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bishops remonstrated against such a prelude to the introduction of popery. Though the king was greatly displeased at their officious zeal, yet he thought it adviseable to countermand his first orders: he travelled in pompous progress through the principal burghs, and was every where receired as a beloved sovereign could expect to be. When he met his barons in parliament, their opposition to his favourite scheme of establishing episcopacy was but feeble; he obtained an act investing him in conjunction with the prelates and those ministers he should chuse, with full power in all matters regarding religion and the church. With reluctance he was reduced to al. low the presbyterians their general assembly; but he brought them to consent that private coinmunion might be administered, and that the officiating clergy should administer the sacrament with their own hands. In the parliament, in his court, at his table, and often in the church he harangued the nobles, the clergy, and people in favour of those novelties,

In the chapel royal the service was celebrated with an organ, and with a pomp which the puritanical simplicity abhorred: the common people discovered a spirit little short of rebellion on the alterations which they saw introduced into their religious worship; the chief benefit which resulted from this visit was the establishment of justices of peace and of constables on the same footing as those in England; King James took his journey back again to London: the affairs of the government were left as before to ministers, In a general assembly, and afterwards in parliament, five articles in comformity with the church of England were agreed to, not without much opposition: these regard the rites of baps tism, confirmațion, and certain holidays, About the same time appeared the king's book of sports which was levelled at the puritanical sullenness with which the Lord's day is still observed by the Scots. By it bodily exercises and diversions on the Sunday were recommended and even enforced by proclamation at the cross of Edinburgh, a measure highly disgusting to the populace.


The affairs of the Scottish government proceede ed for the subsequent years in their usual channel; the ancient privileges of the Scots in France were revived: lord Gordon, was made under the duke of Lenox, lieutenant colonel of the Scotch guard at that court, according to its first institution. A settlement was made in North America, and in order to encourage enterprising gentlemen to cultivate that country the order of knights of Nora Scotia was instituted. After a reign, and lite of nearly fifty-nine years, king James was seized with his last illness: some doubts are entertained whether he was not poisoned: his preparations for death were calm and rational, and he met it with the greatest intrepidity.

CHAP. X. From the Accession of Charles I. to the Resto

ration. Charles I. THE respective officers af the crown were continued by Charles at his


accession to the throne, both of Scotland and England. His first scheme was the resumption of the church lands; he secretly purchased from the families of Lenox and Hamilton the temporalites of the see of Glasgow and of the abbey of Abroath, in order to enrich the two arch-bishops. The presbytery took the alarm, and secretly concerted measures for defending their religious establishment: they entered into correspondence with the disaffected party in England, who had already power enough to refuse the subsidies that were demanded of parliament.

The earl of Nithsdale, a reputed papist, received a commission from the king to bring about, either by threats or promises, the surrender of the church lands. According to Burnet, it was resolved to murder Nithsdale and his party if they insisted: a more justifiable and successful measure was the resumption of heritable sherrifdoms. The marquis of Huntly was considered as too powerful for a subject: he was heritable sheriff of Inverness and Aberdeenshire; for a consideration of five thousand pounds, which were never paid him, he was induced to resign bis office to the crown.

Charles had not yet received the crown in Scotland and the ceremony of coronation was of importance in his opinion. His entry into Edinburgh was magnificent beyond description; he was crowned at Holyrood-house, and bishop Laud, his favourite, preached a sermon in which he insisted with vehemence on conformity with the church of England.

In the parliament which was now summoned were laid ihe foundations of all the subsequent miseries of this reign. The lords of the articles brought in a bill for confirming the royal prerogative together with the power granted to the late king to prescribe apparel to churchmen with their own consent. Nothing less than infatuation could have prevented Charles from seeing the danger of forcing such an unpopular and indeed frivolous and vexatious bill through parliament; it passed, however, and received the royal sanction. When the parliament had risen, the king visited several towns, but narrowly escaped being lost in a storm on crossing the Frith of Forth: the queen meanwhile had been delivered at Greenwich of another son, afterwards James II. On hearing the news of her delivery, Charles posted with a few attendants from Berwick, immediately on his arrival he advanced his favourite Laud to the see of Canterbury: Spotswood the historian, archbishop of St. Andrew's, was appointed to the office of chancellor in Scotland. Under the in. fluence of these prelates it was, that the king proceeded to introduce a book of liturgy into the public worship of the Scottish churches.


When the day arrived, on which the new forma was to commence at St. Giles's, the lower people, who had assembled in great numbers saluted the otilciating clergyman with such vollies of execret19 that he durst not proceed; the bishop of Edinburgh was'treated in a manner still more outrageous and the magistrates had great difficulty to t pel the populace and to shut the doors. During the service stones were thrown ai the doors and windows, and the bishop on going home, narrowly escapoei with his lite from the enraged multitudie Similar scenes were acted throughout all the

southcrat southern parts of Scotland. In the mean time a prosecution was commenced against two clergymen for refusing to read the new liturgy; they vindicated themselves in such a manner, that the council came to a resolution, not to press the matter any farther, till his Majesty's pleasure should be known: to the representation of the council, the king returned an angry message, blaming them for their coolness and cowardice, and pe, remptorily commanding that the book of common prayer should be read every where, and that no borough should choose any magistrate, who did not conform to the same; but all was weak, ness or treachery among those who ought to have vindicated their sovereign: the old bishops were averse to the measure, the new prelates were intimidated and retired.

Petition after petition was poured in from all quarters: Traquair and Hope, the one the king's treasurer, the other his advocate, en: couraged and directed the opposition; and what was at first but a popular commotion soon assumed the aspect of an obstinate national resistance.

Charles was now struggling amidst a host of troubles in the English government; a powerful voice of encouragement to rebellion reached from one end of the island to the other.

lle issued a proclamation declaring his abhore rence of popery, and his resolution to do nothing against the laudable laws of his native kingdom: he offered pardon for the past; but required submission for the future; but the remonstrants had by this time organized insurrection. Four distinct tables of barons, nobles, minis


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