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torians have attributed it to corruption. By one of the articles it was provided, that as an equivalent for the customs and excise money of Scotland,

henceforth applicable to the payment of the English National debt, Scotland should receive the sum of 398,0851. 10s. sterling.

That this money should be applied Ist. To pay the national debt of Scotland. 2d. To refund the whole capital stock of the Darien

company. 3d. To compensate losses incurred by the reduce

tion of coin. 4th. To form a fund for encouraging fisheries, manufactures, and other national improvements

. On the credit of this equivalent, the English exchequer advanced 20,0001. during the last session of the Scottish parliament; 12,000l. were expended for the commissioner and his table. Scotland must have been poor and venal indeed if the remaining 8000l. were the price paid for her sovereignty-her parliament-her independence as a nation.

Let us rather suppose th .t the victorious party did not sacrifice their own importance as legislators of a free people---did not persist in exposing themselves to their country's hate, without an entire conviction of the expediency and necessity of so momentous a step, without anticipating what we now witness, that posterity would bless the day when two rival nations were linked by their un shaken patriotism in one indisoluble tic. During the lengthened discussion in parliament, several tu.. nults arose in Edinburgh, which were suppressed by the guards. In the West, the Cameronians, deeming their cause to be that of heaven, rose in


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erms, took possession of the town of Glasgow, and drove from the city the magistrates, who had refused to address parliament against the union.

On the intelligence of the insurrection, a party of dragoons was immediately dispatched from Edin. burgh. The Cameronians had proceeded as far as Kilsythe, on their way to the capital, but hearing of the military marching against them, they retreated in haste to Glasgow, and dispersed. The dragoons met with no resistance: they seized to artizans, the ringleaders of the mob, and conducted them prisoners to Edinburgh.

On the third and last reading of the union treaty, the first article, as being most important, was debated during two days. Great eloquence was displayed on both sides. At last the majority declared in favour of the article in debate.

The second article, which conferred the crown on the house of Hanover, was strongly resisted hy the Jacobites, in particular by the duke of Hamilton, the next in succession. No better success attended this attempt : the second article was cara ried, as were the third and fourth, however keenly contested.

Despairing now of parliamentary sucoess, the opposition had recourse to the expedient-cť assembling in Edinburgh all the freeholders averse to the union, with a view to address the commissioners to urge the treaty no further.

This plan rnisgave through the weak conduct of the duke of Hamilton. It was betrayed to the ministers, and the gentry were forbid by proclamation from assembling

The last and only remaining remedy for the ninority was lu depart from parlianient, violcally


protesting against their unconstitutional proceedings. The duke of Hamilton earnestly recommended this measure, and undertook to make the inotion. Had this secession actually taken place, the ministerial party was undone. They could not have withstood so respectable a body, backed by the whole nation; and had agreed in that ease to abandon their scheme as impracticable. Hamilton once more betrayed his cause by refusing to make the motion, though he seemed ready to second it.

By his refusal their design was utterly frustrated. At length, on Thursday the 16th of January, 1707, the whole articles of the union were, without any material alteration, approved by a legal majority, and the lord high commissioner touching the act with the sceptre, sanctioned it with that consent of the crown which was requisite to give it in Scotland the force of law *.

The treaty of union thus finally ratified by the Scottish parliament, was, without delay, transmitted to London, where it was equally honoured by the sanction of the parliament and the royal consent. The Scottish parliament was, on the 28th of April, dissolved, never more to be assembled. The Scots and English were henceforth to be one people.

* In this account of the union we have chiefly followe. Heron's History of Scotland, a modern wurli of gree uerit.



General Description of the Country. Its first In

habitants, their Manners and Customs. The Introduction of Christianity. View of the State of Ireland previously to the Invasion under Henry the Second THE noble island of Ireland is situated to the

west of Great Britain in nearly a parallel latitude, and consequently possesses a similarity of climate with the sister isle. Ireland is about three hundred miles in length, and about one hundred and sixty at the greatest breadth. The face of the country is pleasing, being level, fertile, and atundant in pasturage. One striking feature of the soil consists in the calcareous stones, which apa pear at no great depth from the surface, even in the most fat and fertile parts, but which produce no injury to its fertility. It has been observed by a very competent judge *, that the quantity of land cultivated in Ireland exceeds in proportion that of England. The mountainous chains in this sland are neither numerous nor important; but an upland ridge divides the country from the N. E. to the S. W. giving birth to several rivers. Among the chief rivers of Ireland the Shannon is Ore-eminent. This noble river rises from the lake of Allen, and passing through two other large akes, Lough Ree and Lough Derg, afterwards xtends below Limerick into a vast estuary or

* Arthur Young. VOL, XXI.



firth about sixty miles in length and from three to ten in breadth; and almost through the whole of its course is so deep and wide as to afford an easy navigation. There are many other rivers in Ireland, but they are small in comparison with the Shannon. The lakes of Ireland are numerous, and some of them extensive. The chief lake of fresh water is that of Earn, which exceeds thirty British miles in length, and twelve in its greatest breadth; it is divided by a narrow outlet from the southern part into the northern of about four miles in length. Another remarkable feature of this country is formed by the bogs, or moors. Boate divides these into several genera and species, forming an eja borate scale of sterility. It is remarkable that ore naments of gold, and other relics of antiquity, have at different times been discovered at great deptis below these bogs, which with other circumstances seem to indicate that they are of very remote ori gin. The author * of a late valuable work, to whose indefatigable re-carches and judicious oţinions we have been under infinite obligations in the compilation of the present history, makes the following remarks upon these bogs, or moors : “Many unsatisfactory conjectures have been maus of the original causes and formation of bogs a

* Francis Plow den, esq.—The public are indebted * this gentleman for “ A Historical Revietu fibe Sta: Ire a d, from the Invasion of that Country ander Hary 11. its Union with G eat Britain on the 1st of January, &*! 2 vols, 480. Egetion :" a work which has thrown costo derable light upon a history hitherto involved in great scurity; has reconciled many seeming contradictions, has stripped the writings of former historians of that .: colour ng which their gross partialities have given to events which they have recorded.


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