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* OTHELLO.] The story is taken from Cynthio's Novels.

POPE. have not hitherto met with any translation of this novel (the seventh in the third decad) of so early a date as the age of Shakspeare ; but undoubtedly many of those little pamphlets have perished between his time and ours.

It is highly probable that our author met with the name of Othello in some tale that has escaped our researches; as I likewise find it in Reynolds's God's Revenge against Adultery, standing in one of his Arguments as follows: “ She marries Othello, an old German soldier." This History (the eighth) is professed to be an Italian one. Here also occurs the name of Iago.

It is likewise found, as Dr. Farmer observes, in “The History of the famous Euordanus Prince of Denmark, with the strange Adventures of Iago Prince of Saxonie; bl. I. 4to. London, 1605."

It may indeed be urged that these names were adopted from the tragedy before us: but I trust that every reader who is conversant with the peculiar style and method in which the work of honest John Reynolds is composed, will acquit him of the slightest familiarity with the scenes of Shakspeare.

This play was first entered at Stationers' Hall, Oct. 6, 1621, by Thomas Walkely. STEEVENS.

I have seen a French translation of Cynthio, by Gabriel Chappuys, Par. 1584.

This is not a faithful one; and I suspect, through this medium the work came into English. FARMER.

This tragedy I have ascribed (but on no very sure ground) to the year 1611. MALONE.

The time of this play may be ascertained from the following circumstances: Selymus the Second formed his design against Cyprus in 1569, and took it in 1571. This was the only atiempt the Turks ever made upon that island after it came into the hands of the Venetians, (which was in the year 1473,) wherefore the time must fall in with some part of that interval. We learn from the play that there was a junction of the Turkish fleet at Rhodes, in order for the invasion of Cyprus, that it first came sailing towards Cyprus, then went to Rhodes, there met another squadron, and then resumed its way to Cyprus. These are real historical facts which happened when Mustapha, Selymus's general, attacked Cyprus in May, 1570, which therefore is the true period of this performance. See Knolles's History of the Turks, p. 838, 846, 867. REED.


Duke of Venice.
Brabantio, a Senator.
Two other Senators.
Gratiano, Brother to Brabantio.
Lodovico, Kinsman to Brabantio,
Othello, the Moor:
Cassio, his Lieutenant;
Iago, his Ancient.
Roderigo, a Venetian Gentleman.
Montano, Othello's Predecessor in the Governmens

of Cyprus."
Clown, Servant to Othello.
Desdemona, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife te

Othello. Emilia, Wife to Iago. Bianca, a Courtezan, Mistress to Cassio. Officers, Gentlemen, Messengers, Musicians, Sailors,

Attendants, c. SCENE, for the first Act, in Venice; during the rest

of the Play, at a Sea-Port in Cyprus. Though the rank which Montano held in Cyprus cannot be exactly ascertained, yet from many circumstances, we are sure he had not the powers with which Othello was subsequently invested.

Perhaps we do not receive any one of the Personæ Dramatis. to Shakspeare's plays, as it was originally drawn up by himself. These appendages are wanting to all the quartos, and are very rarely given in the folio. At the end of this play, however, the following enumeration of persons occurs:

“ The names of the actors.-Othello, the Moore.-Brabantio, Father to Desdemona.-Cassio, an Honourable Lieutenant.--Iago, a Villaine.-Rodorigo, a gulld Gentleman.-Duke of Venice. Senators.—Montano, Gorernour of Cyprus.Gentlemen of Cyprus, -Lodovico, and Gratiano, two noble Venetians.Saylors.--Clowne. -Desdemona, Wife to Othello.-Æmilia, ķife to Iago. Bianca, a Curtezan." STEEVENS.





SCENE I. Venice. A Street.

Enter RODERIGO and Iago. Rod. Tush, never tell me, I take it much un

kindly, That thou, Iago,—who hast had my purse, As if the strings were thine,-should'st know of this.

Iago. 'Sblood, but you will not hear me:If ever I did dream of such a matter, Abhor me. Rod. Thou told'st me, thou didst hold him in thy

Iago. Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones

of the city,
In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
Oft capp'd to him;'-and, by the faith of man,
I know my price, I am worth no worse a place:
But he, as loving his own pride and purposes,
Evades them, with a bombast circumstance,


i Oft capp'd to him ;] To cap is to salute by taking off the cap. It is still an academick phrase. M. Mason.

a bombast circumstance,] Circumstance signifies circum. locution.

Horribly stuff'd with epithets of war;
And, in conclusion, nonsuits
My mediators; for, certes," says he,
I have already chose my officer.
And what was he?
Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio,, a Florentine,
A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;'
That never set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a battle knows
More than a spinster; unless the bookish theorick,
Wherein the toged consulso can propose
As masterly as he: mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But, he, sir, had the election:
And I,-of whom his eyes had seen the proof,
At Rhodes, at Cyprus; and on other grounds
Christian and heathen,-must be be-lee'dand calm'd?
By debitor and creditor, this counter-caster;$
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,
And I, (God bless the mark !9) his Moor-ship's


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certes,] i. e. certainly, in truth. Obsolete. 4 A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;] This passage has been much contested. We adopt Mr. Steevens' explanation. That Cassio was married is not sufficiently implied in the words, a fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife, since they mean, according to Iago's licentious manner of expressing himself, no more than a man very near being married. This seems to have been the case in respect of Cassio.

theorick,] Theorick, for theory. 6 Wherein the toged consuls] The rulers of the state, or civil governours. By toged perhaps is meant peaceable, in opposition to the warlike qualifications of which he had been speaking. He might have formed the word in allusion to the Latin adage, Cedant arma toga.

must be be-lee'd and calm’d-] Terms of navigation.

this counter-caster;] It was anciently the practice to reckon up sums with counters.

bless the mark!] Kelly, in þis comments on Scots proverbs, observes, that the Scots, when they compare person to person, use this exclamation.




Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his

hangman. Iago. But there's no remedy, 'tis the curse of

service; Preferment goes by letter, and affection, Not by the old gradation, where each second Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge yourself, Whether I in any just terin am affin'da To love the Moor. Rod.

I would not follow him then. Iago. O, sir, content you; I follow him to serve my turn upon him: We cannot all be masters, nor all masters Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, That, doting on his own obsequious bondage, Wears out his time, much like his master's ass, For nought but provender; and, when he's old,

cashier'd; Whip me such honest knaves: Others there are, Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty, Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves; And, throwing but shows of service on their lords, Do well thrive by them, and, when they have lin'd

their coats, Do themselves homage: these fellows have some

And such a one do I profess myself.
For, sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:

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by letter,] By recommendation from powerful friends. ? Whether I in any just term am affin'd-] Do I stand within ary such terms of propinquity, or relation to the Moor, as that it is my duty to love him?

honest knaves :] Knave is here for servant, but with a sly mixture of contempt. VOL. IX.


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