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for his loyalty with the title of earl, and with the honorable office of crowning the king, and of leading the van of the army, which honors were rendered hereditary in his family. Several years of peace ensued. - In the course of these events, Malcolm found occasion to distinguish himself by a remarkable instance of magnanimity.

One of his domestics had conspired against his life. The conspiracy was fortunately discovered to the king. Malcolm commanded not the instant death or imprisonment of the traitor. Taking him for his attendant to the chase, he seized the moment when they two happened to be apart from the company in the depth of a wood. The gallant monarch then drew his sword, called to his astonished follower to do the same, bade him now assail that life with the manly courage of a warrior, against which he had conspired with the dark malignity of a coward. The guilty servant fell trembling at his feet, confessed his treachery, named his accomplices, implored pardon, and obtained it.

The conquest of England, by William duke of Normandy, had driven Edgar Atheling, the heir of the English crown, to take refuge in Scotland. The conqueror demanded that Edgar should be given up to him. Malcolm refused, and war was immediately declared. This was carried on as usual by inroads, but produced no memorable event. William concluded a peace on receiving the homage of Malcolm for his Cambrian possessions.

"With Edgar there had arrived in Scotland his mother and two sisters. The princess Margaret

captivated captivated the heart of Malcolm, and became his wife. The example and prudent counsels of this lady, a pattern of piety and politeness, contributed greatly to a general reformation of manners. By her influence, wise laws were framed, and old barbarous customs abolished. Great attention was paid to the instruction of both clergy and people. Parish churches were built; new dioceses founded ; nothing in short was neglected that could promote religion, order, learning, and politeness.

These salutary measures were occasionally interrupted by the evils of war. Malcolm was obliged to march in person to quell an insurrection that broke out in Ross, Murray, and Mar. When he arrived on the banks of the Spey, he ordered his troops to advance, and to pass the river. His standard - bearer seeming to halt, Malcolm plucked the banner from his hands, and gave it to a brave knight, who plunged immediately into the stream. The rebels, intimidated at this resolution, employed their clergy to intercede for their pardon.

The venerable fathers accordingly appearing on the further bank in a posture of humiliation, the king ordered them to be ferried over, and received their submissions, but refused to grant them an unconditional pardon. He permitted the common people to retire to their homes; but some of the ringleaders were either put to death, or had their lands forfeited ; others were condemned to imprisonment.

The peace with England was again interrupted. The conqueror being in Normandy, the Scottish king look advantage of his absence to make him


self master of Northumberland. William did not live to oppose the Scots again in person: but his son had no sooner established himself on his father's throne, than he made preparations to drive them back within their ancient limits.

His fleet was dashed to pieces by storm, and almost all on board perished. The counties by which his army must march were so much laid waste, that part of his troops perished by famine. A negotiation extricated William from this embarrassment. Malcolm eonsented to yield all his possessions in Northumberland, except twelve manors.

Fresh differences occurring, Malcolm agreed to repair to William's court, to redress all grievances. Upon his arrival at Gloucester, he could get no admittance but on condition of doing boinage, and submitting to the judgment of the English barons in full court. Malcolin refused compliance, returned in a rage, and raised a new ariny.

After laying waste the open country, he besieged Alnwic. According to Scottish historians, the place was so closely pressed, that a knight came out of the castle with its keys on the point of a spear, and telling those with whom he met that he was come to lay them at Malcolm's fcet, that prince advanced to receive them, and was by the traitor run through the eye, and killed on the spot. They add, that the prince Edward was mortally wounded in endeavouring to avenge his father's death.

English historians say, that Malcolm and his son tell in battle, and that their army suffered a total route.


Margaret at this time lay sick at Edinbtirgh Castle. When he heard that the Scots were defeated, her son and husband slain, her strength and spirits failed her: she made confession, received the holy sacrament, gave her dying blessing and advice to her children, and expired.

Of the children of Malcolin and Margaret seven survived them : Edmund, Edgar, Alexander, and David, sons; Matilda and Mary, daughters. The collateral succession, with all its

Donald disadvantages, was perhaps better suited

Bane. to a turbulent people, who scorned all submission to the shadowy royalty of a minor. Malcolm's sons were too young to assume the royal authority; and such was the attachment to ancient modes, that the hereditary succession was again set aside, notwithstanding all the laws made in its favour. Donald; surnamed Bane, brother to the deceased, ascended the throne.

Edgar Atheling, uncle to the young princes, conducted them into England beyond the reach of his violence: nor did the English monarch cherish resentment against the family of his fallen rival.

Donald, on his accession, expelled from Scotland all foreigners : and in order to support hiniself, be called in the Norwegians, renouncing in their favour all claims on the Orkney and Shetland isles.

Those barbarian's as usual rendered themselves more odious than ever the English had been ; and the Scots complained that their country was in danger of becoming a province of Norway.

William formed the design of placing Duncan on the Scottish throne. This was a natural son


of the late king's. It was supposed that bpeared at the head of an English army to vie cate the rights of his father's legitimate children, Many English adventurers joined his expedition: the Scots flocked to his standard, and Donald was obliged to take refuge in the Hebridæ.

The people imagined that Duncan was to raise Edgar to the throne of his father, but instead of that, he repaired to Scone, where he was crowned.

The Scots had not expelled one usurper in order to receive another; they conspire againsi Duncan, and by his death make way for the restoration of Donald; but he was not long to enjoy the prize of his crimes.

Edgar Atheling, with the consent of Rufus, raised an army in England, to restore his nephew. With two thousand men, young Edgar and bis uncle marched into Scotland. The usurper could not make his escape as formerly. He was taken prisoner, his eyes were put out, and he was cast to languish out the remainder of his days in a dungeon.

The peace with England was soon after Edgar.

cemented by a matrimonial alliance. Ma. tilda, sister of king Edgar, was given in marriage to Henry, the brother and successor of Wilo liam.

After a reign of eight years, which was dis. turbed by no domestic conspiracy, no foreign wars, Edgar died in the year 1107.

He was succeeded by his brother Alexander.

Alexander, who left his principality of Cumberland to his brother David. He proved himself not inferior to his father in the qualities ecessary to the ruler of a barbarous people.


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