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procured him many friends, delayed his departure, in expectation that fortune might once more raise him to his former favour. At length he began his journey. Soon after his arrival in France he fevered and died. In his last moments he disco. vered a firm adherence to the protestant faith. Meanwhile the conspirators published a long der claration, containing the motives which had induced them to enter into so irregular a step. They obliged the king to grant them a remission in the most ample form, and the assembly of the church declared that they had done good, and acceptable service to God, their sovereign, and country, quiring all sincere protestants to concur wil them: a convention of the states passed an ag to the same effect. When intelligence of her soa captivity reached Mary in the prison in which was confined, she wrote immediately in all the guish of a mother's heart to Elizabeth, come plaining in bitter terms of the rigour with whid she herself had been treated, and beseeching not to abandon her son to the mercy of his rebe lious subjects.

All her remonstrances procured no mitigation her own treatment, nor any interposition in fare of the king. His own vigilance at last efiec his escape. Under pretence of paying a visit his grand uncle the earl of March, James permitted to go to St. Andrews. Pretende there a curiosity to see the castle, he was no son admitted than he ordered the gates to be s Next morning the earls of Argyle, Huntly, others, to whom the secret had been comma cated, entered the town with their followe and when Mar with other leaders of the faca


appeared in arms, it was too late to recover possession of the king's person. Great was the youthful triumph of James at his escape, yet he resolved by the advice of his wisest counsellors to act with the greatest moderation. He invited the conspirators to accept his mercy, and called upon his people to bury their contentions in oblivion. As a proof his sincerity, he visited the earl of Gowrie at Ruthven castle, and assured him of a full pardon. Instead of avaiting themselves of the clemency and gentleness of their sovereign, the conspirators continued to brave his authority, They relied on the speedy interference of Elizabeth, of which they received assurances from her ambassador. The earl of Arran resumed his place of prime minister. The conspirators took a pretence froin this to doubt of the king's sincerity, and all except the earl of Angus refused to surrender themselves. Accordingly, they were declared rebels, and the subjects were commanded to keep themselves in readiness to take the field.

Elizabeth, who had all along pri tected the conspirators, remonstrated against these proceedings; but James replied with the digmty of a sovereign, and obliged the rebels tụ retire into foreign parts. A convention of the states declared them guilty of high treason, appointed the late act in their favour to be expungext, and engaged to support the king in prosecuting them according to law. The church zealousky vetended the cause of the proscribed ford». Meivi, who by his learning and zeal was considered as head of the popular preachers, encouraged the people to Seek redress by the sworu. Wien carried before the council, he formally disowned the cavit power, N 2

and The

and appealed to the scriptures for his authority. The king, jealous to excess of his prerogative, resolved to punish him with rigour; but Melvil avoided his rage by Aying into England. court, after having defeated a fresh attempt of the conspirators, proceeded to humble the exorbitant power of the clergy. It was enacted by parliament, that they who refused to acknowledge the authority of the privy council should be guilty of high treason. To hold assemblies without the king's permission, to declaim against the king in public or private, were made capital crimes. The alarm at these laws was universal; the church pronounced them null and void, and the whole clergy fled to Elizabeth for protection.

They found themselves egregiously mistaken. Arran and Elizabeth were now leagued together by the ties of policy and interest. She was at that time apprehensive of the Spanish invasion, and had courted the Scottish ministry, in order to recover her influence over the affairs of that country. The venal minister assured her ambas sador of his attachment to her interest. The consequences of this new friendship was the over throw of the rebel lords; their property was con: fiscated, and the clergy enjoined to subscribe to the obnoxious laws.

The unfortunate Mary was still languishing in her confinement. It was a matter of forma to amuse her year after year with fruitless nego tiations for the recovery of her liberty; but these ended always in bitter disappointment and mert: fication. To complete her misery, her on son, tutored by Elizabeth, wrote her a harsh an. undutiful letter, in which he expressly refused i. acknowledge her to be queen of Scotland, or to consider her affairs any way connected with his. This cruel requital overwhelmed Many with sorrow and despair. “ Was it for this,” exclaimed she, “ that I have enduied so much to preserve for him the inheritance to which I have a just right? Whatever he either enjoys orexpects, he re. ceived it from me. From him I never received assistance, supply, or benefit of any kind. Let not my allies treat him any longer as a king; he holds not that dignity by my consent; and if a speedy repentance does not appease my just resentment, I will load him with a parent's curse, and surrender my crown with all my pretensions to one who will receive them with gratitude and defend them with vigour.” Another measure which throws a foul stain on the filial piety of James is the acquittal of the murderer of his father. Archibald Douglas, by the confession of Morton and of his own servant Binning, had not only been in the conspiracy, but had actually assisted at the execution of the plot. When the earl of Morton was imprisoned, he accordingly fled into England, where he was protected by Elizabeth. Through her intercession he now obtained licence to return into Scotland, and after undergoing a mock trial, was not only acquitted, but received into favour, and sent back to Elizabeth with the character of ambassador. It appears by these measures how much James was under the controul of the English court, and accounts for his unnatural neglect of his captive mother.


Notwithstanding the temporary agreement between Arran and Elizabeth, he was secretly cap


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rying on a correspondence with Mary and her allies. Elizabeth resolved his overthrow and the restoration of the exiled lords. She instructed her agent to endeavour to seize the king, and to carry him by force into England; but his attempt was defeated, and he was obliged to depart. Meanwhile the banished lords entered Scotland. Wherever they came they were welcomed as the deliverers of their country. At the head of ten thousand men they advanced to Stirling. The king was not in a condition to meet them in the field. Terms of accommodation must be listened to. The lords obtained a full pardon of all the offences they had committed, and the possession of the principal forts by way of security. The earl of Arran was deprived of all his honours, and his party were removed from the king's pre

A treaty of alliance was concluded with - England, and James was gratified with a pension of five thousand pounds, and with a declaration in favour of his succession to Elizabeth.

There was nothing wanting to crown the ambition of the queen of England but the death of Niary. Whatever might be undertaken against her, on the part of her son, no interference was to be dreadied. Foreign princes might negotiate, might interccde, might even threaten, but they had shewn Elizabeth and the world that they would proceed no further. It was only necessary, in order to save appearances, to find out some spee cinus pretence, and this could not long he wanting. On occasion of some conspiracies against the life of Elizabeth, an act bad been passed, plainly levelled against queen Mary, by which, for every rebellion raised in her favour, she be



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