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still arrogated to themselves the right of censuring his government, while he laboured for the conversion of catholics by a display of his polemical erudition.

The Scots were desirous that their king should be united in marriage to some princess. Elizabeth endeavoured to thwart his views. The eldest princess of Denmark, was by her intrigues given to the duke of Brunswic. James next paid his addresses to her sister, and this match was concluded. While storms delayed the arrival of the royal bride, James, impatient of delay, sailed to Norway, celebrated his nuptials, and after passing some months in festivity and joy, returned in safety with his queen.

The pacitic disposition and the clemency of James towards offenders multiplied crimes of all kinds, and encouraged such acts of violence as brought his government under contempt. was fomented by the intrigues of Elizabeth's agents, who still strove to retain Jaines weak and mean by holding his aflairs continually embroiled.

The catholic conspiracies, which have disgraced this reign so much, were encouraged by the Spanish interest, and the hopes of a Spanish invasion. The solemn league and covenant wts framed for the extirpation of popery, and for the protection of the country against any foreign attack. The king, the clergy, and the nativa at large, joined in this holy confederacy.

Ai length James proved successful in bis exertions against the turbulent part of his clerry. They had wrested from him an act which invested the general assembly with more than papal power.

rit every person, whom the assembly should


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excommunicate, was outlawed. The king observed that he was no better than a cypher, so long as they could arbitrarily exercise the powers of excommunication against his subjects for what they had done in their civil capacities. At last personal violence was offered to his majesty, and he was obliged to fly from his capital. Some of the demagogues among the clergy declared the king possessed with the devil, and that the subjects might lawfully rise and take the sword out of his hand. However the nobles might sometimes avail themselves of the clergy for their own purposes, it was evidently their interest to depress such exorbitant power. Supported by them, the king declared those concerned in the tumults guilty of high treason. He threatened his rebellious capital with destruction, and obliged them to surrender the town and its best privileges ; the magistrates were ordered to surrender themselves prisoners till they should take their trial. By these vigorous measures, the clergy were brought to a sense of their duty, and the turbulent minisiers were obliged to fly into England. The triumph of royalty was completed by the policy of James in admitting some of the clergy to vote in parliament with the title of bishops and abbots; and in annexing to the crown the nominafion of the principal parish ministers throughout the kingdom. From this time James remained absolute master of all ecclesiastical affairs.

The earl of Gowrie and his brother perished in an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king, which they meditated to avenge their father's death. In the mean time, Elizabeth advanced in years, and the hopes of the English were VOL. XXI.



turned more and more towards James. A short time before her death, she broke the silence which she had so long preserved on the subject of her succession, and told Cecil and the lord admiral that her throne was the throne of kings, and she would have no mean person to ascend it, and that her cousin, the king of Scots, should be her

This declaration she confirmed on her death-bed, and as soon as she had breathed her last, the lords of the privy council proclaimed James king of England.

Before James left Scotland to take possession of his new kingdom, he had with great zeal laboured to civilize the northern and western Highlands. He was himself a scholar, and to his love of learning are the Scots indebted for the parochial schools, which give the common people so much advantage in point of education over other countries. He encouraged trade and the fisheries, and greatly promoted the industry of his subjects. He was at this period extremely popular; and when he took a farewell of his people, which he did with a long harangue in the church of St. Giles at Edinburgh, they expressed their sorrow for his departure with many sighs and tears. They did not share in the exaltation of their sovereign, but felt in a forcible manner that their country was in fact to become a subordinate part of the English monarchy. The queen, now the mother of two sons and a daughter. resided some time in Scotland after her husband's departure. She appears to have lost his confidence by her intrigues in political concerns. The king would not entrust her with the care of prince Henry, their eldest son, nor even with the less

important important charge of the younger children. When she demanded her son Henry from the earl of Marr, she received a flat refusal, according to the king's order. This treatment threw her majesty into a severe illness : after her recovery, she went to join her husband, now at Windsor.

The royal power acquired great additional strength in Scotland by means of the king's accession to the English throne.

James was resolved to avail himself of this circumstance for the union of both the national churches and the kingdoms into one.

But the distinctions on the borders and the iron gates of Berwick were more easily removed, than the barriers of church policy and religious establishments. National prejudices were too strong to admit of any progress in the union of the two states and parliaments: conferences were indeed begun; but it required another century of continued intercourse, and of continued discus. sion to bring about so salutary a measure. Religious prejudices have hitherto proved insurmountable: and to this day the sovereign of Great Britain at his coronation swears to support the episcopal form of church government in England, and the presbyterian discipline in Scotland as equally founded on the word of God. James declared that he intended to have a conference in his own presence between the bishops and the presbyterian party, that he might by his royal wisdom settle all their differences; meanwhile he strictly prohibited any general assembly to meet without his warrant. In contradiction to this order an assembly was held by the clergy at Aberuten; but their meeting was interrupted and the 02


clergy found by experience that they were no longer the dictators of the state. The leading members were apprehended and brought to Losdov: they disclaimed the authority of the council and were pronounced guilty of treason; but their punishment was mitigated into a sentence of perpetual banishment.

The king proceeded in his 'design; the warmest zealots in the presbyterian cause were summoned to London under pretence of a conference, while he detained them there, James accomplished bis designs in Scotland which their presence might have thwarted. A convention of the states was held, in which the bishops were restored to their ancient seats in parliament; such honours al lured new members to abandon the presbyterian A.D

cause, and the genuine constitution of 1610.

the church was almost totally subverted.

The king's letter to his parliament was worthy of a father of his people: he exhorted them to resume the project of civilizing the highlands, of abolishing feuds, and of suppressing violence by the force of the law.

In almost every thing else but the concerns of the church James found little difficulty in cone ducting the affairs of Scotland“ with his pen.

The earl of Orkney felt all the weight of royal authority when accused of oppressing his poor vassals; he was seized, condemned, and justly executed.

At length, after governing England for fourteer years, James resolved to revisit his ancient kingdom. Among the magnificent preparations for his reception; he commanded his royal chapel to be adorned with statues of the Apostles; even the


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