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as worthy of executing this glorious deed. The meek preachers of the word attended to animate the pious flock, and abbies, cathedrals, churches, libraries, records, all perished in one common ruin. The very tombs of the dead were ransacked and rifled of every thing valuable. While these proceedings were going on, Mary was preparing for her rcturn. She had asked in vain of her loving cousin to protect her safely home: Elizabeth, dissatisfied with her refusal to ratify the treaty, denied her request, and even ordered her fleet to intercept the Scottish queen. She escaped, bowever, under cover of a fog, and arrived sately at Leith, in the nineteenth year of her age, after thirteen years absence.


From Queen Mary's Return to her Death. WITHOUT experience, without allics, did


young queen assume the reigns of government, in a country to which she was a stranger, a country distracted with civil and religious feuds, which were fomented by the jealousy and interest of the English court. Faithful to the religion of her fathers, she found it impracticable to act by the advice of those who still adhered to the same faith, but wisely employed only those of the reformed persuasion, which was hy far the most numerous and powerful. She was received by all parties with great and sincere joy. Her beauty and gracefulness, enhanced by the elegance and politeness of her manners, attracted universal admiration.


But her subjects had almost forgot the respect due to a sovereign, when on the first Sunday after her arrival, she directed mass to be said in the chapel of the palace : this occasioned an insurrection, wherein the attendants of the chapel were maltreated ; and it was not without great difficulty tbat the prior of St. Andrew's and other leaders obtained from her subjects liberty of conscience for their sovereign, and the exercise of her religion in private.

This permission was purchased by the royal sanction to the establishment of the protestant religion, which made it capital to infringe or al

ter it.

For some time Queen Mary discovered great policy, continuing to favour the reiguing party, without seeming either to offend, or to court those of her own religion.

Of these the foremost was the earl of Huntly, who no doubt saw with pain his rival the prior of St. Andrew's possessing all the confidence of the queen: the latter, on the other hand, was too good a politician not to improve the occasion for

* The earl of Arran was the only nobleman who protested against this liberty granted to the queen; and knox, in a most furious sermou against idolatry, said that onemass was more frightful to him than ten thousand men. Mary ordered Knox to attend her: he has left us a detail of the conversair de paz dorph says, “ he knocked so hastily upon her heart, that he made her to weep." Elsewhere he adds. his prayer is daily or her, ihat God will turn her obstinate heart against God and his truth ; or if the holy will be otherwise, to strengthen the hearts and hands of his chesen and elect, stoutiy to withstand the rage of all tyrants in words terrible enough."


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the ruin of the catholic cause and its champion, whose power and influence was very considerable.

With this view he proposed to the queen to make a progress northward, where lay the estates and dependences of the earl; but first he had secured the peace of the borders, by punishing disturbers and exercising justice in a most cnergetic and laudable manner.

Huntly perceived the drift of the intended journey: one of his sons had incurred the queen's displeasure and was then in prison; but making his escape, he fed into Aberdeenshire. Mary considered this as an insult to her authority, and positively required that the prisoner should surrender himself again to justice.

Gordon engaged to do so, but escaping again he went to head his followers who were up in arms.

This rebellion exasperated the queen so much, that she refused to visit tbe earl in the castle of Strathbogie as sbe had agreed to do, at the invitation of his lady, and thereby probably saved the lives of lord James, Norton and Maitland, whose cestruction the carl had piotted in his own house.

Disappoimed in this scheme, Huntly now broke out into open rebellion. The earldom of Mar had been taken from him to bestow it on lord James, who soon transferred it to lord Erskine, on recriving in its stead that of Moray, another property of the chieftain of the Gordons.

Thus stripped of his possessions to enrich his enemies, the earl thought it high time to resist. He ordered the gates of the castle of Inverness to be sbut against his sovereign. 'l he loyalty of the other clans brought them to her assistance; the çastle surrendered and the governor was executed. Mary having reached Aberdeen on her return, Huntly raised an army and went in pursuit of the earl of Moray. A battle was fought at Core richie, where Huntly's troops were routed, he himself slain, and afterwards his eldest son tried and executed. Thus ended a rebellion so fatal to the


A. D. family which was the main support of the

1562. çatholic religion. That party was now reduced to so low a pass that it could not offer any assistance to the queen who was soon to be hurried on to the ruin of her own power by those in whose hands were the entire direction of affairs. The parliament met: the act of oblivion for all the late crimes was ratified and extended.

The arch-bishop of St. Andrews was committed to the castle for saying mass, from whence the queen afterwards released him: though it was not without tears that she prevailed on her counsellors to allow of this exercise of her prerogative. Se. veral of the Roman catholic clergy were punished for the same crime.

But nothing effectual being done concerning the revenues of the church, Knox and his colleagues solemnly broke with the earl of Moray, and the courtiers whom they treated as apostates. Their vehement declarations inflamed the people to such a pitch that, during the queen's absence, they attacked the chapel at Holyrood-house during the service, and by their riotous proceedings filled all present with terror. Two of the ringLeaders being apprehended were committed for trial,


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But Knox approving of a zeal which his harangues had inspired, issued circular letters inviting all true believers to repair to Edinburgh on the day of trial in order to assist and comfort their brethren.

Other scenes of this kind were repeatedly acted; at one time in particular the priest saved himself from being torn in pieces by escaping through a a back door.

In vain did the queen summon Knox to Lochlevin, where she then was.* Their conference ended as usual to the satisfaction of neither.-In vain did she cause him to be prosecuted for assembling the subjects unlawfully. His judges were the very men who acted with him, and his trial was a new triumph.

The protestant nobility, who disapproved of his conduct, endeavoured in vain to bring him under church censure, for usurping the authority of 2 pope. Knox came also off victorious in this attack.

The thread of our parrative brings us now to he marriage of the queen. From the time of her lidowhood which had lasted two years, many yere the proposals made to her from different quarters. The king of Sweden, the prince of pain, the archduke of Austria, the prince of

Knox laid it down as a maxim that they had a right punish priests with death. She asked him, will ye al

that they take my sword in their hand? To tħis he gswered that the sword of justice was God's sword, and

princes did not make a right use of it, the rulers under kein that fear God ought to do it. - Knor.


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