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and write: they all understood Latin. Those of Jona went abroad into Germany, France, and Italy. Upwards of twenty religious houses were established by the Scots in Germany, twelve in Lorrain, and a great number in the Low Countries. Every where received and honoured as men of\extraordinary piety and wisdom, the Hebudian monks, making allowance for those times, shed a lustre on the nation they belonged to : the monastery of Iona was the most famous in Europe.

Such was the ancient church of Scotland in the days of Alexander, when it was resolved to free it from a secondary dependence on a rival kingdom.

With this view, the king nominated to the bishopric of St. Andrew's, Turgot, the biographer of Queen Margaret. By negotiation, he obtained of the English king an injunction to the archbishop of York to consecrate Turgot, saving the authority of both churches.

Turgot died. Alexander next presented a monk of Canterbury; but would not allow him to be consecrated with a dependence on any foreign see, The monk, more attached to Canterbury than to Scotland, declined such conditions, and retired from the kingdom

Alexander persisted, to his dying day, in his resolution, but was obliged to leave to his successor to finish what he had begun. His death happened at Stirling in the eighteenth year of his reign.

CIIAP. CHAP. IV.

From the Accession of David to Margaret of

Norway.

A BUSIER period nowe opens before David.

us. David, prince of Cumberland, and earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland, added to all these the crown of Scotland.

Inmediately on his accession, the contest concerning the independence of the Scottish church was renewed. A legate from the pope calied a a council of the English and Scotch clergy at Roxburgh. There the pretensions of the archbishop of York were examined. The bishop of St. Andrew's received consecration at bis hands; but the question of independence or jurisdiction was expressly left uudecided.

Henry, king of England, left an only daughter, Maud or Matilda, who was at the same time David's niece.

With all the English lords, David swore to maintain her right; and, on the death of Henry, he raised an army to support her claim against Stephen, who had seized her crown. Stephen hastened to meet the career of the Scot: but both parties being apprehensive of the fate of a battle, an accommodation took place.

A peace extorted by the necessity of circumstances could not be lasting. Stephen refused to abide by his agreement, and David renewed the war. Regardless of the remonstrances of their leaders, his army laid every thing waste before them. Stephen crossed the Tweed, and wasted

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the

the Scottish frontiers. On his retreat, all the north of England was ravaged by the Scots.

Thurslin, the aged archbishop, held an assembly at York: a solemn fast was sanctified for three days. Bruce and Baliol, names afterwards illustrious in the Scottish history, were sent to intreat peace of David: but offers, intreaties, and persuasions were vain.

They must fight. Ranged around the standard of the cross erected on high, did the English await the attack.

The onset was furious: but the English archers grievously annoyed their enemy, and the fate of the day was still doubtful, when an arm held aloft a bloody head, and a voice exclaimed“ The head of the king of Scots.”

The Galwegians threw down their arms—the men of Lothian fied, and the battle was irrecoverably lost.

The king, after attempting in vain to stop the panic, was hurried away by his nobles from the danger, and led the remains of his army to Carlisle.

This victory was regarded by the English rather as a temporary escape than as any security. They sent the Roman legate to mediate a peace. truce for some months was agreed to.

The whole Scottish army swore never again to violate the scats of religion, nor massacre the feeble and defenceless. And the abbey of Hexam obtained compensation for injuries committed by the soldiery.

The disgrace of the late defeat was in some degree effaced by the seizure of Werk castle, which put an end to the war,

Scottish

Scottish historians have left us in the dark as to other transactions of this reign. David repaired in person to London, when a sudden change or fortune placed his niece Matilda on the throne: but when, by her misconduct, her rival Stephen recovered his liberty and power, the Scoutisia king with difficulty escaped to his own dominions.

His genius was still better adapted to the arts of peace than to the feats of war. Several burghs obiained charters from him: two bishopricswere erected, and several abbeys founded. le considered these institutions as favourable to cultivation. The clergy managed their lands with intelligence and industry; and their possessions were spared as sacred, when others were desolated by war.

In the spirit of those times, he wished to atone for his sins, and for all the bloodshed of his military expeditions by a pilgrimage to the holy land, but the duties of royalty detained him.

In an advanced age he lost his only and deserve edly beloved son Henry, on whom the nation looked as the heir of his father's worth and wis. dom, but religion supported him under this afiliction.

Before he died, he caused his grandson Malcolm to be proclaimed, and acknowledged heir to his crown. His death happened in the year 1153. David was succeeded by his

Malcolm IV. grandson, a boy of twelve or fiften years of age. At his accession Scotland was desolated by a famine. The thane of Argyle preferød a claim to his throne; but was defeated in three battles by the Earl of Angus, and obliged to retire into Ireland. Henry II. of England,

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demanded

demanded the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland to be ceded to him. Malcolm went to attend him at Chester ; ceded the counties demanded, and did homage for the earldom of Hun: țingdou.

The Sccts murmured at tliese concessions : yet Malcolm offended them still more, hy meeting king Henry at Carlisle, and following him in his expedition against Toulouse, in France.

On his retuin he was continualiy disturbed with insurrections, and was saved only by the intervention of the clergy.

The vigour of his military conduct appears in his expeditions against the rebels in Moray, whom he put all to the sword wiihout exception. The thane of Argile landing again was routed and slain. The thane of Galloway being defeated and shaved, wa, shut up in a convent. Towards the close of his reign he founded some religious houses, and at last died in a deep depression of spirits.

Puring his reign the archbishop of York had obtained from the pope the powers of a legate over Scotland; but the clergy evaded submission by an appeal to the pope himself. Villiam

Already possessed of the regal power,

"Villiam was crowned instantly after his 1165.

brother's death. He claimed Northum. berland of the English kings, as the only heritage his father had lost him. Henry invited him to his court, where he did homage for Cumberland and Huntingdon. Įle followed Henry into France, and on his' return could obtain no satisfactory answer to his demand,

William therefore entered into the confederacy formed against llenry by his own sons and the

hing

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