, a common and notable ruffian or thief, which had robbed and slain a man, was entered into the barn where Gisippus lay, to the intent to sojourn there all that night. And seeing Gisippus bewept, and his visage replenished with sorrow, and also the naked knife by him, perceived well that he was a man desperate, and surprised with heaviness of heart, was weary of his life : which the said ruffian taking for a good occasion to escape, took the knife of Gisippus, and putting it in the wound of him that was slain, put it all bloody in the hand of Gisippus, being fast asleep, and so departed.
i Sounde, swoon.
Soon after, the dead man being found, the officers made diligent search for the murderer: at the last they entering into the barn, and finding Gisippus asleep, with the bloody knife in his hand, awaked him; wherewith he entered again into his old sorrows, complaining his evil fortune. But when the officers laid unto him the death of the man, and the having of the bloody knife, thereat rejoiced, thanking God that such occasion was happened, whereby he should suffer death by the laws, and escape the violence of his own hands. Wherefore he denied nothing that was laid to his charge, desiring the officers to make haste that he inight be shortly out of his life. Whereat they marvelled. Anon, report came to the Senate, that a man was slain, and that a stranger, and a Greek born, was found in such form as is before-mentioned. They forthwith commanded him to be brought unto their presence, sitting there at that time, Titus being then Consul, or in other like dignity. The miserable Gisippus was brought to the bar, with bills and staves like a felon, of whom it was demanded if he slew the man that was founden dead. He nothing denied, but in most sorrowful manner cursed his fortune, naming himself of all other most miserable.
At the last one demanding him of what country he was, he confessed to be an Athenian, and therewith he cast his sorrowful eyen upon Titus with much indignation, and burst out into sighs and tears abundantly. That beholding Titus, and espying by a little sign in his visage, which he knew, that it was his dear friend Gisippus, and anon considering that he was brought into despair by some misadventure, rose out of his place where he sat, and falling on his knees before the judges, said that he had slain the man for old malice that he bare toward him, and that Gisippus, being a stranger, was guiltless, and all men mought perceive that the other was a desperate person. Wherefore to abbreviate his sorrows, he confessed the act whereof he was innocent, to the intent that he would finish his sorrows with death, wherefore Titus desired the judges to give sentence on him according to his merits. But Gisippus, perceiving his friend Titus (contrary to his expectation) to offer himself to the death for his safeguard, more importunately cried to the Senate to proceed in their judgment on him, that was the very offender.
Titus denied, and affirmed with reasons and arguments that he was the murderer, and not Gisippus. Thus they of long time, with abundance of tears, contended which of them should die for the other, whereat all the Senate and people were wonderfully abashed, not knowing what it meant. The murderer in deed happened to be in the preacel at that time, who, perceiving the marvellous contention of these two persons, which were both innocent, and that it proceeded of an incomparable friendship, was vehemently provoked to discover the truth. Wherefore he brake through the preace, and coming before the Senate, spake in this wise :
“Noble fathers, I am such a person, whom ye know have been a common barrator' and thief by a long space of years : ye know also, that Titus is of a noble blood, and is approved to be alway a man of excellent virtue and wisdom, and never was malicious. This other stranger seemeth to be a man full of simplicity, and that more is desperate for some grievous sorrow that he hath taken, as it is to you evident. I say to · you, fathers, they both be innocent; I am that person that
slew him that is founden dead by the barn, and robbed him of his money. And when I found in the barn this stranger lying asleep, having by him a naked knife, I, the better to hide mine offence, did put the knife into the wound of the dead man, and so all bloody laid it again by this stranger. This was my mischievous desire to escape your judgment. Whereunto now I remit me wholly, rather than this noble man Titus, or this innocent stranger, should unworthily die."
Hereat all the Senate and people took comfort, and the noise of rejoicing hearts filled all the court. And when it was further examined, Gisippus was discovered; the friend. ship between him and Titus was throughout the city published, extolled, and magnified. Wherefore the Senate consulted of this matter, and finally, at the instance of Titus and the people, discharged the felon. Titus recognised his negli. gence in forgetting Gisippus. And Titus, being advertised of the exile of Gisippus, and the despiteful cruelty of his kindred, was therewith wonderful wroth, and having Gisippus home to his house (where he was with incredible joy received of the lady, whom some time he should have wedded) honourably apparelled him; and there Titus offered to him, to use all his goods and possessions at his own pleasure and appetite. But Gisippus, desiring to be again in his proper country, Titus, by the consent of the Senate and people, assembled a great army, and went with Gisippus unto Athens, where he, having delivered to him all those which were causers of banishing and despoiling of his friend Gisippus, did on them sharp execution; and restoring to Gisippus his lands and substance, stablished him in perpetual quietness, and so returned to Rome.
This example in the effects of friendship expresseth (if I be not deceived) the description of friendship, engendered by the similitude of age and personage, augmented by the conformity of manners and studies, and confirmed by the long continuance of company.
It would be remembered, that friendship is between good men only, and is engendered of an opinion of virtue. Then may we reason in this form: A good man is so named, because all that he willeth or doth is only good; in good can be none evil, therefore nothing that a good man willeth or doth can be evil. Likewise virtue is the affection of a good man, which neither willeth nor doth anything that is evil. And vice is contrary unto virtue, for in the opinion of virtue is neither evil nor vice.
And very amity is virtue. Wherefore nothing evil or vicious may happen in friendship. Therefore in the first election of friends resteth all the importance : wherefore it would not be without a long deliberation and proof, and, as Aristotle saith, in as long time as by them both, being together conversant, a whole bushel of salt mought be eaten. For oftentimes with fortune (as I late said) is changed, or at the least minished, the ferventness of that affection, according as the sweet poet Ovid affirmeth, saying in this sentence
"Whiles Fortune thee favoureth, friends thou hast plenty.
The time being troublous, thou art all alone.
But if any happeneth in every fortune to be constant in friendship, he is to be made of above all things that may come unto man, and above any other that be of blood or kindred, as Tully saith ; for from kindred may be taken benevolence, from friendship it can never be severed. Wherefore benevolence taken from kindred, yet the name of kins
1 Prease, press, crowd.
9 Barrator, exciter of strife, Old French, "barat," discord, confusion, fraud.
man remaineth; take it from friendship, and the name of soberness, desire to do good, friendliness to get the love of friendship is utterly perished.
many, and truth above all the rest. But since this liberty of speech is now usurped by flatterers, A great part to have all these things, is to desire to have where they perceive that assentation and praises be abhorred, them. And although glory and honest name are not the very I am therefore not well assured how a man nowadays shall ends wherefore these things are to be followed, yet surely know or discern such admonition from flattery, but by one only they must needs follow them as light followeth fire, though means: that is to say, to remember that friendship may not it were kindled for warmth. be but between good men. Then consider if he that doth Out of these things the chiefest and infallible ground is admonish thee be himself voluptuous, ambitious, covetous, the dread and reverence of God, whereupon shall ensue the arrogant, or dissolute, refuse not his admonitions; but by the | eschewing of the contraries of these said virtues; that is to example of the Emperor Antonine, thankfully take it, and say, ignorance, unkindness, rashness, desire of harm, unquiet amend such default as thou perceivest doth give occasion enmity, hatred, many and crafty falsehoods, the very root of of obloquy, in such manner as the reporter also by thine all shame and dishonesty. I say, the only dread and reverence example may be corrected. But for that admonition only, of God that seeth all things, is the defence of the creeping account him not immediately to be thy friend, until thou in of all these mischiefs into you. And for my part, although have of him a long and sure experience. For undoubtedly I do well say there is no man that would his son better than it is wonderful difficult to find a man very ambitious or cove I, yet on my faith I had rather have you lifeless, than subject tous to be assured in friendship. For where findest thou to these vices. (saith Tully) that will not prefer honours, great offices, rule, Think and imagine always that ye are in presence of some authority, and richesse before friendship? Therefore (saith honest man that ye know; as Sir John Russell, your fatherhe) it is very hard to find friendship in them that be occupied in-law, your Uncle Parson, or some other such, and ye shall, in acquiring honour, or about the affairs of the public weal; if at any time ye find a pleasure in naughty touches, rewhich saying is proved by daily experience.
member what shame it were afore these men to do naughtily. For disdain and contempt be companions with ambition, And sure this imagination shall cause you remember, that like as envy and hatred be also her fellows.
the pleasure of a naughty deed is soon past, and the rebuke, shame, and the note thereof shall remain ever.
Then, if these things ye take for vain imaginations, yet On the 6th of July, 1535, Sir Thomas More was
remember that it is certain, and no imagination, that ye are executed for his conscientious dissent from Henry
alway in the presence, and sight of God; and though ye the Eighth's claim to be the Pope of England. In
see Him not, so much is the reverence the more to be had for
that He seeth, and is not seen. 1539, Hugh Latimer was deprived of his bishopric
Men punish with shame as greatest punishment on earth; of Worcester, for conscientious dissent from the
yea, greater than death. But His punishment is: first, the King's Act for abolishing Diversity of Opinion, by
withdrawing of His favour, and grace, and, in leaving His enforcing with penalties against his subjects Roman
hand to rule the stern, to let the ship run without guide to its Catholic opinion upon six points in dispute between
own destruction; and suffereth so the man that He forsaketh the churches. In the same year, Sir Thomas Wyatt,
to run headlong as subject to all mishaps, and at last with thirty-six years old, returned from an embassy to
shameful end to everlasting shame and death. Charles V. in Spain. Sir Thomas Wyatt and the
Ye may see continual examples both of the one sort, and Earl of Surrey were the most accomplished poets
of the other; and the better, if ye mark them well that youramong many nobles of that time who wrote good self are come of; and consider well your good grandfather, 3 verse. He had been sent to Spain in 1537, the year what things there were in him, and his end. And they that of the birth of Edward, afterwards King Edward knew him noted him thus. First, and chiefly to have a VI., and from Spain he addressed these letters to his great reverence of God and good opinion of godly things. only son, that Thomas Wyatt the younger, who was Next, that there was no man more pitiful; no man more true executed in 1554, for rebellion against the marriage of his word; no man faster to his friend; no man diligenter of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain.
nor more circumspect, which thing, both the Kings his
masters noted in him greatly. And if these things, and SIR THOMAS WYATT FROM OUT OF SPAIN, TO HIS SON
specially the grace of God that the fear of God alway kept
with him, had not been, the chances of this troublesome WHEN SEVENTEEN YEARS OLD.
world that he was in had long ago overwhelmed him. This LETTER I.
preserved him in prison from the hands of the tyrant that In as much as now ye are come to some years of under
could find in his heart to see him racked; from two years
and more prisonment in Scotland in irons and stocks ; from standing, and that ye should gather within yourself some
the danger of sudden changes and commotions divers, till frame of honesty; I thought that I should not lese' my labour wholly if now I did something advertise you to take
that well beloved of many, hated of none, in his fair age, and
good reputation, godly and christianly he went to Him that the sure foundations, and stablished opinions that leadeth? to
loved him, for that he always had Him in reverence. honesty.
And of myself, I may be a near example unto you of my And here, I call not honesty that men commonly call
folly and unthriftiness, that hath, as I well deserved, brought honesty, as reputation for riches, for authority, or some like
me into a thousand dangers and hazards, enmities, hatreds, thing; but that honesty, that I dare well say your grand
prisonments, despites, and indignations; but that God hath father (whose soul God pardon) had rather left to me than
of his goodness chastised me, and not cast me clean out of His all the lands he did leave me; that was, wisdom, gentleness,
favour; which thing I can impute to nothing but to the
1 First English, “leo'san,” passed into the two forms lese and lose. ? Leadeth, the old southern plural in ath,
3 Sir Henry Wyatt. The grandfather on the mother's side was John Skinner, of Reigate.