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and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the Time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to Discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Sec. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprives and Pardons for Offenses against the United States except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occassions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the

Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

ARTICLE XII.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate:—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted ;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionality ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIV.

Sec. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

ARTICLE XV.

Sec. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XVII.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may

direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

ARTICLE XIX.

of sex.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

ELECTION LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Sec. 961. The Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is hereby divided into two bureaus, to be known hereafter as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization, and the titles Chief Division of Naturalization and Assistant Chief shall be Commissioner of Naturalization and Deputy Commissioner of Naturalization. (U. S. Comp. St.)

History :—March 4, 1913, c. 141, Sect. 3, 37 Stat. 737.

Sec. 962. The Commissioner of Naturalization or, in his absence, the Deputy Commissioner of Naturalization, shall be the administrative officer in charge of the Bureau of Naturalization and of the administration of the naturalization laws under the immediate direction of the Secretary of Labor, to whom he shall report directly upon all naturalization matters annually and as otherwise required, and the appointments of these two officers shall be made in the same manner as appointments to competitive classified civil-service positions. (U. S. Comp. St.)

History :-March 4, 1913, c. 141, Sect. 3, 37 Stat. 737.

Sec. 963. The designation of the Bureau of Immigration in the Department of Commerce and Labor is hereby changed to the “Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization," which said Bureau, under the direction and control of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, in addition to the duties now provided by law, shall have charge of all matters concerning the naturalization of aliens. That it shall be the duty of the said Bureau to provide, for use at the various immigration stations throughout the United States, books of record, wherein the commissioners of immigration shall cause a registry to be made in the case of each alien arriving in the United States from and after

of this Act of the name, age, occupation, personal description (including height, complexion, color of hair and eyes), the place of birth, the last residence, the intended place of residence in the United States, and the date of arrival of said alien, and, if entered through a port, the name of the vessel in which he comes. And it shall be the duty of said commissioners of immigration to cause to be granted to such alien a certificate of such registry, with the particulars thereof. (U. S. Comp. St.)

the passa

History :- June 29, 1906, c. 3592, § 1.

CITIZENSHIP.

Sec. 3946. Who Are Citizens. All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are declared to be citizens of the United States. (U. S. Comp. St.)

History :-April 9, 1866, c. 31, § 1, 14 Stat. 27.

All persons found within the limits of the government, whether their residence be permanent or temporary, are to be deemed citizens for jurisdictional purposes: Molyneaus v. Seymour (1860), 30 Ga. 440, 76 Am. Dec. 662.

Children born in a country, and continuing, while under age, in the family of the father, partake of his natural character as a citizen of that country: Shanks v. Dupont (1830), 3 Pet. 242, 245, 7 L. Ed. 666.

A person cannot be a resident of two states at the same time: Brent v. Armfield (C. C. 1835), Fed. Cas. No. 1833. A man

not prevented from acquiring citizenship in a place to which he goes with the purpose of permanently residing there, and in which he votes, by the fact that his wife and children remained at his old home: Blair v. Western Female Seminary (C. C. 1864), Fed. Cas. No. 1,486.

A citizen is one who by birth, naturalization, or otherwise is a member of an independent political society called a "state," "kingdom” or “empire,” subject to its laws, and entitled to its protection: Blank v. Pausch (1885), 113 111. 60.

One may be a citizen of the United States without being a citizen of a state: Sharon v. Hill (C. C. 1885), 26 Fed. 337.

An American citizen has two classes of privileges: (1) Those which he has as a citizen of the United States; and (2) those which he has as a citizen of the state where he resides: Ex parte Kinney (C. C. 1879), Fed. Cas. No. 7,825.

A citizen of the United States is a citizen of the state wherein he resides: Myers v. Murray, Nelson & Co. (C. C. 1890), 43 Fed. 695, 698, 11 L. R. A. 216.

Persons born in the United States, though of alien parents, are citizens: U. S. v. Sibray (C. C. 1910), 178 Fed. 150 (order reversed Sibray v. U. S. (1911), 185 Fed. 401, 107 C. C. A. 483).

A citizen of the United States is a person of any race or color born within the limits of, or who has been naturalized under the laws of, the United States: Prowd v. Gore (Cal. App.), 207 P. 490.

The word "citizen," while not convertible with the word "resident," is often used synonymously with it, without any implication of political privileges.-Id.

By "citizen of the state" is meant a citizen of the United States whose domicile is in such state: Prowd v. Gore (Cal. App.), 207 P. 490.

Sec. 3947. Children of Citizens Born Abroad. All children heretofore born or hereafter born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth, citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States; but the rights of citizenship shall not descend to children whose fathers never resided in the United States. (U. S. Comp. St.)

History :- April 14, 1802; Feb. 10, 1855, c. 71, $ 1,10 Stat. 604.

Children born abroad whose fathers were, at the time of their birth, citizens of the United States, and had at some time resided therein, are American citizens: Wolff v. Archibald (C. C. 1882), 14 Fed. 369.

A person born abroad on board an American vessel, whose parents are citizens of the United States, temporarily absent only, is to be regarded as a citizen of the United States: U. S. v. Gordon (C. C. 1861), Fed. Cas. No. 15,231.

Though an American citizen was a minor when he removed to Canada, where his son was born, he had previously "resided" in the United States : State v. Jackson (1907), 65 A. 657, 79 Vt. 504.

An individual whose father appears to have been a resident in this country, and to have married and had children born here, is presumed to be a citizen, although he himself was born subsequent to his father's removal to a foreign country, there being nothing else to show his father to have been an alien: Campbell v. Wallace (1841), 12 N. H. 362, 37 Am. Dec. 219.

Children of citizens of the United States, although born in foreign countries, and not within the act of congress of 1802, are nevertheless citizens of the United States: Lynch v. Clarke (N. Y. 1844), 1 Sandf. Ch. 583.

A child born out of wedlock, in a foreign country, of an American father and an alien mother, and subsequently legitimated in accordance with the laws of the state of his father's domicile, through marriage of the parents or

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