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General Statistics of the United States.
THE principal details pertaining to the several states, will be found in their appropriate places, in the latter part of this work. This article will therefore, be chiefly confined to matter as relates to the general government, and to the United States in its confederate capacity.
GOVERNMENT. The government of the United States is a Federal Representative Democracy, in which all power belongs to the people. The legislative power is vested in a Congress, composed of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of two members from each state, chosen by the legislatures respectively, for a period of six years. The terms of service are so arranged, that one-third of the whole Senate is renewed every two years. Every senator must have attained the
of thirty years, and have been nine years a citizen of the United States, and, when elected, an inhabitant of the state from which he is chosen. The present number of senators is fifty-two. The Senate has the sole power to try impeachments. The Vice President of the United States is President of the Senate, and has a casting vote only.
The House of Representatives is composed of members elected in the several states by the people, for a term of two years. Each state is entitled, under a law passed in 1832, to send one Representative for every 47,700 inhabitants. The present number of members is 242, besides delegates from Wisconsin, Iowa, and Florida. A Representative must have attained the age of twenty-five years, and have been seven years a citizen of the United States. The pay of each member of Congress during the Session is $8 per day, and $8 for every twenty miles travel to and from the seat of government.
The President of the Senate pro tem, (who is chosen in the absence of the Vice President) and Speaker of the House of Representatives, receives $16 per day.
The House of Representatives choose their own Speaker and other officers, and have the sole power of impeachment. All 4 1 bills for raising revenue must originate in the House.
No person can be a member of Congress and hold any office under the United States at the same time.
Congress has power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States :
To borrow money on the credit of the United States :
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes: To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States :
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures : To establish post-offices and post-roads: To secure to authors and inventors copy-rights and patents:
To punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and against the law of nations: To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal ; raise and support armies ; provide and maintain a navy ; to regulate the land and naval forces: To exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia, and over all places purchased for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, &c.
The Executive power is vested in a President of the United States of America.
The President is Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he has power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
He has power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur: and he nominates, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not otherwise provided for.
The Judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court, of one Chief and six associate Justices; of 33 District Courts, of one Judge each, except that six of the states are divided into two Districts each ; and of 7 Circuit Courts, composed of the Judge of the District
and one of the Justices of the Supreme Court. The Judges both of the Supreme and inferior Courts, hold their office during good behaviour. The judicial power extends to all cases in law and equity arising under the constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made under their authority : to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls: to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction : to controversies to which the United States is a party : to controversies between two or more states; between citizens of different states; or between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.
The principal Executive officers, are the Secretaries of State, of War, and of the Navy, the Post-Master General, and the Attorney General. The Secretary of State conducts the negociations with foreign powers, and corresponds with the public Ministers of the United States abroad, and with those of foreign states near the United States. He has the charge of the United States Seal, preserves the originals of the laws and treaties, and of the public correspondence growing out of the intercourse between the United States and foreign nations ; he grants passports to American citizens visiting foreign countries ; has the control of the the Patent Office, and preserves the evidence of copy-rights.
REVENUE AND MEANS FOR 1839, EXCLUSIVE OF TRUSTS AND THE
The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1839, which
could be considered available for general purposes, was
$2,466,961 95 The receipts from customs, the first three quarters, $18,328,393 50 Receipts from lands the first three quarters, including also some collected last year in Trea
5,417,286 31 Miscellaneous receipts
125,208 78 Estimated receipts for the fourth quarter from all those sources
5,700,000 00 Receipts on some of the debts against banks not
available on 1st January, 1839, but since paid 1,322,686 00 From the third issue of Treasury notes under the act of March 2, 1839
EXPENDITURES FOR 1839, EXCLUSIVE OF THE POST
TRUSTS. Civil, foreign, and miscellaneous, for the first three quarters
$3,649,508 23 Military, for the first three quarters
10,791,799 21 Naval, for the first three quarters
4,713,701 57 Estimate for all, during the fourth quarter 5,600,000 00 Funded debt for the year
Redemption of Treasury notes in the first three
quarters, interest as well as principal Estimated amount of notes redeemed in the
Aggregate payments Leaving an available balance of money in the
Treasury on the 31st of December, 1839, of
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS WITHIN THE COMMERCIAL YEAR 1839.
The exports during the year ending September 30, 1839, are computed to have been $118,359,004. This is $9,872,388 more than those in the year 1838.
Of the whole exports only $17,408,000 were of foreign origin, and of the excess in exports over 1838, only about five millions were domestic produce.
The imports during the same year were about $157,609,560, being the very large excess of $43,892,156 over those during the previous year. The difference between the imports and exports, being $39,250,556 in favor of the former.
ESTIMATE OF THE RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR 1840.
It is computed that the aggregate of receipts available for public purposes, will not exceed $18,600,000, viz: from Customs
$15,000,000 00 Lands
3,500,000 00 Miscellaneous
100,000 00 Add to these the balance available and applica
ble to other purposes, which it is supposed will be in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1840.
The efficient means in that year will then amount
in the aggregate to If Congress should make appropriations to the
extent desired by the different departments, the expenditures for 1840, independent of the redemption of Treasury notes, are estimated
at Including all the Treasury notes to be redeemed,
the aggregate expenditure would be about This would leave a deficit in the Treasury at the
close of the year, amounting to But there will be due from the United States
Bank, in September next, on its fourth bond,
about The principal now due on the Treasurer's de
posites in the other banks, which suspended
specie payments in 1837, is Should all these claims be collected in 1840,
they would prevent a deficiency, and leave an available balance in the Treasury of nearly
According to the opinions of the different depart
ments, as to the sums of money proper for each, and which constitute the basis of the estimates submitted to Congress, the new appropriations required for the next year will equal the sum of
Receipts and Expenditures of the United States for the year 1838.
$16,158,800 36 Lands
3,081,939 47 Second and third instalments due
from the Bank of the United States
4,542,102 22 Miscellaneous items
369,813 29 Treasury notes
12,716,820 86 Trust funds
Civil, miscellaneous, and foreign intercourse
$5,666,702 68 Military
19,936,311 57 Naval
5,941,381 94 Public debt
2,217 08 Treasury notes redeemed, including interest
5,603,503 19 Trust funds
Balance on the 1st January, 1839