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of Toumond, and Mr. Wilbraham, to know their relation of the past, their opinion of the present, and their advice for the future.

For the points of apposing them, I am too much a stranger to the business to deduce them. But in a general topic, methinks the pertinent interrogations must be, either of the possibility and means of accord, or of the nature of the war, or of the reformation of abuses, or of the joining of practice with force in the disunion of the rebels. If your Lordship doubt to put your sickle into another's harvest ;' first, time brings it to you in Mr. Secretary's absence : next, being mixt with matter of war, it is fittest for you : and lastly, I know your Lordship will carry it with that modesty and respect towards aged dignity, and that good correspondence towards my dear kinsman and your good friend now abroad, as no inconvenience may grow that

way. Thus have I played the ignorant statesman; which I do to nobody but your Lordship : except to the Queen sometimes when she trains me on. But your Lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, and secure me touching the privateness of that I write.

4.

Upon this advice the Earl appears to have been disposed to act; and accordingly to have communicated to Bacon the last intelligence from Ireland, and asked his opinion.

But by this time the negotiation had advanced a step further. Tyrone's case had been considered, and the Earl of Ormond had been instructed as to the terms upon which his pardon would be granted. “And now at another meeting at Dundalk, on the 15th of March, the Lord Lieutenant signified to Tyrone that her Majesty by his humble submission had been induced again to receive him to mercy, and to give him and all the inhabitants of Tyrone her gracious pardon, upon conditions following:upon information to be had from such as know the place and matters in fact ; and in the taking of information I have always noted there is a skill and a wisdom. For I cannot tell what account or inquiry hath been taken of Sir William Russel, and of Sir R. Bingham, of the Earl of Thomond, of Mr. Wilbraham. But I am of opinion much more would be had of them, if your Lordship shall be pleased severally to confer, not obiter, but expressly upon some caveat given to think of it before : for bene docet qui prudenter interrogat.

“For the points," etc.

1 « Yet consider you have these advantages. First, time being fit to you in Mr. Secretary's absence : next, vis unita fortior: thirdly, the business being mixed with matters of war, it is fittest for you," etc.- Cab.

1. That he renew his humble submission to the Lord Lieutenant in some public place.

2. That he promise due obedience of a subject, and not to intermeddle with the Irish, nor his adherents, not only hereafter, but now; leaving them to theinselves, that they may become humble suitors for their own pardons; in which case it is promised them also.

3. That he disperse his forces upon receipt of his pardon, and dismiss all strangers, Irish, Scots, or others.

4. That he renounce the name and title of Oneale.

5. Not to intermeddle with her Majesty's Vriaghts (so the Irish call the bordering lords, whom the Ulster tyrants have long claimed to be their vassals).

6. That he build up again, at his own charges, the fort and bridge of Blackwater, and furnish the soldiers with victuals, as formerly he did.

7. That he deliver to the Lord Lieutenant the sons of Shane Oneale, who were her Majesty's prisoners; till breaking out they fell into his hands, and were imprisoned by him.

8. To declare faithfully all intelligence with Spain, and to leave it. 9. That he receive a sheriff for Tyrone, as all other countries do.

10. That he put in his eldest son for pledge, and at all times come to the State, being called.

11. That he pay a fine in part of satisfaction for his offence, according to her Majesty's pleasure.

12. That he aid no rebel, nor meddle with the inhabitants on the east side of the Ban; yet so as he may enjoy any lands or leases he hath there.

13. That he receive not any disloyal person, but send such to the chief governor.”

Of these articles Tyrone took exceptions to the 5th, 7th, 9th, 10th, and 13th. Such duties as the Vriaghts yielded since his grandfather's time were all he desired of them : but these he still claimed. To receive a sheriff he did not altogether refuse-provided he were a gentleman of the county: but “craved forbearance for a small time.” The sons of Shane Oneale, whom (being the true heirs of the Earldom till it was forfeited by their father's rebellion) it was important to him to keep, he refused to deliver up—“ because he had not those prisoners from the State.” He refused to give his eldest son for a pledge: and stipulated that he should not deliver up to the State any man“ who came to him for cause of conscience.” To the rest, with some trifling reservations, he agreed. Only he asked for some delay,

Moryson's Itinerary, part ii. chap. i. p. 23. VOL. II.

H

in order that “the lords, his associates, might have time to assemble," according to the second article, “ that they might therein lay no imputation on him :"-whereupon the Lord Lieutenant granted him further day till the 10th of April following; at which time he pledged himself, whether they appeared or not, to make his own submission.

The result of this conference was of course immediately reported to the government at home, and seems that the Council in Ireland (having had old experience of Tyrone's ways) were disposed to advise that the treaty should not on these conditions be proceeded with. Such I suppose was the question now before the Council in England, -such the state of things upon which Essex now asked for Bacon's advice. The next letter contains his answer, and must be supposed therefore to have been written about the end of March, 1598.

A LETTER OF ADVICE TO THE EARL OF Essex, UPON THE FIRST

TREATY with TYRONE, 1598, BEFORE THE EARL WAS NOMI-
NATED FOR THE CHARGE OF IRELAND,1
My very good Lord,

Concerning the advertisements which your Lordship imparted to me touching the state of Ireland, for willing duty's sake, I will set down to your Lordship what opinion sprang in my mind upon that I read.

The letter from the counsel there, leaning to mistrust and to dissuade the treaty,: I do not much rely on for three causes. First, because it is always the grace and the safety+ of such a counsel to err in caution : whereunto add, that it may be they, or some of them, are not without

envy
towards the person

who is used in treating the accord. Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show of dissimulation; for that Tyrone is now in no straits : but he is more like a gamester that will give over because he is a winner, than because he hath no more money in his purse. Lastly, I do not see but that those articles whereupon they ground their suspicion may as well proceed out of fear as out of falsehood. For the retaining the dependence of

1 Add. MSS. 5503, fo. 4.

2 The copy in the 'Remains' and the 'Cabala,' begins thus : “These advertisements which your Lordship imparted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more certain to make judgment upon than a patient's water to a physician ; therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment were indeed like a foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket : yet for willing duty's sake," etc.

3 Leaning to distrust, I do not, etc.-R. and C.
* Both the grace and the safety from blame.-R. and 0.

the Vriaghts,' the protracting the admission of a sheriff, the re-
fusing to give his son for an hostage, the holding off from present
repair to Dublin, the refusing to go presently to accord without
including Odonnell and other his associates, may very well come
of an apprehension ? in case he should receive hard measure, and
not out of treachery. So as if the great person you write of be
faithful, and that you have not here: some present intelligence
of present succours from Spain (for the expectation whereof
Tyrone would win time), I see no deep cause of distrusting this
course of treaty, if the main conditions may be good. For her
Majesty seemeth to me to be a winner thereby three ways. First,
her purse shall have some rest. Next, it will divert the foreign
designs upon that place. Thirdly, though her Majesty be like for
a time but to govern precario in the north, and be not (as to a
true command) in better state there than before; yet, besides the
two respects of ease of charge and advantage of opinion abroad
before-mentioned, she shall have a time to use her princely policy
in two points to weaken them: the one, by division and disunion
of the heads; the other, by recovering and winning the people
from them by justice: which of all other courses is the best.

Now for the Athenian question; you discourse well, Quid igitur
agendum est ? I will shoot my fool's bolt, since you will have it
so. The Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted. Above
all things, the garrisons instantly to be provided for. For op-
portunity makes a thief, and if he should mean never so well
now, yet such an advantage as the breaking of her Majesty's
garrisons might tempt a true man. And because he may as well
waver upon his own inconstancy as upon occasion (and wanton
variableness is never restrained but by fear), I hold it necessary
he be menaced with a strong war, not by words, but by musters
and preparations of forces here, in case the accord proceed not:
but none to be sent over, lest it disturb the treaty, and make
him look to be over-run as soon as he hath laid away arms. And
but that your Lordship is too easy to pass in such cases from dis-
simulation to verity, I think if your Lordship lent your reputa-
tion in this case,—that is, to pretend that if peace go not on, and

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23.

1 "So the Irish call the bordering lords, whom the Ulster tyrants have long claimed to be their vassals."— Moryson's Itinerary, part ii.

P.
? A guilty reservation.--R. and C.

3 heard : Res.
* Of distrusting the cause [qy. course) if it be good. And for the question, her
Majesty seemeth, etc.-R. and C.

the Queen mean not to make a defensive war as in times past, but a full re-conquest of those parts of the country, you would accept the charge, -I think it would help to settle Tyrone in his seeking accord, and win you a great deal of honour gratis.

And (that which most properly concerns this action, if it prove a peace) I think her Majesty shall do well to cure the root of the disease; and to profess, by a commission of peaceable men of respect and countenance, a reformation of abuses, extortions, and injustices there; and to plant a stronger and surer government than heretofore, for the ease and protection of the subject. For the removing of the sword or government in arms from the Earl of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy (which will eclipse it, if peace follow), I think it unseasonable.2

Lastly, I hold still my opinion (both for your better information, and the fuller declaration of your care and meddling in this urgent and meriting service) that your Lordship have a set conference with the persons I named in my former letter.

5.

What part Essex took in the subsequent deliberations I do not know, nor have we any detailed account of the measures which were taken in the exigency. We hear only that about the middle of March, Sir Thomas Cecil, Sir William Russell, Sir Walter Ralegh, and Sir Robert Bingham, were called and consulted: that order was taken for sending corn and victual : that there was talk of sending out as deputy either Sir W. Russell, who “absolutely refused to gy,” or Sir Walter Ralegh, who “did little like it :"3 and that up to the 22nd of March, no dispatch had been made of deputy or forces. The main issue however must have been an instruction to proceed with the treaty, and accept Tyrone's submission upon the terms proposed: for we learn from Moryson that "at the instance of the Lord-Lieutenant, the Lords Justices caused Tyrone's pardon to be drawn and sealed with the great seal of Ireland, bearing date the 11th of April."

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1 The copy in the 'Remains' has :—“ It is to pretend that if a defensive war as in times past, but a wofull reconquest of those parts in the country, you would accept the charge.”

The Cabala gives :“It is to pretend that if not a defensive war as in times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of the country be resolved on, you would accept the charge.” Which looks like a conjectural emendation.

2 So Resusc. The MS, has unreasonable. 3 Sydn. Pap. ii. 96. 18th March, 1597. 4 Id. p. 97. 5 Itin. p. 24.

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