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The restoration of publick credit gave confidence to pri- | friend of their happiness—his doubts of safety were changvate transactions—and the strict dispensation of justice si- ed to admiring confidence—and the vindictive spirit of relenced the last murmur of complaint.

venge was lost in a grateful sense of unexpected favour and It was no less honourable to the People of the United kindness. States, than to their illustrious Benefactor, that the acknow- Having obtained, by treaty, a surrender of the military ledgement of his transcendent merits was the delightful posts on our Western Frontier, he was enabled, in a great theine of every class and condition.

measure, to carry into effect the magnanimous policy, which Infancy was taught to lisp his praise-youth and man- he had instituted towards the Indian Tribes and to exhood poured forth the effusions of their gratitude—and the tend, at the same time, to the white inhabitants, in that blessings of age were expressed with the fervour of feeling, quarter of the Union, the security of peace, and the beneand solemnity of religion.

fits of a friendly intercourse with their immediate neighStates and individuals were emulous to confess his worth bours. -he was the boast of our Nation among strangers—and While intent on the completion of a general pacifick sysan object of veneration to every People.

tem, in relation to the affairs of the United States, he was In this happy conjuncture of our affairs, the torch of war not insensible to the mutable policy of Nations, nor inatwas lighted in Europe, and threatened to extend its flame tentive to the necessary measures of military defence. to this favoured portion of the globe.

He believed it essential to the safety of our extensive To that guardian care, whose unceasing vigilance watch- commerce, and to the dignity of our national character, to ed over us—to the Hero whose protecting arm, in the hour enter on the formation of a Naval Establishment, which he of inevitable conflict, had borne aloft the conquering ban- considered as the best, the natural defence of the United ner of our country, were we indebted for the preservation States. of peace, and an exemption from the distress and danger The sanction of his opinion was accordingly given to this of foreign war.

important measure. Proclaiming to the People of the United States, and to In reviewing the principal features of his publick characthe belligerent Powers, the determination of our Government ter, and their beneficial results, we are led no less to apto maintain an impartial neutrality, he continued, by an un- plaud the benevolence, than to admire the discernment, of deviating course of honourable policy, to insure to his coun- his philanthropick and capacious mind. try the blessings of peace, and the benefits of the most ad- With native, and acquired, propensities to military glory vantageous position.

-with every incentive to the exercise of arms, which conDuring the desolation of war her commerce was extend- summate skill in war or the hope of distinction could suped—and her redundant harvests administered to the wants ply-peace was the ruling principle of his conduct, and the of less favoured Nations.

tranquil prosperity of his country was the dearest object of On the revolution of his official term of service, an op- his ambition. portunity was afforded to express the publick sense of his In the grateful belief that this anxious wish was accomadministration—and it was manifested in the most singular plished, he intimated his intention to decline the honours of demonstration of gratitude and applause, that has ever been his high station, and to withdraw from all publick employbestowed.

Having nominated, in the first instance, to all the offices To this intimation, conveyed in an Address to the Peoof the General Government—and having unavoidably dis- ple of the United States, was subjoined a series of opinappointed the wishes of numerous expectants—yet, such ions, on the subject of their publick concerns, the legacy of had been the propriety of his appointments, and such the an affectionate father to a beloved family, containing the purity of his conduct, that, on the second election of Chief most instructive, interesting, and important advice that has Magistrate, there was not found, among several millions of ever been submitted to any Nation. people, a single dissent from the choice of this immaculate An observance of those maxims would insure our poliman.

tical welfare, and promote our social happiness—they are He was unanimously re-elected to preside over their po- no less calculated to improve the heart than to inform the litical concerns, and to continue the blessings of his admin- judgement—they should be committed to the memory of istration.

the young, and the meditation of the old—they are invaluAmong the multiplied advantages of that administration, able to the present generation--and they will be regarded the philanthropist will review, with peculiar pleasure, an in- by succeding ages, as the best and highest eulogium of this variable attention to conciliate the aboriginal inhabitants of transcendent character. our country, and an unremitting endeavour to ameliorate Yielding to his desire of repose, his grateful countrymen their hapless condition.

invoked the blessing of Heaven on the close of his illustriRegarding the interests of this unfortunate race as sacred ous life, and acquiesced in his intention to retire. —and viewing a compliance with their claims to protection Behold him returned to the station of a private citizen, as among the first duties of the Government, his beneficent enforcing, by correct example, those rules of conduct, which patronage was extended to every object, which might pro- with modest diffidence, he had offered to the consideration mote their welfare, or prevent the evils incident to their

of his country. situation.

Divested of every distinction, and without a personal atTo the injunctions of publick negotiation, he united the tendant, he mingled in the throng of citizens, and was the admonitions of personal sensibility, and the most benevo- first to express the homage of his esteem, which was relent concern for this unhappy people.

spectful, affectionate, and sincere, at the inauguration of his The astonished Savage beheld, in the far-famed Chief of successor—10 whom, no less than to the memory of the ilan hostile Nation, the Protector of his Tribe, and the zealous lustrious Dead, it is due to remark that, in their personal in


tercourse, and in all their official relations, the most cordial which he bore his kindred, and the relatives of his family. friendship, and beneficial harmony, had uniformly subsisted. Nor was this munificence bounded by the limits of con

To attest the perfection of publick principle, it will be sanguinity. The interests of freedom and science were forever remembered, that the distinguished Patriot, who had anxiously consulted, and most generously advanced. so long, and so ably, presided in the concerns of the Na- Age and infirmity were the objects of his kind regard. tion, consented to accept a secondary commission, at a pe- The instruction of youth was connected with the emanciriod of life when no consideration but the safety of his pation of the bondsman, as a mean of protecting his rights, country, and complete confidence in the measures of her and rendering him safe and useful to society. Government, could have required, or prompted the service The friend, and the stranger, were received with cordial of the venerable Chief.

welcome at his hospitable mansion—and his beneficence to The sentiments of his judicious and comprehensive mind, his neighbours was returned with the most affectionate atas expressed in his own words, on this important occasion, tachment. are too honourable to his memory, too just in the applica- Combining, with a general patronage of science and usetion to his successor, and too interesting to our country, in ful institutions, a particular attention to the improvements their relation to future events, not to be here recited. of agriculture, he diffused his observation and experience,

“No one can more cordially approve of the wise and pru- in this important pursuit, wherever they could be beneficial “dent measures of your administration. They ought to extending his correspondence, on this interesting subject, “inspire universal confidence, and will, no doubt, combined to other nations. “ with the state of things, call from Congress such laws and Such were the outlines of his domestick life-and such “means as will enable you to meet the full force and ex- were his private avocations. tent of the crisis.

Unable, on a careful review of eminent characters, to Satisfied, therefore, that you have sincerely wished and discover an apposite resemblance to the constellation of his “ endeavoured to avert war, and exhausted, to the last drop, virtues and talents, I forbear to enter on partial compari“the cup of reconciliation, we can, with pure hearts, ap- sons, which could not dignisy, and would but imperfectly “peal to Heaven for the justice of our cause ; and may illustrate the Hero of our country. "confidently trust the final result to that kind Providence, Enriched by nature with her choicest gifts—she had, “who has, heretofore, and so often, signally favoured the with equal liberality, bestowed upon him the greatest ad“People of these United States.

vantages of external form, and the highest degree of intel“ Thinking in this manner, and feeling how incumbent lectual endowment. To the noble port of a lofty stature, “it is upon every person, of every description, to contri- were united uncommon grace, strength, and symmetry of “bute at all times to his country's welfare, especially, in a person. And to the commanding aspect of manly beauty, “moment like the present, when every thing we hold dear was given the benignant smile, which, inspiring confidence, “and sacred, is so seriously threatened ; I have finally de- created affection. "termined to accept the Commission of Commander-in- In being thus minute, I do not mean to arraign your de“Chief of the Armies of the United States."

lighted remembrance of the Hero, which the short lapse of Such was the triumph of patriotism—and such the dig- a fleeting year has not effaced. nified completion of his publick character.

Yet, were mine the powers of description to produce a With the accomplishments of the Hero, and the attri- perfect image, I would present him to your enraptured imabutes of the Statesman, we are now to connect the inte- gination—as he was seen in battle, calm and collected—as resting theme of domestick life, and the useful virtues of he appeared in council, dignified and serene—as he adornhis private character.

ed society, gracious and condescending. Favoured of Heaven, he was blest in the most endeared But oh, mournful reflection! that pleasing, that venerrelation of human society.

able form, now moulders into dust. Sealed in death are The amiable and much respected partner of his happi- those eyes, which watched over our safety. Closed forness, enjoyed his affection and esteem, and was worthy to ever are those lips, which spake peace and happiness to participate the honours of his exalted station.

our country The practice of his filial piety, which had been distin- Yet the dark night of the tomb shall not obscure the guished at an early age, was continued until the death of lustre of his fame—and, when brass and marble shall have his surviving parent, with unabated tenderness and respect. fallen to decay, the sweet remembrance of his virtues, pass

His fraternal love was exemplary, as it was sincere—anding in proud transmission to remotest ages—SHALL ENDURE the munificent provisions of his Will attest the affection FOREVER!


We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure Domestick

Tranquillity, provide for the Common Defence, promote the General Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to Ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America :


The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all ImSection 1. All Legislative Powers herein granted shall | peachments : When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the Uniconsist of a Senate and House of Representatives. ted States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no

SECTION 2. The House of Representatives shall be com- Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of twoposed of Members chosen every second year by the Peo- thirds of the Members present. ple of the several States, and the Electors in each State Judgement in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the further than to rentoval from Office, and disqualification to most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

hold and enjoy any Office of Honour, Trust or Profit, unNo person shall be a Representative who shall not have der the United States : but the party convicted sball, neverattained to the age of twenty-five Years, and been seven theless, be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, JudgeYears a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, ment and Punishment, according to Law. when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he SECTION 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding shall be chosen.

Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be preRepresentatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned scribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the among the several States which may be included within Congress may, at any time, by Law, make or alter such this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which Regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. shall be determined by adding to the whole number of Free The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in DecemYears, and, excluding Indians pot taxed, three-fifths of all ber, unless they shall

, by Law, appoint a different day. other Persons. The actual enumeration shall be made SECTION 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, of the United States, and within every Term of ten Years, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number Business ; but a smaller Number may adjourn from Day to of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of thousand, but each State shall have at least one Represent- absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State

ties as each House may provide. of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Mas- Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedsachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations ings, Punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New-Jersey four, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, Expel a Member. Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and ten, North-Carolina five, South-Carolina five, and Georgia from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts three.

as may, in their Judgement require secrecy; and the Yeas When vacancies happen in the Representation from any and Nays of the Members of either House, on any quesState, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of tion, shall, at the Desire of one-fifth of those Present, be Election to fill such Vacancies.

entered on the Journal. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speak- Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, er and other Officers; and shall have the sole power of without the Consent of the other, Adjourn for more than Impeachment.

three Days, nor to any other Place than that in which the SECTION 3. The Senate of the United States shall be two Houses shall be sitting. composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall reLegislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall ceive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained have one Vote.

by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in Conse- They shall, in all Cases, except Treason, Felony, and quence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equal. Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their ly as may be, into three Classes. The Seats of the Sen- attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and ators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration in going to and returning from the same; and for any of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration | Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be quesof the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration tioned in any other Place. of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be chosen every No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time second Year; and if vacancies happen by Resignation, or for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any under the Authority of the United States, which shall have State the Executive thereof may make temporary appoint- been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been ments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which increased during such time; and no Person holding any shall then fill such Vacancies.

office under the United States, shall be a Member of either No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attain- House during his continuance in Office. ed to the age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citi- SECTION 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate zen of the United States, and who shall not, when Elect- in the House of Representatives ; but the Senate may proed, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be pose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. chosen.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of ReThe Vice President of the United States shall be Presi- presentatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a dent of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be Law, be presented to the President of the United States ; equally divided.

if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a with his Objections to that House in which it shall have President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice Presi- originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their dent, or when he shall exercise the office of President of Journal, and proceed to Reconsider it. If after such Rethe United States.

consideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass any State.

the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to Duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding the other House, by which it shall likewise be Reconsider- ten Dollars for each person. ed, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or InvaHouses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the sion the Publick Safety may require it. Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. Ir passed. any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten No Capitation, or other Direct Tax, shall be laid, unless Days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before to him, the same shall be a Law, in like manner as if he directed to be taken. had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment No Tax or Duty shall be laid on articles exported from prevent its Return, in which case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concur- No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Comrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be merce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of necessary, (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be presented to the President of the United States, and be- obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. fore the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two- Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a rethirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, accord- gular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expening to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of ditures of all Publick Money shall be published from time a Bill.

to time. Section 8. The Congress shall have Power to lay and No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts, and Excises, to pay the States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Debts, and Provide for the Common Defence and General | Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the ConWelfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and gress, accept of any Present, Emolument, Office or Title, Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreiga

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; State.

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Althe several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

liance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and ReTo establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uni- prisal ; coin Money ; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing form Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the

but Gold and Silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts ; United States;

pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law imTo coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of fo- pairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of reign Coin, and to fix the Standard of Weights and Mea- Nobility. sures ;

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Se- any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what curities and current Coin of the United States;

may be absolutely necessary for executing its Inspection To establish Post Offices and Post Roads ;

Laws: and the nett Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use securing, for limited Times, to Authors and Inventors, the of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discove- shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Conries;

gress. To constitute Tribunals inferiour to the Supreme Court ; No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops or Ships of War in time of on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Na- Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another tions ;

State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, actually Invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; admit of delay. To raise and support Armies—but no Appropriation of

ARTICLE II. Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two

SECTION 1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a To provide and maintain a Navy ;

President of the United States of America. He shall hold To make Rules for the Governinent and Regulation of his office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Land and Naval Forces ;

the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the as follows: Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections, and repel In- Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legisvasions ;

lature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors equal to To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be the State may be entitled in the Congress : but no Senator employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or the States, respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elecand the Authority of Training the Militia, according to the Discipline prescribed by Congress ;

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatso- vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall ever, over such District, (not exceeding ten Miles square,) not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Accept- And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, ance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of and of the Number of votes for each; which List they the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the Government of the United States, directed to the President State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Magazines, Arsenals, Dock-yards, and other needful Build- Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open ings;- And

all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper The Person having the greatest Number of votes shall be for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than ment of the United States, or in any Department or Offi- one who have such Majority, and have an equal number of cer thereof.

votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Per- choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to son have a Majority, then from the five highest on the admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the List the said House shall, in like manner choose the PreYear one thousand eight hundred and cight, but a Tax or sident. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be



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