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can hide, no time efface, the Scottish covejanted army sold the person of their native king to his blood-thirsty subjects, without stipulating even for his personal safety.
The complete triumph of the covenant was followed in Scotland by execution, without numher, and slaughter without end. Even those who laid down their arms on the promise of mercy were unmercifully butchered at the instance of the sanguinary preachers. Huntly, the remaining chief of the royal party, was surprised and taken prisoner. The news of his misfortune gave Charles great concern; he employed all his interest to save that nobleman, but it was with the ulmost difficulty that his execution was delayed.
A new sect, called the Independents, and headed by Oliver Cromwell, had by this time arisen in England. Still more rebellious than the parliament-men, or even the covenanters themselves, they resolved on the entire destruction of royalty and of the religious establishment. was theirs, and with the army all the power of the land. The authority of parliament was but a shadow, on the point of vanishing for ever, like that of the king it had dethroned. Instead of being able to establint orthodoxy by the sword, the presbyterians beheld this host of sectaries claim an unbounded liberty of conscience. 'The independents took every opportunity of mortify. ing the Scots, so that subjects of dissatisfaction were daily multiplying between the parties. Something like a faint glow of reviving loyalty told the Scots that before God and the world they were responsible for the treatment of the capire monarch whom they had sold. The violences put
on the king they loudly blamed, as repugnant to the covenant by which they stood engaged to' defend his royal person, and those very actions of which they themselves had been guilty they now denominated treason and rebellion. In short, Scotland, indignant at itself for having deposed and betrayed its own royal blood, voted an army of forty thousand men in support of their sovereign. Hamilton, who obtained his liberty, was to head these forces. But the violent party, whose principles have been perpetuated to this lay, considered it as the height of impiety to fight for an uncovenanted king. Anathema and damnation were denounced by a general assembly to the kirk to those who should join the unballowed standard.
Hamilton's levies under such circumstances could proceed but slowly, and when at last hie entered England, he durst not unite bis forces with the English royalists, who had refused the covevant. two armies, though marching together, kept at some distance, nor could the approach of Cromwell with his army bring the presbyterians to consult their own safety by close union with the royal army.
Cromwell was not afraid to encounter an army thus divided, with a force greatly interior. Ho attacked the English royalists by surprize, who not being succoured by their allies, were cut in pieces. The Scets were attacked in their turn, put to rout, and llamilton, their commander, taken prisoner. Cromwell followed up his advantage, and entering into Scotland, was joined by Argyle, who was at the head of the violent party. All moderation was now laid aside, the ecclesiatical authority exercised the severest vene geance' against all those who had sided with Hamilton, and the chancellor himself was obliged to do public penance for his obedience to parlia. ment, which, in the cant of the times, he iermed carnal self-seeking
Cromwell returned in triumph to England, and consummated his iniquity by bringing his sovereign to the scaffold, and grasping in the name of liberty, independence, and religion, the sceptre of tyranny and despotism. Hamilton's death soon followed that of his master. He died in England a victim of loyalty, as the brave and unfortunute Huntly did in Scotland.
Horror at the king's condemnation, an indiget nant shame in the reflection that they had been the instruments of the crimes of the English, and then contemptuously shaken off, a persecuting zeal against the independents, who refused to take the covenant, now determined the covenanters to declare for the young king, Charles II. then ia Holland, but on condition that he should muse himself the pupil of presbyterianism, and take the covenant. Commissioners were dispatched by the estates to wait on the prince at Breda, and to treat with him.
Meanwhile Montrose was dispatched to the Orkneys, to make an attempt for the king's restiration on better terms. From Orkney he carried over a few recruits to Caithness, hoping that the love of their king and the fame of his forn er exploits would make the highlanders flock to his standard. The estates lost no time to oppise him. They sent Lesley and Holborne against him. Montrose was surprised, taken prisonery
and conducted to Edinburgh. All the insolence which success and hatred can produce in ungenerous minds was exercised against this heroic captive. He was led about and insulted by the populace; he was condemned by the parliament to be hanged on a gibbet thirty feet high, and his members to be distributed all over the kingdom. The clergy positively pronounced his damnation, and assured him that the doom he was about to meet was but an easy prologue to what he must undergo bereafter. He smiled amidst all their endeavours to afflict him, and asked whether they had yet any other efforts of malignity to wreak upon him. He died with a fortitude which neither the cruelty nor the ignoble treatment could subdue. Montrose was incontestibly one of the greatest men and the best commanders that his country ever produced. No military man among his contemporaries atchieved feats so wonderful as those of his first conquest of Scotland, with means so inadequate. His last enterprize was the effect of despair, resolved to perish if he could not prevail, but willing to hazard his life in the attempt. With him were executed Spotswood, Hay, Sibbald, and Hurry of Urry, who had formerly fought against him, but now espoused the same cause. Such was the vengeful hatred against the best friends of their young sovereign with which the covenanters signalized their frantic enthusiasm, at the very time they were inviting Charles to take possession of the throne of his fathers.
This prince no sooner heard that Montrose was jefeated and executed than he threw himself en rely into the hands of the covenanters, and set ail from Holland for the Scottish coast. During
the commissioners of the ruling party produced new demands, and insisted on higher terms than ever, particularly that all the transactions between the marquis of Ormond and the Irish catholics should be disavowed, and that Charles should sacrifice the marquis, one of the worthiest and greatest subjects he had. This de. mand was so much resented by the young prince, that he threatened to land in Denmark instead of Scotland; but the duke of Buckingham and lord, Wilmot, men of the most immoral principles, advised him to submit to all the conditions that could be required of him, with a view of breaking them when it was in his power.
Charles suffered himself to be conveyed to Leith. Before he was permitted to land he was required to sign the covenant, and many sermons and lectures were made to him, exhorting him to be faithful to that holy confederacy. They obliged him to dismiss Hamilton, Lauderdale, Dumfermling, and others of the presbyterian party, called engagers; none of his English friends, who had fought for his father, were allowed to remain the kingdom, and it was with the greatest dittie culty that he procured leave for the duke Buckingham to be admitted to his person.
Those preliminaries being settled, Charles was treated with all the respect and attendance that had been paid to his ancestors. Previous to his inauguration his sincerity and compliance were put to every trial that zeal could suggest. Her was prevailed on to issue the most humiliating declarations, lamenting the sins of his father and the idolatry of his mother, and desiring 100 kleeply humbled and afflicted in spirit for his far