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king of France. - lle assembled an army--ravaged the banks of the Humber, and laid siege to Carlisle. Richard de Lucy invaded Scotland by the way of Berwick, which he burnt. A proposal of a truce was made by the bishop of Durham : it was agreed that hostilities should cease until eight days after ensuing Easter.

The interval was employed in preparations.

At the expiration of the truce, William took the field; but, imprudently dividing his forces, he was surprised and taken prisoner. He was first confined in the castle of Richmond, whence he was transported to Falaise, in Normandy.

David,' of Huntingdon, at the penis of his brother's captivity, bastened to Scotland.

He found the nobles ready to purchase the freedom of their monarch even at the price of the national independence. William scorned not to accept his liberation on terms so humiliating.

He, with his barons and clergy, did homage to Henry, at York, but the clergy expressed their submission in language that might admit of a different construction. Five castles were delivered up to the English as sureties--the king's brother and i wenty nobles as hostages. Shameful as this convention was to Scotland, it shews how dear their monarch was to his people, and to a brother who would not supplant him. On his return, William had a difference with the pope about filling the see of Saint Andrew's, wlich ended in a compromise and in mutual concessions.

The church of Scotland had promised to respect the jurisdiction of England was she was wont to do.” The clergy took advantage of this ambiguity, and being summoned into Northampton, they re4

fused fused all submission. The archbishop of Canterbury laid claims to authority over them as well as the metropolitan of York. Pope Clement III. finally emancipated the Scots from obedience to either.

The accession of Richard to the throne of England was fortunate to Scotland. Ile released William and his kingdom from that feudal dependency on England, which had been unjustly extorted from him during his captivity, and engaged to restore his fortresses.

This generosity met with a suitable return.aWhen Richard was detained a prisoner in Austria, William supported his regency against his brother John, who attempted to usurp the throne. David, of Huntingdon, followed the king of Enga land in his expedition to the holy land.

This was the age of crusades. The Scots seem to have had less ardour for the holy wars than other nations. The king's brother had no success in his enterprize. Shipwrecked on the coast of Egypt, enslaved, ransomed, and again shipwrecked, he landed at Taymouth, and inet with the kindest reception from his brother: be afterwards founded Dundee on the spot where he landed.

No transactions of importance distinguish the remainder of William's reign. He governed fortynine years, and died in the 72d of his age.

His son and successor was only Alexander II.

17 years

age when he mounted the throne. He was esteemed by his contemporaries, and has been represented as a model for future monarchs, His first step was to demand of John, king of England, to put him in possession of Northumberland. In this demand he was en

couraged couraged by the English barons, who were at war with their king.

After one campaign of mutual depredation, Alexander joined the Barons, who had also invited the king of France to their aid. John, unable to withstand such a combination, submitted himself and his kingdom to the holy see. The only protection the pope could grant him was to excommunicate his enemies, and among these Alexander and the Scots. Unawed by the anathema's of Rome, the Scottish king was pushing the siege of Carlisle with vigour, when he learned the des feat of Lewis, at Lincoln.

He now considered it prudent to retire to his own confines, and to seek reconciliation with the pope. Accordingly he received absolution from two bishops sent by the legate. The nation deputed three bishops to obtain a general pardon and confirmation of their privileges from pope Honorius, which was granted.

Peace was restored to the island by the mar. riage of Alexander with Joan, sister of Henry III. who had succeeded to John.

The attention of government was now turned to the suppression of insurrections, still very frequent in the more distant provinces. After the deaih of his queen the two kingdoms were again threatened with war; but the armies were disband, ed, and a peace concluded. Alexander had enlarged the code of laws, by adding 25 statutes. He died of a fever on an expedition against the Hebudæ, who refused their homage to the Seottish throne, under pretence of reserving it for the king of Norway,

Alexander Alexander III.

Alexander III. was only nine

years of age when he was crown ed. Ambassadors were sent to London to de mand Henry's daughter in marriage for the young king. This was easily granted.

Buth the courts met at lork. The ceremon was performed with great pomp. Alexander dı. homage to Henry for his English possessions among which particular mention is made Lowthian.

Henry next pressed his son-in-law to perfori. homage for his crown. The young king, thou. entirely in the power of Henry, declined; an. Henry honourably dropped all claim of superic rity, confirming his a-surances with a charter.

On his return to Scotland, Alexander founı the Cumyns had formed a strong party again him, while they and their followers exclaimer that Scotland was now no better than a provinct of England. Henry received intelligence tha the nobility kept their king and queen as two statt prisoners.

He privately dispatched the earl of Glouceste: and his favourite John Monsel, with a band o: trusty followers to gain admission into the castle of Edinburgh, which was then held by Joha Baliol and Robert de Ross, noblemen of great interest in England, as well as Scotland,

The earl and Mansel being disguised got admittance into the castle, on pretence of their being tenants to Baliol or de Ross; their followers also obtained access without suspicion.

The queen immediately joined them, and disclosed all the tyranny in which she and her husband were held. Beside other particulars, she bed apar


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