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came accountable with her life; books were disc persed to persuade the nation that her death was not only a necessary, but a just measure. Meanwhile she was treated with every indignity, that could proyoke her to have recourse to violent means,

The castle in which she resided, was converted into a common prison ; a young man, suspected of

popery, was confined there, and treate.I under her eye with such rigour, that he died of the ill usage.

Most of her servants were dismissed and two ruinous rooms were allotted for her use, scarcely habitable on account of the cold.

Babington's conspiracy against the life of Elisabeth, belongs properly to the history of England. He and his accomplices were found guilty and executed. But Elizabeth had deterinined to involve the queen of Scois as an associate in thrir guilt: and thus to furnish a pretence for executing against her the last act of severity and nobeauce.

Mary was abruptly removed to Fotheri gay Castle, and all her papers seized and carried off to London.

Commissioners were dispatched, empowered to bring her to a trial. The lord Burleigh, with a biler of the English nobles, composed the court. They summoned her before their tribunal, but sue disclaimed their jurisdiction; while she solearly asserted her innocence. It was suggested to ber, that by refusing to plead, she would expuse berself to the sentence of the law against conturacy, and injure her own reputation.

The trial at last begun ; but no witnesses apşcared; copies, and no originals, of supposed letters were produced, and even they contained nothing criminal. The commissioners having heard is magnanimous defence, adjourned the couit 1 tee tar chamber in Westminster : two perju, ed secretari's appeared there, and depored against the Suleimign.


On their testimony, the curt gate their versict, that Mary was accessary to the conspiracy, and guilty of having imaga id divers murders tending to the death of Elizabeth. An English parliament, unworthy o! en me, thirsted asier the blood of the unfortunate princess, and petitioned for the pub. lication and the immediate execution of the in• human 'sentence.*

ine answer to this petition was worthy of Eli: zabeth. But she wanted to be farther importuned, and on the second application, she replied, “If I should say unto you, that I mean not to grant your petition, by my hain I should say unto you more than perhaps I mean. I should say unto you, that I mean to grant your petition, then I should tell you more than it is fit for you to know. And thus I must deliver you an answer answerless."

ary received the tidings not only without fear, but with expressions of triumph. When

And it

* ¢ We cannot find,” says the petition, “ that the is any p ssible means to provide for your majesty's sale: but by the execution of the said queen ; the neglectr whereof may procure the heavy displeasure of Almigha God, &c. It was moved that the house should go prayer, to implore God that he would put it into Elina beth's heart to murder Mary"Mr. Treasurer liked we the morion, and shewed that fit prayers for that purpose are already in print, and already in that house.”


stripped of every mark of royalty, she only replied, “ In despite of your sovereign, and her subservient judges, I' will die a queen.” . She wrote her last letter to Elizabeth, wherein she requests, that her body may be sent to France to repose in the same tomb with her mother. Still however, Elizabeth hesitated, and was afraid to strike the fatal blow. The ambassadors of France and of Scotland, intreated, remonstrated, threatened. She could have wished her enemy cut off by assassination, that she might reap the benefit, without sharing the odium of the crime. She could find none so base, none so rash, as to perpetrate the deed, and stand to the consequences.

At last the warrant was signed for the execution. Two earls brought it to the royal captive. She entreated, with particular earnestness, for one favour, which had been refused her, during a captivity of nineteen years. This was, that she might enjoy, in her last moments, the consolations of her religion. She entreated in vain.

Next day she ascended the scaffold, where she behaved with piety and fortitude. good Melvil," said she, to the master of her household ; “ this is a day of rejoicing; thou shalt this day see Mary Stuart delivered from all her cares, and such an end put to her tedious sufferings, as she long expected. Bear witness that I die constant in my religion, firm in my fidelity towards Scotland, and unchanged in my affection to France. Commend me to my son, tell him I have done nothing injurious to his honour, to his kingdom, or to his rights. And may God forgive all those who have thirsted, without cause, for biy blood.”


“Weep not,

Then, with an audible voice, she recommended unto God the afflicted state of the church, prayed for ihe prosperity of her son, and tor a long life, and peaceable reign to queen Elizabeth. She declared that she hoped for mercy, only through the death of Christ, at the foot of whose image, she now willingly shed her blood.

With calm and undaunted fortitude she laid her neck on the block, and her head was severed from her body, by two strokes of the executioner.

Such was the tragical death of Mary Stuart, queen of Scot'and, and dowager of France ; a princi ss alike unequalled in beauty, in accomplishments, and in misfortune,

CHAP. IX. From the Murder of Mary, to the Death of King

James. TOEgood queen Elizabeth, while she was de

loung it huviher to destruction, an: used the $(!!) mith penise- and fair speeches. But when the verwies struck, she pretended great attiction, aid bland her scretary, Davison, for having sent the variant without her order.

Intetis were the red sentiments of James, in nilai thich so nearly concerned his honour, We u noi ind that he took any step to avenge the death of his mother. He threatenei, indeed, an invasi. n of England, but his own indolent dis.) ilon, together with the advice of hi counselluis, prevented all the efieçts of his just resent


ment. Mary's death proved fatal to none but Gray, his ambassador in England, in consequence of the treachery with which he had contributed to the failure of his embassy. He was condemned to perpetual banishment, a punishment very unequal to bis crimes.

Elizabeth wreaked her vengeance on the head of Davison, whom she brought to trial, for liaving forwarded the warrant for execution, contrary to her orders. Notwithstanding the clearest evidence of his innocence ; he was con emned to pay a considerable tine, and to be imprisoned during her majesty's pleasure.

All the rights and pretensions of Mary, now devolved on her son. Catholics concurred with protestants in looking up to him as the presumptive heir of England, and the rightful sovereign of Scotland.

Is was almost equally his interest to gain the favour of both parties; yet he could scarcely make himself acceptable to one without alurming the jealousy of the other. In this critical situation, the young monarch contrived with tolerable address to adhere to the protestant cause, whilst he soothed the catholics by a tenderness for their interest *. From time to time he checked the career of the presbyterian clergy, who

It was a favourite project with king James, to reonite the protestant and catholic churcles. He had formed a plan for tolerating the roman catholics, on condition that they should disclaim all temporal power in the pope, with certain other odious doctrinesımputed to their church. The form of declaration, which catholics now take, is nearly word for word that penned by this theological

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