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pass the river with his army, that his countrymen might present their petition to their king: to this no regard was paid by Conway who commanded the English forces on the opposite bank: the Scots then suddenly attacked the defenders of the ford; the English made a feeble resistance, and the cavalry under Conway refused to fight, some laid down their arms, and the greater part retreated in disorder.

This victory laid open to the Scots all the north of England, where they levied great contributions. Newcastle and Durham fell into their hands: the main army of the king retreated towards York. Instead of hastening to support their sovereign, the English nobles took this opportunity to demand the convocation of a parliament, and redress of all their grievances: In this extremity Charles was again compelled to treat with the rebels : commissioners met at Rippon, in Yorkshire, to negotiate; but as many

difficulties occurred, the conferences were transferred to London whither the king lastened to contend with the English parliament. The Scots being such useful allies to the malcontent party in England were retained in the pay of parliament during the whole year. In the following autumn the kmg, in compliance with his promise, repaired to Edinburgh in order to settle the government: As he must necessarily have passed the troops of of both nations, the commons hurried on the disbanding of the armies; the arrears therefore of the Scots were fully paid them, and they returned to their country.

Charles despoiled in England of his authority, arrived in Scotland with a determination to give


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full satisfaction, if possible, to his restless subjects. The lords of the articles were totally laid aside. A law for trierinial parliaments was likewise passed. But the most fatal blow to regal authority, was the article, that no member of the privy counsel, no officer of state, none of the judges should be appointed, but by the advice and approbation of parliament. During his stay in Scotland, the king conformed entirely to the established church.

Almost immediately on his return to England, Charles found himself engaged in a civil war with his factious parliament. At this period of distress, the English rebels courtod a closer union with their friends in Scotland. They agreed to receive the solemn league and covenant, to preserve the reformed religion established in the church of Scotland, and to reform England and Ireland, according to the word of God, and the example of the purest churches. One hundred thousand pounds were advanced, and regular pay promised by the English parliament for a subsidiary army of twenty thousand Scots.

The invasion from Scotland threw the king into new embarrassment. They hastened to join lord Fairfax, and effectually assisted him in reducing the city of York. They took likewise, by storm, the town of Newcastle, after having been reinforced by ten thousand men, under the command of the earl of Callendar.

While the king's affairs declined in England, the brave Montrose had raised the royal standard in the North. Ile, like the Marshal Turenne, had once fought too successfully under the banners of rebellion ; he now atoned for his success, by bis beroic exploits in a better cause. Hamilton's timid or treacherous counsels, had misled the king, and damped the energy of his friends. He was at last committed to prison, and the king's ears were now open to Montrose's counsels.


This active nobleman, having received a supply of twelve hundred troops from Ireland, hastened to take the command of this auxiliary force. Several more flocked to his standard. Lord Kilpont, who had raised his vassals to fight for the covenant, espoused his sovereign's cause. Montrose saw himself at the head of three thousand men. With these, he attacked and defeated a party of the covenanters, six thousand in number, under Tullibardine. Perth opened its gates to the victor, and was laid under contribution. He next proceeded towards Angus, where the royal interest was strong. On the march, Stuart, of Ardovorlich, assassinated the gallant Kilpont, his own bosom friend, after soliciting him in vain to desert from Montrose, back to the covenant.

At Aberdeen, Montrose gained a second victory over the rebels under lord Burleigh. Argyle, with a great army, was sent in pursuit of the bero. · But Argyle dreaded an encounter, and Tesigned the command, under pretence of attending a convention of the states. The Macleans, and Macdonalds, now joined the standard of Montrose. In compliance with their wishes, he fell suddenly upon Argyle's country. The chieftain hastened to the protection of his vassals. But his courage failed him at the approach of the loyalists, and he abandoned, by a precipitate fight, all his lands a prey to the enemy.

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From Inverary, Montrose retired eastward, to refresh and recruit his forces in the shire of Moray. Argyle, collecting three thousand men, marched in quest of the loyalists, who were retiring with their plunder. But Montrose bastened to meet him at Inverlochy. Argyle, seized with a panic, deserted his army, which however gave battle to the royalists. Victory was still faithful to Montrose. The terror of his name dispersed Seaforth's army, which was advancing from Inverness.

The Gordons, the Grants, the Highlanders, in great numbers, resorted to his colours. It seemed as if in Montrose were revived the invincible genius of a Wallace, or a Bruce.

The council at Edinburgh, alarmed at his continued success, sent against him Baillie and Urry, two of their best generals. They surprized him in Dundee, which he had carried, and given up to plunder. His conduct, and presence of mind, in this emergency, appeared conspicuous. lle instantly rallied his men, covered his retreat by the most skilful measures, and having marched sisty miles in the face of an enemy much superior, he at last secured himself in the mountains.

Baillie and Urry now divided their troops. The latter met Montrose at Alderne, near Inverness, and was there completely defeated. No better success attended Baillie at the battle of Alford.

Having thus prevailed in so many engagements, as decisive as they were successful, Montrose summoned together all his friends and partizans, and prepared to march southward, in order to put a final period to the covenant.

The The rebels assembling their whole force, met him with a numerous army, and gave him battle at Kilsyth. This was the most complete victory that Montrose ever obtained. The royalists put to the sword six thousand of their enemics, and left the covenanters no remains of an army in Scotland. Edinburgh and Glasgow opened their gates, and set at liberty the prisoners detained by the covenanters.

Lesley was now detached from the army in England, and marched to the relief of his friends in Scotland. The highlanders had retired to their hills, in order to secure their plunder. Montrose, allured by the vain hopes of obtaining soine cavalry from England, and of rousing the borderers to join him, had advanced still further to the south. Lesley surprized his army at Philipshaugh in the Forest. After a sharp conflict, the rebels gained the day. Montrose with difficulty escaped to Athol. The royalists who received quarter were cut in pieces in cold blood, as the covenanted clergy declared them undeserving of any faith being kept with them. Montrose would have still renewed his attempts; but the fortunes of the king were now ruined in England, and he was at last reduced to the desperate expedient of seeking refuge in the heart of an army which was in open rebellion against him. The immediate consequences of this fatal step were orders expediter in the king's name for his adherents to lay down their arms. Montrose obeyed, and retired for a time to France.

The events which ensued in England fall not within this history. It is sufficient to say here, that by a treaty, the infamy of which no prétext


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