Imagens das páginas

longer fade in the mouth of a Bossuet). As far as I know, I, but we other children loved her dearly like a mother. She neither we, nor you, nor the Italians have the word fade. | had an excellent character, but is long dead. How have the French found this characteristic word for their This is no letter, but only a newspaper of your Hamburg nation ? Our German tongue, which only begins to be daughter. When I have my husband and my child, I will cultivated, has much more conformity with the English than write you more (if God gives me health and life). You will the French

think that I shall be not a mother only, but nurse also; I wish, sir, I could fulfil your request of bringing you though the latter (thank God! that the former is not so too) acquainted with so many good people as you think of. is quite against fashion and good-breeding, and though Though I love my friends dearly, and though they are good, nobody can think it possible to be always with the child at I have however much to pardon, except in the single home!

M. KLOPSTOCK. Klopstock alone. He is good, really good, good at the bottom, in all his actions, in all the foldings of his heart. I know him; and sometimes I think if we knew others in the same manner, the better we should find them. For it may be that an action displeases us which would please us, if we knew its true aim and whole extent. No one of my friends is so happy as I am ; but no one has had courage to marry as I did. They have married, -as people marry; and they are happy,-as people are happy. Only one as I may say, my dearest friend, is unhappy, though she had as good a purpose as I myself. She has married in my absence: but had I been present, I might, it may be, have been mistaken in her husband, as well as she.

How long a letter this is again ! but I can write no short ones to you. Compliments of my husband, and compliments to all yours, always, even though I should not say it.



The last letter is made touching by the fact that the flattering hopes of the young wife looked to the event that was really to take her from the earthly to the heavenly joy. She died in childbirth.

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THE INFANT JOURSON. (From the Ideal by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1761.)


Hamburg, Aug. 26, 1758. Why think you, sir, that I answer so late? I will tell you my reasons. . . But before all, how does Miss Patty and how do yourself ? Have not you guessed that I, summing up all my happinesses, and not speaking of children, had none ? Yes, sir, this has been my only wish ungratified for these four years. I have been more than once unhappy with disappointments : but yet, thanks to God! I am in full hope to be mother in the month of November. The little preparations for my child and child-bed (and they are so dear to me!) have taken so much time, that I could not answer your letter, nor give you the promised scenes of the Messiah. This is likewise the reason wherefore I am still here, for properly we dwell in Copenhagen. Our staying here is only a visit (but a long one) which we pay my family. I not being able to travel yet, my husband has been obliged to make a little voyage alone to Copenhagen. He is yet absent -a cloud over my happiness! He will soon return. . . But what does that help? he is yet equally absent! We write to each other every post. . . But what are letters to presence ? but I will speak no more of this little cloud; I will only tell my happiness! but I cannot tell how I rejoice! A son of my dear Klopstock! Oh, when shall I have him! It is long since that I have made the remark, that geniuses do not engender geniuses. No children at all, bad sons, or, at the most, lovely daughters, like you and Milton. But a daughter or a son, only with a good heart, without genius, I will nevertheless love dearly.

I think that about this time a nephew of mine will wait on you. His name is von Winthem, a young rich merchant, who has no bad qualities, and several good, which he has still to cultivate. His mother was, I think, twenty years older than


FRENCH REVOLUTION.—A.D. 1760 TO A.D. 1789. FREDERICK Prince of Wales, the son of George II., having died in 1751, the Prince's son became King George III, upon the death of his grandfather in October, 1760. The old king died in his seventyseventh year ; his successor, well-disposed but illeducated and without natural ability, was not yet twenty-three. About a year after his accession, the young king married the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. John Stuart, Earl of Bute, who had been Lord of the Bedchamber to the Prince Frederick, retained the confidence of the Princess Dowager. He used his influence after the death of George II. to drive William Pitt from office, and reverse his policy, which then triumphed in Europe. Pitt became a private member of the House of Com mons, Bute Secretary of State, and, in May, 1762, First Lord of the Treasury. He at once gave places to Scotch friends, and displeased the nation by making a peace with France and Spain, of which the prelimi

naries were signed at Fontainebleau on the 3rd of November, 1763. Lord Bute in the place of William Pitt, and sudden peace in the place of successful war, were widely unpopular. John Wilkes had entered the House of Commons in 1757 as member for Aylesbury. On the 29th of May, 1762, when the Earl of Bute was nominated First Lord of the Treasury, Tobias Smollett set up a periodical called The Briton, to support his government. John Wilkes, on the following Saturday, the 5th of June, set up another periodical, The North Briton, to reply to it, and to attack Lord Bute. The two papers battled together. The Briton came to an end on the 12th of February, 1763; Lord Bute resigned on the 8th of April ; and The North Briton, of which No. 44 had appeared on the 2nd of April, ended its course with the publication of No. 45 on the 23rd of April. That number criticised a King's Speech, and was interpreted as treason by the Government. Wilkes was seized, and committed to the Tower under a general warrant from a Secretary of State. A few days later the Chief Justice of Common Pleas decided that general warrants were illegal, and Wilkes was set free, to the delight of the populace. In November, when the Government caused No. 45 of The North Briton to be burnt by the hangman, that act was the cause of a riot. This is, with the notes that were added when the whole series of papers was re-published as a volume in 1764,

The following advertisement appeared in all the papers on

the 13 of April. The North Briton makes his appeal to the good sense, and to the candour of the English nation. In the present unsettled and fluctuating state of the administration, he is really fearful of falling into involuntary errors, and he does not wish to mislead. All his reasonings have been built on the strong foundation of facts; and he is not yet informed of the whole interior state of government with such minute precision, as now to venture the submitting his crude ideas of the present political crisis to the discerning and impartial public. The Scottish minister has indeed retired. Is his influence at an end ? or does he still govern by the f three wretched tools of his power, who to their indelible infamy, have supported the most odious of his measures, the late ignominious Peace, and the wicked extension of the arbitrary mode of Excise? The North BRITON has been steady in his opposition to a single, insolent, incapable, despotic minister; and is equally ready, in the service of his country, to combat the triple-headed, Cerberean administration, if the Scot is to assume that motley form. By him every arrangement to this hour has been made, and the notification has been as regularly sent by letter under his HAND. It therefore seems clear to a demonstration, that he intends only to retire into that situation, which he held before he first took the seals; I mean the dictating to every part of the king's administration. The North BRITOX desires to be understood, as having pledged himself a firm and intrepid assertor of the rights of his fellowsubjects, and of the liberties of Wutgs and ENGLISHMEN.

Genus ORATIONIS atrox, & vehemens, cui opponitur lenitatis & MARIEtridinis.

Сисва. “ The King's Speech has always been considered by the “ legislature, and by the public at large, as the Speech of the Minister. I It has regularly, at the beginning of every "session of parliament, been referred by both houses to the “consideration of a committee, and has been generally cap. “vassed with the utmost freedom, when the minister of the “crown has been obnoxious to the nation. The ministers of " this free country, conscious of the undoubted privileges of " so spirited a people, and with the terrors of parliament before “their eyes, have ever been cautious, no less with regard to “ the matter, than to the expressions, of speeches, which they “have advised the sovereign to make from the throne, at the opening of each session. They well knew, that an honest “ house of parliament, true to their trust, could not fail to “detect the fallacious arts, or to remonstrate against the “ daring acts of violence, committed by any minister. The “ Speech at the close of the session has ever been considered " as the most secure method of promulgating the favourite “court creed among the vulgar; because the parliament, “ which is the constitutional guardian of the liberties of the " people, has in this case no opportunity of remonstrating, “or of impeaching any wicked servant of the crown.

“ This week has given the public the most abandoned in“stance of ministerial effrontery ever attempted to be imposed “on mankind. The minister's speech of last Tuesday, is not “to be paralleled in the annals of this country. I am in “ doubt, whether the imposition is greater on the sovereign, “ or on the nation. Every friend of his country must lament " that a prince of so many great and amiable qualities, whom “ England truly reveres, can be brought to give the sanction “ of his sacred name to the most odious measures, and to the “ most unjustifiable, public declarations, from a throne ever “ renowned for truth, honour, and unsullied virtue." I am sure, all foreigners, especially the king of Prussia, will hold the minister in contempt and abhorrence. He has made our sovereign declare, My expectations hare been fully answered by the happy effects which the several allies of my crown hate de rived from this salutary measure of the definitive Treaty. The powers at war with my good brother the King of Prussia hare been induced to agree to such terms of accommodation as that great prince has approved ; and the success which has attended my negotiation, has necessarily and immediately difused the

Anno 14 G. II. 1740. Duke of Argyle. The King's Speech is always in this House considered as the Specck of the Ministers. LORDS Debates, vol. 7, p. 413.

Lord Carteret.

When we take his Majesty's Speech into consideration, though we have heard it from his own mouth, yet we do not consider it as kis Majesty's speech, but as the speech of his ministers, p. 425.

Anno 7 Geo. II. 1733. Mr. Shippen.

I beliove it has always been granted, that the speeches from the Throne are the compositions of ministers of state; upon that supposition we hare always thought ourselces at liberty to examine every proposition contained in them; even without doors people are pretty free in their remarks upos them : I believe no Gentleman here is ignorant of the reception the speech from the Throne, at the close of last session, met with from the nation in general, COMMONS Debates, vol. 8, p. 5.

Anno 13 Geo. II. 1739. Mr. Pulteney, now earl of Bath.

His Majesty mentions heats and animosities. Sir, I don't know who drer up this speech; but whoever he was, he should have spared that erpression : I wish he had drawn a veil over the heats and animosities that must be owned ONCE subsisted upon this head; for I AM SURE NONE NOW SUBSIST, vol. 11, p. 96.

& The House of Commons in 1715 exhibited, Articles of impeachment of high treason, and other high crimes and misdemeanors, against Robert Earl of OXFORD, and Earl MORTIMER. Article 15 is fup having corrupted the sacred fountain of truth, and put falsehoods into the mouth of Majesty. in scveral speeches made to parliament. Vide Vol. III. and Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 18, p. 214.

• The passages included within the inverted commas are the only passages to which any objection is made in the INFORMATION filed in the King's-Bench by the Attorney General against the publisher, Mr, George Kearsley.

† The earls of Egremont and Halifax, and G. Grenville, Esq.

blessings of peace through every part of Europe. The infamous least attention has been paid to it. Many unnecessary exfallacy of this whole sentence is apparent to all mankind : for penses have been incurred, only to increase the power of the it is known, that the King of Prussia did not barely approve, crown, that is, to create more lucrative jobs for the creatures but absolutely dictated, as conqueror, every article of the of the minister? The staff indeed is broke, but the discerning terms of peace. No advantage of any kind has accrued to part of mankind immediately comprehended the mean subterthat magnanimous prince from our negotiation, but he was fuge, and resented the indignity put upon so brave an officer, basely deserted by the Scottish prime minister of England. as marshal Ligonier. That step was taken to give the whole He was known by every court in Europe to be scarcely | power of the army to the crown, that is, to the minister. on better terms of friendship here, than at Vienna ; and he Lord Ligonier is now no longer at the head of the army; but was betrayed by us in the treaty of peace. What a strain of lord Bute in effect is : I mean that every preferment given by insolence, therefore, is it in a minister to lay claim to what he the crown will be found still to be obtained by his enormous is conscious all his efforts tended to prevent, and meanly to influence, and to be bestowed only on the creatures of the arrogate to himself a share in the fame and glory of one of Scottish faction. The nation is still in the same deplorable the greatest princes the world has ever seen? The king of state, while he governs, and can make the tools of his power Prussia, however, has gloriously kept all his former conquests, pursue the same odious measures. Such a retreat, as he inand stipulated security for all his allies, even for the elector of tends, can only mean that personal indemnity, which, I hope, Hanover. I know in what light this great prince is considered guilt will never find from an injured nation. The negotiain Europe, and in what manner he has been treated here; tions of the late inglorious peace, and the excise, will haunt among other reasons, perhaps, from some contemptuous ex him, wherever he goes, and the terrors of the just resentment, pressions he may have used of the Scot : expressions which which he must be to meet from a brave and insulted people, are every day echoed by the whole body of Englishmen through and which must finally crush him, will be for ever before his the southern part of this island.

eyes. The Preliminary Articles of Peace were such as have drawn “In vain will such a minister, or the foul dregs of his the contempt of mankind on our wretched negotiators. All "power, the tools of corruption and despotism, preach up our most valuable conquests were agreed to be restored, and “in the speech that spirit of concord, and that obedience to the the East-India company would have been infallibly ruined by laws, which is essential to good order. They have sent the a single article of this fallacious and baneful negotiation. “spirit of discord through the land, and I will prophecy, that No hireling of the minister has been hardy enough to dispute “it will never be extinguished, but by the extinction of their this; yet the minister himself has made our sovereign declare, “power. Is the spirit of concord to go hand in hand with the the satisfaction which he felt at the approaching re-establishment “Peace and Excise thro' this nation? Is it to be expected of peace upon conditions so honourable to his crown, and so bene “ between an insolent ExcISEMAN, and a peer, gentleman, freeficial to his people. As to the entire approbation of parliament, " holder, or farmer, wbose private houses are now made liable which is so vainly boasted of, the world knows how that was “to be entered and searched at pleasure ? Gloucestershire, obtained. The large debt on the Civil List, already above half “ Herefordshire, and in general all the Cyder countries, are a year in arrear, shews pretty clearly the transactions of the “not surely the several counties which are alluded to in the winter. It is, however, remarkable, that the minister's speech “ speech. The spirit of concord hath not gone forth among dwells on the entire approbation given by Parliament to the “them; but the spirit of liberty has, and a noble opposition Preliminary Articles, which I will venture to say, he must by " has been given to the wicked instruments of oppression. this time be ashamed of; for he has been brought to confess “A nation as sensible as the English, will see that a spirit the total want of that knowledge, accuracy and precision, by “of concord, when they are oppressed, means a tame submiswhich such immense advantages both of trade and territory, “sion to injury, and that a spirit of liberty ought then to were sacrificed to our inveterate enemies. These gross blunders “ arise, and I am sure ever will, in proportion to the weight are, indeed, in some measure set right by the Definitive Treaty; " of the grievance they feel. Every legal attempt of a contrary yet, the most important articles, relative to cessions, commerce, tendency to the spirit of concord will be deemed a justifiable and the FISHERY, remain as they were, with respect to the “ resistance, warranted by the spirit of the English constitution. French. The proud and feeble Spaniard too does not RE “A despotic minister will always endeavour to dazzle his NOUNCE, but only desists from all pretensions, which he may “prince with high flown ideas of the prerogative and honour have formed, to the right of Fishing-where ? only about the “ of the crown, which the minister will make a parade of island of NewFOUNDLAND—till a favourable opportunity arises firmly maintaining. I wish as much as any man in the of insisting on it, there, as well as elsewhere.

“ kingdom to see the honour of the crown maintained in a "The minister cannot forbear, even in the King's Speech, “manner truly becoming Royalty. I lament to see it sunk “insulting us with a dull repetition of the word economy. “ even to prostitution. What a shame was it to see the “I did not expect so soon to have seen that word again, " security of this country, in point of military force, compli. “after it had been so lately exploded, and more than once, "mented away, contrary to the opinion of Royalty itself, and " by a most numerous audience, hissed off the stage of our “sacrificed to the prejudices and to the ignorance of a set of “ English theatres. It is held in derision by the voice of the “people, the most unfit from every consideration to be con"people, and every tongue loudly proclaims the universal con- | “sulted on a matter relative to the security of the house of "tempt in which these empty professions are held by this Hanover ?I wish to see the honour of the crown religiously “ nation. Let the public be informed of a single instance of asserted with regard to our allies, and the dignity of it scruceconomy, except indeed in the household.” Is a regiment, pulously maintained with regard to foreign princes. Is it which was completed as to its compliment of officers on the possible such an indignity can have happened, such a sacrifice Tuesday, and broke on the Thursday, a proof of economy ? of the honour of the crown of England, as that a minister should Is the pay of the Scottish Master Elliot to be voted by an already have kissed his majesty's hand on being appointed to English parliament, under the head of economy? Is this, the most insolent and ungrateful court in the world, without among a thousand others, one of the convincing proofs of a previous assurance of that reciprocal nomination which the a firin resolution to form government on a plan of strict economy? meanest court in Europe would insist upon, before she proIs it not notorious, that in the reduction of the army, not the ceeded to an act otherwise so derogatory to her honour ? rule.

But Electoral Policy has ever been obsequious to the court for the life of no small part of literature. Its origin of Vienna, and forgets the insolence with which count was a disease of the soul in men of genius that Colloredo left England. Upon a principle of dignity and became epidemic, spread like the Black Death in æconomy, lord Storinont, a Scottish peer of the loyal house | the Middle Ages, prostrated the weak minds, and of Murray, kissed his majesty's hand, I think, on Wednesday

| laid hold especially upon the young. Like epidemics in the Easter week ; but this ignominious act has not yet

of a physical disease, its cause was to be found in disgraced the nation in the London Gazette. The ministry are

unwholesome conditions of life. The cleverest man not ashamed of doing the thing in private ; they are only

in England who became a victim to this epidemicafraid of the publication. Was it a tender regard for the

a clever man morally weak—was Laurence Sterne, honour of the late king, or of his present majesty, that invited

whose “ Sentimental Journey” appeared in the year to court lord George Sackville, in these first days of Peace, to

of his death, 1768, and is clearly a product of those share in the general satisfaction, which all good courtiers re

tendencies of thought which had been represented ceived in the indignity offered to lord Ligonier, and on the

partly by the writings of Rousseau. Sterne's “Trisadvancement of ? Was this to shew princely gratitude to the eminent services of the accomplished general of the

tram Shandy” was appearing in the first year of the house of Brunswic, who has had so great a share in rescuing

reign of George III., and in its whimsical irreguEurope from the yoke of France ; and whose nephew we hope

larities Sterne followed a rule of his time by defying soon to see made happy in the possession of the most amiable princess in the world? Or, is it meant to assert the honour

Laurence Sterne was born in Clonmel Barracks of the crown only against the united wishes of a loyal and

on the 24th of November, 1713. Roger, his father, affectionate people, founded in a happy experience of the was a lieutenant in the 34th Foot, and grandson talents, ability, integrity, and virtue of those, who have had to Richard Sterne, who died Archbishop of York in the glory of redeeming their country from bondage and ruin,

1683. Laurence's grandfather had been eldest son in order to support, by every art of corruption and intimida of the archbishop, a Simon Sterne, who married Mary tion, a weak, disjointed, incapable set of-I will call them Jaques, heiress of Elvington, five miles from York. any thing but ministers--by whom the Favourite still medi. Roger Sterne was the seventh child of Simon. His tates to rule this kingdom with a rod of iron.

eldest brother, Richard, was heir of Elvington, and The Stuart line has ever been intoxicated with the slavish lived at Woodhouse, also his property, a mile and a doctrines of the absolute, independent, unlimited power of the half out of Halifax. The second son of the family crown. Some of that line were so weakly advised, as to was Jaques Sterne, who throve by church interest, endeavour to reduce them into practice: but the English and died an archdeacon in 1759. In 1711, when nation was too spirited to suffer the least encroachment on he was with the army in Flanders, Roger Sterne, the ancient liberties of this kingdom. “The King of England then an ensign with 3s. 24d. a day for his pay, “is only the* first magistrate of this country ; but is invested married Agnes, widow of Captain Hebert, and " by law with the whole executive power. He is, however,

daughter of an Irish army sutler. The first child “ responsible to his people for the due execution of the royal

of the marriage, Mary, was born at Lisle in July, “functions, in the choice of ministers, &c. equally with the

1712. Then followed Laurence, in November, 1713, “ meanest of his subjects in his particular duty.” The per

when the regiment was in barracks at Clonmel. It sonal character of our present amiable sovereign makes us

was the year of the Peace of Utrecht. All regiments casy and happy that so great a power is lodged in such hands;

raised since the Peace of Ryswick, in 1697, except but the favourite has given too just cause for him to escapo

two, were broken. Roger Sterne's regiment was the general odium. The prerogative of the crown is to exert the constitutional powers cntrusted to it in a way, not of blind

disbanded, and he went home with his two babies to

Yorkshire. After a few months the regiment was favour and partiality, but of wisdom and judgment. This is the spirit of our constitution. The people too have their pre

established again, and Ensign Sterne, with his family, rogative, and, I hope, the fine words of DRYDEN will be engraven

joined it at Dublin in the winter of 1714. Presently on our hearts,

they moved with the regiment to Exeter. A third Freedom is the English subject's Prerogative.

child, named Joram, was born. After about a year at Exeter, they returned to Dublin, and Roger

Sterne there ceasing to live in barrack, furnished a It was in the first year of the reign of George III. | house, and occupied it three years. He was then that Rousseau, in France, published his “Nouvelle ordered to join the Vigo expedition. Joram died of Héloise," and in 1762 appeared his “Contrat Social ". small-pox ; a girl, Anne, was born. The family was and his “ Emile.” These books energetically repre- for a time in the Isle of Wight, then went to Wicksented one side of the reaction that grew yearly in low Barracks, where, in 1720, a son, Devisher, was power until, in 1789, the great French Revolution born. For six months the family lived with a gave warning to Europe of the force it had acquired. relation of Mrs. Sterne's who was vicar of Anamoe, Impatience of authority supported by and supporting seven miles from Wicklow. In 1721 they were for dead forms of social, political, and even religious life. I a year in Dublin Barracks, where the child Anne became in fervid minds an impatience of all authority died. In 1724 a Catherine was born, who survived, as force from without controlling impulses of nature with Mary and Laurence, the youngest and two from within. An unsubstantial sentiment served eldest. Mary afterwards married a scamp, of whom

her brother tells that he “used her unmercifully, * In the first speech of James I. to his English parliament, March 22, spent his subsistence, became a bankrupt, and left 1603, are the following words, That I am a SERVANT is most true-I

my poor sister to shift for herself, which she was will never be ashamed to confess it. My principal honour, to be the GREAT SERVANT of the commonwealth. Journals of the House of Commons,

able to do but for a few months; for she went to a Vol. I. p. 185.

| friend's house in the country, and died of a broken Yorick was this parson's name, and what is very remarktime he was weakly sentimentalising with a Miss

heart;" that is to say, died unhappy. In 1725 earthly goddess is so much this and that and t’other, Ensign Sterne got leave of absence to take his son that I cannot eat my breakfast for her, and that Laurence, then eleven or twelve years old, to school she careth not three-halfpence whether I eat any at Halifax, near which town Richard, the eldest breakfast or no, curse on her; and so I send her to of Laurence's uncles, lived at Woodhouse as head | Tartary, and from Tartary to Terra del Fuego, &c. of the family, a gentleman of means. In 1727 | But as the heart is tender, and the passions in those Laurence's father went to Jamaica, and his son saw tides ebb and flow ten times in a minute, I instantly him no more. While in Jamaica he died of yellow bring her back again." In 1758, also, there broke fever, in March, 1731. In 1732 Laurence's uncle out at York a controversy as to the right of a Richard sent him, aged eighteen or nineteen, to Dr. Topham's son to the inheritance of a patent Jesus College, Cambridge, as a sizar. While at office in the cathedral. The Rev. Laurence Sterne Cambridge there was the first distinct evidence of took part in the controversy with a humorous that disease of the lungs which thenceforth sapped pamphlet that figured the office in question as “The his life. He was small and thin, he spat blood Good Warm Watch-coat.” It was published in at college, and a cough afterwards stuck by him. 1759. In the same year he had begun “ Tristram Having taken his B.A. degree, Laurence Sterne was Shandy.” On the 77th page of the first volume ordained deacon in 1736, priest in August, 1738, thereof he speaks of a remark as struck out “on this and in the same month, through family influence, as very rainy day, March 26, 1759, between nine and great-grandson of a preceding Archbishop of York, ten in the morning.” At the end of December, 1759, he obtained the vicarage of Sutton-on-the-Forest, Sterne's age then being 46, the first section of which was in the gift of the Archbishop of that day. “ Tristram Shandy” was published at York in two His uncle Jaques was then Canon Residentiary, Pre volumes for five shillings. There was much local bendary, and Precentor of York Minster, and held satire, and in a couple of days two hundred copies two small Yorkshire rectories. He had at York a were sold in the town. Sterne sent copies to London, bachelor house in the Minster Yard, and Laurence's took what measures he could to make his book uncle Richard had also a house in Castlegate. In known to the larger public, and in March, 1760, 1740 Laurence Sterne graduated as M.A., and in went himself to London to look after it. He 1741, after two years' courtship, he married Eliza took lodgings in Pall Mall, which he described as beth, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Lumley, rector of “the genteelest in town,” and wrote letters to Miss Bedal, Staffordshire. Sterne was then in his twenty- Fourmentelle as “Dear, dear Jenny.” “Tristram eighth year. His bride had been lodging in York, Shandy" rose into fame, and gave its name to a and was in ill-health. In the same year he obtained new game of cards. Sterne was to be seen at one of the twenty-six prebends in York Minster, Ranelagh Gardens, sat for his portrait to Sir Joshua with £40 a year and a house in Stonegate. His wife Reynolds, made friendly acquaintance with David had also £40 a year, and a friend with the gift of Garrick, and with Warburton, Bishop of Gloucester, York preferment in his power. Sterne had a taste who called him the English Rabelais. The poet for playing the bass viol, and for drawing. In 1743 | Gray wrote “ one is invited to dinner where he dines came the gift from his wife's friend of the prebendal a fortnight beforehand.” But Oliver Goldsmith, stall and living of Stillington, worth about £50 a who was then writing the “ Citizen of the World," year. In 1745 a first daughter was born, and named condemned the large alloy of base metal that is in Lydia. She was born and baptised on the 1st of " Tristram Shandy" blended with the true. Many October, and died on the 2nd. Laurence Sterne of Sterne's readers in those days enjoyed as wit what had genius with a weakness of character, due partly Goldsmith rightly described as indecency and pertto a shifty home-life and imperfect training in his ness, and it still needs more thought than commonly earlier years, and partly to the weakness of his body. goes with the act of reading to distinguish the wheat He yielded himself to the influences of his time, and from the chaff where both abound. Sterne failed in this earlier part of his career, when there was through weakness of character to make the best open way for him in the Church, one of his chief use of his talent. Through the same weakness of friends was Hall Stevenson, of Skelton Castle, near character his life became a wreck. He craved for Guisbro', who in the name of wit defied decency. the wretched flatteries of the frivolous, sunk to the Sterne's letters show that he weakly accommodated position of a piece of fashionable dinner furniture, his own wit to the tone of his friend's. It was the and having taken to himself out of Hamlet the name price paid for the flattery he prized. Sterne's mother, of Yorick, and written a fancy sketch of himself who kept a school, was ruined by the extravagance under that name in his first volumes of “ Tristram of her daughter Catherine, and saved from gaol by a Shandy,” he announced, together with the second subscription among parents of pupils. Sterne was edition of those volumes, The Sermons of Mr. estranged from his sister. In December, 1747, a Yorick.” This is Sterne's suggestion of an ideal for daughter was again born to Sterne, and again named himself asLydia. She was his only child, and she survived him. In 1758 Sterne's mother was at York, and he

YORICK. was helping to arrange her affairs. At the same

able in it, (as appears from a most antient account of the Catherine de Fourmentelle. His was a very weak | family wrote upon strong vellum, and now in perfect preserform of the sentimental epidemic, as writing of his vation) it had been exactly so spelt for near,-I was within like this may show : “Whenever it falls out that an I an ace of saying, nine hundred years ;—but I would not

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