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gerous wound. They had turned, and were going from him, when his daughter, who was with himn in the coach, was overheard to say, “ Oh! there is life yet.” With remorseless souls they turned, dragged him out of the coach, and while protesting they had no personal quarrel with hin, put him to death in a manner too barbarous to relate. It is impossible not to be struck at the remarkable coincidence of circumstances between the fate of this prelate and that of cardival Beaton, his predecessor, in the see of St. Andrews. The presbyterians consi. dered both as the awful judgment of God upon a persecutor, and the perpetrators of these deeds were not abhorred as assassins, but reverenced as men who had acted under the irresistible influence of heaven.
The popish plot breaking out about this time in England, opened a new scene, and threw that kingdom into confusion. L'pon a candid review of it in all its progress, it appears to have been a fanatical contrivance of zealous protestants to Tender the papists, and especially the duke of York, odious to the public. Lord Shaftesbury and party appealed for the reality of the plot to the slavery of Scotland, and Lauderdale was branded as the tool of arbitrary power.
When the Scots learned that England was inflained with discontents noi greatly dissinnlar to their own, they were emvoldened to otier armed resistance. Ilamilton, a youny preacher, was declared their head. On the 20th of May, they published a testimony, declaring their opi os tion to all the acis of parliament relating to religion, and publicly comtied them to the flames. Graham, an excellent officer, marched against them while at prayers, but was defeated by the preacher and his congregation, and narrowly escaped being taken. The murderers of Sharp were present, and acquitted themselves with desperate valour.
Elated with success, the whigs, as they were now denominated, seized the town of Hamilton: they next attacked Glasgow, but were repulsed. The king's troops, however, soon evacuated that city, which was occupied by the whigs.
No sooner were the privy council at Edinburgh informed of these events, than they summoned the unembodied militia to join the regular troops; they dispatched letters to Lauderdale, then at court : and the king's natural son, Monmouth, came down to take the command against the insurgents. The English patriots, with a loyalty worthy of those times, demurred as to the legality of assisting their king in Scotland, and Monmouth was obliged to come down post to join the royal troops then in readiness. lle was followed by orders not to treat, but to fight.
The rebels beture his arrival were beginning to cool, and many of them thought they had gone too far. They could not agree among thiemselves, in regard to the principles on which they were to justity and maintain their insurrection. The moderate party drew up a declaratioii, under the name of “the oppressed protestants now in arms in Scotland." The enthusiasts disclaimed this declaration as timid and time-serving. The royal army lay on one side the river Clyde, the rebels on the other, near Tamilton. The advanced guard of the laiter were in possession of
Bothwell bridge. After a fruitless attempt for : reconciliation, the royalists attacked and carried the bridge; the rebel infantry were surrounded and compelled to lay down their arms; the cavalry; with the general, made their escape.
Nionmouth urcated the vanquished with moderation. The prisoners were conducten io Eainburgh, where they were otiered their liberty on condition of taking the bond not to bear arnis against government; yet such was their obsti
wcy, that they refused these moderate termis, though they complained of the hardships they underwent. Two of their ministers were there. fore executed; and five others of the most guilty were condemned to suffer on the spot where archbishop Sharpe had been assassinated.
Monmouth's return to London procured new alleviations of the punishment of the unfortunate whigs; they were reinstated in all the privileges of their former indulgences, and suffered to form themselves into synods and public assemblies.
James, duke of York, brother and presumptive heir of the king, had by this time rendered himself obnoxious by embracing a proscribed and execrated religion. The laurels he had earned under the illustrious Turenne were now faded : the populrity he had acquired as one of the best adnuirais of the British fleet, was forfeited for ever. The general discontent was inflamed to such a degree, that Monmouth, the spurious son of Charles, dared to aspire to the crown, and James' for a time was obliged to retire into France.
But to the inexpressible surprise and consterna. nl of his enemies, he appeared again all of a
sudden at court, being recalled by his royal brother, who had been seized with a dangerous illness. The city of London was alarmed, and proceeded to very undutiful expressions of their resentnient against the duke of York. This compicted the disgrace of Monmouth with his father ; he was not only stripped of all command in the army, bui obliged to take out a pardon, and retire to Holland : at the same time the kingdom of Scotland was fixed upon, at the duke of York's own request, for his residence,
We cannot form a more true idea of the difficulties which James had to encounter at Edinbuigh, than by the reception he met with on account of his religion. The burning of the pope in effigy was then first introduced into Scotland. The students of the college performed it with great spirit, and burnt down the house of the provost, who had opposed them; they were only punished with a short confinement and a temporary suspension of the college schools. With equal moderation did the duke proceed in the whole of his administration. The most obstinate whigs were permitted to meet in their own houses, and to worship God in their own way.
A party of covenanters, more furious than any of their predecessors, took arms under the conduct of Cameron and Cargyll, two ministers. They excommunicated the king, the duke, and all the ministry, consigning them formally into the hands of the devil, and formally disclaimed the regal power. Many of these fell in the field of battle; others were made prisoners, but preferred death to any acknowledgment of the king's authority. The best friends of liberty could find
no fault with the execution of these incurable and restless fanatics. Before the end of the year, the highland chieftains were also quieted, and thus all animosities scemed to be buried in Scot. land. James took leave, of the administration with the most cordial affection on both sides; he repaired to his brother's court, where he was represented by the Scottish council as the father of that country, and healer of all its political ail. ments : they assured his majesty that they would adhere faithfully to his brother's just rights. The duke soon returned to open the Scottish parliament. He was received with extravagant loyalty, and the parliament proceeded with alacrity to the most difficult task of reconciling the respec. tive interests and rights of a future sovereign and subjects, widely differing in their religious tenets. For this purpose, two acts were devised : the first, a ratification of all former laws made in favour of the protestant religion, and against popery : the second, a declaration that no dit. ference of religion ought to alter the line of hereditary succession. The duke declared to the members, that he did very heartily go along with them in providing for the security of the protestant religion. But Argyle, the son of a father deserveily hateful to the royal family, himself : correspondent of James's enemies in England and in Holland, formidable on account of his vast estates and ample jurisdiction, fatally distiguished himself by proposing to bind the brothers and sons of the king, as well as the subjects, to abjure the papal religion. His opposition was in vain. Both the acts passed, and received the royal consent.
The religion of the subject was not yet con