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vice in his wars with the Danes from a body of Scottish troops sent to his assistance.

Another party of Danish robbers were plundering Murray and Ross. Donald bravely encountered them, and, after a signal victory, in which he killed some thousands of them, he died much lamented in the eleventh year of his reign, Edward the elder, at this

Constantine III. time king of England, uneasy at seeing the Scots in possession of the northern provinces, made great preparations for war; Constantine, who succeeded Donald, was for this reason induced to enter into a confederacy with the Danes.

To the son of the late king, the presumptive heir of the crown, he prudently assigned the principality of Cumberland, on condition of his defending it against invasion. Athelstan, a natural son of Edward, commanded his father's army against the Scots and Danes. Being in no condition to resist their confederate force, he had recourse to stratagem. He offered them battle, but politically retreating from the field, while the Scots were busy in pillaging his camp, Athelstan rallied his army, and cut both Scots and Danes to pieces, the Scottish prince himself being carried wounded out of the field,

This victory procured to Edward the homage of the Scottish king for his possessions. lying south of the Forth; as also that of the Britons in Siraih Cluyd, and of the Northumbrian Danes. Under Athelstan, successor of Edward, a Danish prince expelled from England, had taken refuge at the Scottish court. Constantine generously

refused YOL. XXI.


refused to give him up at the hazard of drawing his kingdom into a fresh war; but matters were compromised at an interview of the two kings.

In the year 938, a combined army of Scots and Irish landed at the mouth of the Humber, and were joined by the Prince of Cumberland. Athelstan put himself at the head of his army to receive them; and both parties having encamped in sight of each other, determined to come to action. It is universally agreed that the victory was complete on the part of Athelstant, though not without an obstinate contest.

Constantine, with his ally and a few followers, escaped by sea.

A few years after this failure he resigned bis crown to Malcolm, and spent the remaining five years of his life in the solitude of the cloister. Malcolm.

Malcolm's reign was disturbed by

a rebellion of the Danes in Moray. This insurrection being quelled, Edmund and Malcolm joined their forces in order to reduce Cumberland, which the latter afterwards held as a fee of the crown of England. This king was slain in a second expedition to reduce the inhabi. tants of Moray to obedience. Indull.

The connection of the Englifh and Scots

against the Danes was continued under Indulf; by this means, he obtained the castle of Edinburgh, which the English still held. The Danes made various landings on the coasts, but were everywhere repulsed with great slaughter. Duff.

His successor was Duff, who resigned

his principality of Cumberland to Colin, the son of Indulf. The latter, however, not con5


tented with this domaine, excited various insurrections in the kingdom, and at last Duti was either slain or driven into exile. Colin's reign was for five years. Ile is

Colin. accused by historians of indulging himself in licenciousness to a degree which is almost incredible. Some accounts say, he was slain in battle by the Britons of Strathcluyd; others, that he was assassinated by the thane of Fife, whose daughter he had deflowered. Kenneth III. the son of Malcolm,

Kenneth III. vigorously prosecuted the war against the Britons of Strathcluyd, till at last their principality was finally subjected to the dominion of the Scots. He was equally successful over the Danish invaders. Yet the measures he pursued for altering the succession of the crown, in favour of his own family, created general dissatisfaction, and at last occasioned his assassination. To Kenneth succeeded Constan

Constantine tine, in whose favour probably the

the bold. the conspiracy had been formed, by which Kenneth was taken off. The other princes of the royal blood did not suffer Constantine to enjoy undisturbed, the fruits of his treachery. Grime, the son of Duft, raised a powerful army, and advanced against the usurper. They met on the banks of the Almond. The engagement was long and bloody. Constantine at last fell; his army was routed and dispersed. Grime, regardless of the claims of

Grime Malcolm, son of Kenneth, and prince of

993. Cumberland, proceeded hastily to Scone, and was there crowned. Malcolin, however, indignant at this treatment, was vbliged for a D 2


while to suffer Griine tu enjoy the thronë he had usurped. At length, conscious of his own popularity, he marched northward to assert his right Success attended him. Grime' was defeated and slain after a reign of eight years. Malcolm,

Malcolm's first step was to call the

nobility together, and to request the 1001.

crown at their hands if it could be done consistently with the law. They acknowledged his right, and invested him with the royal dignity. He rewarded his adherents with the fors feited lands of his opponents, and even with part of the crown domains.

At this period all Britain was grievously infested by the descents of the Danes. Masters of the Orkneys, of the Hebrides, and of Man, they now pillaged the western coasts as they had long done the eastern.

Wbile Malcolm was contending for the throne, they effected a settlement in Cambria. Malcolm defeated them three different times, and thus acquired the title of the most victorious king.

After a reign of thirty years, he died in the castle of Glammis; but whether by a natural or vivlent death it is impossible for us to discover.

Malcolm had no issue to succeed Duncan.

him except Duncari, a grandson by his daughter Beatrix. During his reign a last attempt was made by the Danes lo invade Scotland.

After their expulsion Luncan, while attending to the reformation of abuses and the distribution of justice, was cut off by the hand of domestic treachery, in the 7th year of his reign. Macbeth.

Macbeth, a name well known on the English stage, usurped the throne


of his kinsman Duncan, whom he murdered at Inverness. Historians do not agree in what degree of affinity he stood with the royal family. It would seem that he had some pretensions founded on the ancient constitution of alternate succession.

His mind had long been occupied with ambi, tious projects, and when once recognized king, be displayed talents for government. But abilities could not procure bim tranquillity.

Consciousness of guilt kept alive in his breast a jealousy which prompted hiin to repeated acts of cruelty. He put to death Mac Gill, then Banquo, the most powerful men in his dominions. Macduff next become the object of his suspicions, saved himself by flying into England: but his wife and infant children were cruelly butchered by the inhuman tyrant.

Macduff applied to Malcolın, son of the late king Duncan, who on his father's death had escaped to his principality of Cumberland. Both addressed themselves to the court of England, and to the earl of Northumberland, for assistance.

Having obtained their request, they made war on the usurper, whom they soon drove to the most inaccessible parts of the Highlands; where, after defending himself for the space of tiro years, he was at last killed in a sally by Macduff.

CHAP. III. From the Accession of Malcolm to that of Durid. MEANWHILE Malcolm had

mounted the throne of his fathers; Macdufi, thane of Fife, was rewarded


Malcolm III.

D 3

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