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ters, and burgesses with supreme authority directed the plan of opposition: A solemn league and covenant bound the members in the name of the God of peace, to establish, by force of arms, his holy gospel-worship, purified from all the abominations of popery and prelacy; and those, who would withdraw themselves from so sacred a confederacy, were treated as rebels to God and traitors to their country.

Such was the temper of the nation when the king dispatched his own and the people's favourite the marquis of Hamilton as mediator: he offered to suspend the canons and the liturgy, and to new model the high commission or ecclesiastical court: for these concessions he required the covenant to be renounced and recalled: sixty-thousand cove. nanters solemnly declared they would sooner re. nounce their baptism: they would dictate to their sovereign; they scorned his grace. From HoHand and other countries they were soliciting supplies of arms; yet no violent measure had been offered on the part of Charles: negotiation was the only means he had recourse to: the most conciliating offers were made; a great number of the more moderate, satisfied with the concessions made on the part of the court, signed another covenant, which was equally strong agaifist popery, as that of king James had been: the courage of the most violent began to be damped, and they demanded time to consider of the matter. Hamilton returned again from London with fresh instructions and the fullest powers: a general assembly of the church was convened; the covenant was ordered to be signed by every person under pain of excommunication ; episcopacy, the canons, the liturgy all disappeared and fell to the ground; the commissioner ordered the assembly to be discontinued under pain of treason; but, in defance of all authority, the members armed and surrounded with armed men continued their sittings. The earl of Argyle and several nembers of the privy council scrupled not to join his assembly of rebels: they at length dissolved hemselves with bitter imprecations against their overeign, if he should ever go about to undo vhat they had done.


A civil war was now become unavoidable: the ovenanters prepared for it with vigour; they lad been all along encouraged and they were now upported by the French minister, Richelieu. Irms, ammunition, and money were sent them rom France and other countries: no regular stablished commonwealth could take wiser meaures. Lesley, a soldier of experience and abiliies, who had distinguished himself in the Swedish vars, the earl of Montrose, a youth of heroic cnius, with other leaders of the party, all of hem men of sense and resolution, conducted the military affairs; a few castles unprovided with tores and garrisons were soon seized; they aised with great rapidity fortifications to defend eith: noblemen and gentlemen put their hands o the work; ladies of high rank intermingled rith the lowest rabblc, and carried on their shoulders burthens of rubbish to complete the york: in short, the whole kingdom engaged with inspeakable ardour in the glorious cause.

A few and but a very few of well-affected novility still adhered to their king; the marquis of Douglas a papist, and therefore without


power or

trust; the earl of Roxburgh on the borders; the carls of Airly and Southesk in Angus; but the strength of the royal cause lay with Huntly in the North: this nobleman not receiving any succours from the king was persuaded to treat with the covenanters, and to disband his forces. They invited him afterwards to a conference where, in violation of their own safe-conduct, they detained him and his eldest son prisoners. Lord Aboyn the second son, they dismissed on his parole.

Meanwhile Charles directed a writ to his nobility to attend his royal standard at York. On this occasion the papists appeared so forward and contributed their proportions of money with such zeal as gave umbrage to his protestant subjects, and was of real disservice to the cause. In a few weeks however Charles found himself at the head of six thousand horse and twenty thousand foot: Hamilton commanded a formidable fleet, with five thousand chosen troops on board; he arrived in the frith of Forth, and made himself master of Inchkeith and Inchcolm, two small islands which the covenanters had neglected to fortify; but his weak conduct frustrated the purposes for which the fleet had been equipped. He made 10 descents

upon the coast; he kept his men pent up on board the ships, till the want of fresh air and fresh provisions occasioned diseases that cut off numbers of them: his own mother was so zealous a covenanter, that she raised a body of troops and headed them in person. When she came to Leith she protested, that she would kill her son with her own hands, should he venture to land.

The great army of the covenanters, consisting

of twenty-five thousand men, under the command of Lesley, now lay in sight of the enemy, near the borders; but there was little inclination on either side to come to any engagement: the king would not trust to the loyalty of his English subjects, nor even in the fidelity and talenis of his generals. The covenanters knew their men to be raw undisciplined troops: Money, the great sinew of war, was equally wanting on both sides ; and both alike desired to shew their moderation by offering to negotiate: commissioners met and treated; a hasty pacification ensued agreeable to, which the Scots were to disband their forces, the king should have possession of the forts; and a general assembly and a parliament be immediately summoned in order to compose all differences: hostilities thus ceased and a short but deceitful calm ensued.

Before the king left Berwick, he summoned fourteen of the chief covenanters to attend him; but such was the general disposition of the people that none durst obey the summons, but Montrose, Loudon, and Lothian, those three obe tamed leave with the greatest difficulty.

Monprose upon conversing with the king, conceived so good an opinion of him, that from being a warm opponent, he became at once a true, though as yet a concealed friend to the royal cause. The three lords ingenuously opened to Charles the grievances they expected to be redressed in the next parliament: they demanded that the value of coin should be regulated by parliament; that no strangers should garrison their castles, none but Scots should obtain lands or honours; and that heritable jurisdiction should be abolished. VOL. XXI,



When Traquair, appointed commissioner, came to Edinburgh, he found the army of the rebels ,had never been disbanded, the fortifications of Leith continued, and many other violations of the treaty committed. Such was the situation of affairs when the assembly met, wbich was fol. lowed by a parliament; both were almost exclusively composed of zealous covenanters: their proceedings were such that the king ordered bis commissioners to prorogue the parliament; and instantly the flame of rebellion broke forth with more violence than ever: the parliament resumed its sittings in direct violation of the king's order; they deputed Loudon and Dumfermling as their commissioners to confer personally with their sce vereign; but while these commissioners were at court, Traquair intercepted a letter from the chief of the covenanters to the king of France, which so provoked the king that he ordered Loudon to be imprisoned in the tower. Although Charles had discontinued-parliaments in England for eleven years, he was now reluctantly com- : pelled to call together his lords and commons in i hopes of obtaining some supplies for the war.

l'his measure however producing no fect he was obliged to have recourse to other elei pedients: his most loyal counsellors and nobles : could only furnish him with a small loan; with much difficulty he was enabled to march an army of nine thousand foot and two thousand horse. The Scots were more successful in their levies; they determined on invading England, whither they were invited by the malcontents. With little delay they marched on to cross the Tyne by a ford at Newburn. Lesley demanded liberty to


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