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which it forms a grand estuary, or frith. The mouth of the Clyde below Glasgow, is equally advantageous to navigation. The falls of the Clyde near Lanerk, are objects well deserving the attention of the traveller. The Firth of Forth is a remarkable gulph formed by the mouth of that river, and dividing the Lowthians from Fifeshire. The Dee, the Don, the Spey, are the rivers most worthy of notice in the north.

Throughout Scotland there a great many beautiful lakes, but the chief in extent and magnificence is that of Loch Lomond, studded with romantic islands, and adorned with shores of the greatest diversity. The depth of this lake, near the bottom of Ben Lomond, is from 60 to 80 fathoms. Lock Levin, in Fifeshire, attracts observation from historical fame. Loch Tay is a grand and beautiful expanse of water; at its eastern extremity are placed the noble mansion and plantations of the eart of Braidalbin. Loch Ness rivals Loch Tay in extent and reputation ; its great depth (135 fathoms) is the cause why it never freezes.

A bill has lately passed in parliament, for joining by a canal that chain of lakes, which runs from the Murray Firth in a S. W. direction into the western ocean.

The chief minerals of Scotland are lead, iron, and coal. The lead mines in the south of Lanarkshire, and the neighbouring county of Dumfries, have been long known. Iron is found in various parts; the Carron ore is found in slaty masses in an adjacent coal mine, of which it sometimes forms the roof. This ore is smelted with the red greasy iron ore from Ulverston in



Lancashire, which imparts easier fusion and superior value. Coal has been worked in Scotland

for a succession of ages. Æneas Sylvius, A. D.

afterwards Pope Pius II. mentions that 1450,

he beheld with wonder black stones given as alıns to the


of Scotland. The Lowthians and Fiteshire particularly abound with this useful mineral, which also extends into Ayrshire, and to the neighbourhood of Glasgow.

1.11 pa»sing to the less important minerals, the new carth found at Strontian, in the district of Saart and parish of Ardnamurchan, is now consecrated in numerous systems of inineralogy and chemistry, Ben Nevis affords beautiful grasite; fine statuary marble is found in Assynt, and at Blair Guwrie, in Perthshire ; a black marble, fretted with white, like lace - work, oceurs near Fort William; dark brown with white, at Cambuslang Clydesdale; and jasper is found in various places.

Several beautiful species of marble have been lately found in the western isles, especially in those of 'Tirey and Col, near Mull: no similar marble being found any where, French naturalists have called it Tirite, from the name of the juland. It is of a rose colour, penetrated with small irregular crystals of green hornblende.

One of the most surprising objects of curio. sity is the vast basaltic cavern of the isle of Staffa, called now Fingal's Cave. The entrance of ihe cave is fitty-six feet in height, and thirty

fi e in breadth : the whole length or depth is io e hundred and forty feet. It is supported un caeh side by beautiful columns disposed in ihe 31. stract order, and in form · resembling the

mont most regular pillars in architecture. The whole south-west of the island is likewise supported by ranges of those pillars above fifty feet high, and some above sisty feet thick, standing. in natural colonnades.

The zoology of Scotland presents little remarkable as distinct from that of England. The small horses of Galloway seem to have been a primitive breed, and in diminutive size are exceeded by those of Shetland. The cattle in Galloway are often without horns; a defect which is supposed to be compensated by the superior quantity and quality of the milk. The Kylies are a iniddle-sized breed from the province of Kyle, and other districts of Ayrshire and Gal.. loway. On the east are found large caitle and horses of various breeds.

The sheep are smaller and shorter than those of England; those of Shetland are remarkable for the fineness of the wool, which is however in. terspersed with coarser piles. Goats are not so numerous as might be expected : this animal yields useful leather and milk, and might occasionally supply the want of other provision. Of wild animals there remain none now but the fox and the wild cat. Only since 1680, the race of wolves has been exterminated.

The aurochs, whose bones and horns are yet, found buried; under many layers of earth, were the largest of the ancient Caledonian quadr4peds : although nyt nourished by carnage, yet: the slightest provocation was at any time enough t.exasperate them to', rage, and their rage was death to alınost every inhabitant of the forest. The stag and the roe, particularly the latter, is no stranger to the Highlands. Among the birds, those worthy of notice are the eagle and falcon. The shores and islands present numerous kinds of sea-fowl. The musical tribe is not indeed very numerous. The sky-lark, the thrush, the blackbird, and Mevis, are not unknown; but the sweet notes of Philomel have never yet been heard in the North.

Scotland abounds with fish of all kinds, and contributes greatly to the supply of the English · market, particulariy in lobsters and salmon. On the northern and western coasts are numerous seals; and it appears, from the life of S. Columba, that the ancients had a method of rené dering them tame and obedient to call. The whale sometimes appears, and the basking shark frequently plays in the western inlets. Pearls are found in the rivers Frith and Yethan, in a large kind of muscle. The herrings appear off Shetland in vast columns in the month of June, altering the very appearance of the ocean, which ripples like a current. 'These columns have been computed to extend five or six miles in length, by three or four in breadth, and in bright weather reflect a variety of splendid colours. They afterwards divide to the east and west of Great Britain, furnishing a providential supply of food to many barren districts.

Among the ancient monuments still to be discovered in Scotland, the most remarkable are the remains of the Roman 'wall, between the friths of Forth and Clyde.

The Roman camps and forts are still visible in many places, Druidical temples, or places of


judgment, are numerous. There is a remarkable one in the isle of Lewis, where perhaps monarchs resided, if this does not rather belong to the settlement of the Norwegians. The engraven obelisks found at Forres are of uncertain date and origin. Of ancient churches, there are some remains worthy of notice : the cathedral of Kirkwali, in Orkney, bas entirely escaped the ravages of the reformation. Viber churches and abbeys present still venerable ruins,

The general commerce of Scotland is in most respects sinilar to that of England, though on a smaller scale. The chief exports are cottons, muslins, linen, stockings, learl, iron, and coal; the fisheries furnish a considerable store of merchandize. The imports are timber, wines, brandy, rum, sugar, rice, and indigo.

The most remarkable inland navigation is the excellent and extensive canal from ihe Forth to the Clyde, precisely thirty-five miles in lengih, which saves a navigation of six hundred miles round by Pentland Frith ; the dimensions of this canal are greatly superior to any work of the same kind in South Britain ; its depth is seven feet, its breadth at the surface fifty-six feet, the locks seventy-five feet long, and their gates twenty feet wide; it is raised from the Carron by twenty locks, in a tract of ten miles, to the amazing height of one hundred and fiftyfive feet above the medium of full sea-mark. In some places, the canal is carried through solid ruck. There are in the whole eighteen draw. bridges, and fifteen aqueduct bridges, one over a river.

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